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Chapter 6:Adolescence:

Chapter 6:Adolescence Module 6.2: Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Looking Ahead:

Looking Ahead How does cognitive development proceed during adolescence? What aspects of cognitive development cause difficulties for adolescents? What factors affect adolescent school performance? Who attends college, and how is the college experience different for men and women?

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Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development:

Cognitive Development Approaches

Piagetian Perspective:

Piagetian Perspective Fixed sequence of qualitatively different stages Fundamentally different than child thinking Utilized in variety of settings and situations

Piagetian Stages Related to Youth Development:

Piagetian Stages Related to Youth Development Concrete operations 6-11 years Mastery of logic Development of rational thinking Formal operations 11+ years Development of abstract and hypothetical reasoning Development of propositional logic

Developmental of Formal Operations:

Developmental of Formal Operations Emergent Early adolescence Variable usage depends on conditions surrounding assessment Established Late adolescence Consolidated and integrated into general approach to reasoning

Piaget: Pros and Cons:

Piaget: Pros and Cons Pros Catalyst for much research Accounts for many changes observed during adolescence Helps explain Developmental differences Multidimensionality Metacognition Cons Fails to prove Stage-like fashion of cognition FO is adolescent cognitive stage Fails to account for variability Between children Within child Within specific situations

Changes in Information Processing:

Changes in Information Processing Gains during adolescence help to explain developmental differences in abstract, multidimensional, and hypothetical thinking


Changes Include five basic areas:

Thinking about Thinking…:

Thinking about Thinking… Metacognition improves during adolescence Thinks about own thoughts  self-consciousness Monitors own learning processes more efficiently Paces own studying

Adolescent Egocentrism:

Adolescent Egocentrism

From Research to Practice: Do Adolescents Reveal Too Much on Social Networking Sites?:

From Research to Practice: Do Adolescents Reveal Too Much on Social Networking Sites? What can parents and teachers do to minimize adolescents’ risky behavior on social networking sites, short of restricting their access? Why do you think older adolescents tend to use social networking sites in more utilitarian ways than younger adolescents do?

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Adolescence corresponds to Piaget’s formal operations period, a stage characterized by abstract reasoning and an experimental approach to problems. According to the information processing perspective, the cognitive advances of adolescence are quantitative and gradual, involving improvements in many aspects of thinking and memory. Improved metacognition enables the monitoring of thought processes and of mental capacities.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Adolescents are susceptible to adolescent egocentrism and the perception that an imaginary audience is constantly observing their behavior. Adolescents construct personal fables about their uniqueness and immunity to harm.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY When faced with complex problems, do you think most adults spontaneously apply formal operations like those used to solve the pendulum problem? Why or why not?

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School Performance

True or False?:

True or False? Grades awarded to high school students have shifted upward in the last decade. ? ? ?

Socioeconomic Status and School Performance:

Socioeconomic Status and School Performance Individual Differences in Achievement Children living in poverty lack many advantages Later school success builds heavily on basic skills presumably learned (or not) early in school

Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement:

Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement Significant achievement differences between ethnic and racial groups On average, African American and Hispanic students tend to perform at lower levels, receive lower grades, and score lower on standardized tests of achievement than Caucasian students Asian American students tend to receive higher grades than Caucasian students

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What is the source of such ethnic and racial differences in academic achievement? ? ? ?

The Downside of Click:

The Downside of Click

Dropping Out of School :

Dropping Out of School Incidence Causes Consequences

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Academic performance is linked in complex ways to socioeconomic status and to race and ethnicity. Both gender and ethnicity affect the incidence of dropping out.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW The educational benefits of the Internet are many, but it also introduces adolescents to objectionable material and online gambling.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY What sorts of external factors (i.e., not attributable to the students) might negatively affect the performance of U.S. students on international achievement tests?

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