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Buddhi Chaudhary prepared for Buddhi Chaudhary on October 17 2015 1 / 15

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My Story Welcome to our CaringBridge site. Weve created it to keep friends and family updated. We appreciate your support and words of hope and encouragement during this time when it matters most. 2 / 15

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Journal Buddhi Chaudhary Lonely Walker October 17 2015 Through this blog i hope to write and share my personal experiences that already has happened in the past the incidents will be happened in the future and present momental incidents that is happening right now. Not only that but also some philosophical religious and educational articles and essay too to develop my writing skills. Last but not least this Blog will be my educational blog. Buddhist Ethics and Education October 17 2015 Interpretation of the term Ethics Once some years ago socialist RaymondBaumhart asked to the business people ‘what does Ethics mean to you’’.Below mentioned definition and interpretation are among their replies. "Ethics has to do with what myfeelings tell me is right or wrong." "Ethics has to do with myreligious beliefs." "Being ethical is doing what the law requires." "Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society accepts." 3 / 15

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"I dont know what the word means." These all the definition would be typical of our own understanding. The meaning of the ‘Ethic’’ is hard to spinand express out and the view many people and scholars have is shaky. Like Baunhart’s respondent which was tend to be equated with their feelings the definition of ethics but being ethical does not mean and matter of following once own feeling. A person following his or her feelings may recoil what is right. Infact ethical frequently deviate what is ethical. Many religious scholars attempt to identify Ethics as a religious sort of thought. Itis true that the most of religion of course advocate the high standard ethical thoughts. But if the ethic is just religious then it would be appliedin the religious matters. Yet it applies in different sorts of behavior tooespecially in atheistic thoughts like science philosophy and education etc.Even though the religion can set ethic in high states and can provide themotivation for the right ethical behavior it cannot be counted and confined asthe religion nor it is as same religion. Being ethical is also not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standardsto which most citizens subscribe. But laws like feelings can deviate fromwhat is ethical. Our own pre-Civil War slavery laws and the old apartheid lawsof present-day South Africa are grotesquely obvious examples of laws thatdeviate from what is ethical. According to the business dictionary Ethic is a concepts and fundamental principles of human conducts. It includes the study of universal values such as the essential equality of allman and woman human or natural rights obedience to the law of land concern for health and safety also for the natural environment.1 Accordance with the above mentioned definition Ethic has many perspectives. It is impossible to find out within one and individual things because it’s exists every where and on everything. For instance 1. Ethical auditing 2. Ethical behavior 3. Ethical investment 4. Ethical issues 5. Ethical objectives 4 / 15

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6. Ethical relatives 7. Psychological Ethics 8. Ethics in science 9. Ethical standards 10. Ethical Values.Ethics can be found within these things. If so the factowhat Ethic is According to the historical facts ethic Is a branch of philosophy which can be seen within the religious thoughts too that involves systematizing defending and recommending the concepts of right and wrong conducts. This term was derived from the Greek word ethikoswhich is derived from the word ethos habit “custom”. Mathew Anorld has defined that there are three quarters of life conduct and remaining one quarter the intellectual and aesthetic field. Among these three quarters of life consists a conduct. It is mean Ethic is the conducts of human behavior. ‘’According to Aristotle ethic searches for the peculiar and unique function of human beings2’meaning in other words that it searches for the function which characteristic of human beings in human form and which shows his distinguishing quality’’ Seth gives the same definition to the Ethics. He says “Ethics as moral reflection institutes a systematicexamination of human ideals and seeks to correlate them with the true or absolute ideal of humanity.” Some biologist like Darwin and Herbert Spencer are trying to show and define Ethic as the biological term.Biology is studies man as a living being. Basically accepted fact is thathuman beings are living being as well as animal too. This is the reason what they are trying to interpret is as study of biology. Herbert Spencer in his‘Principles of Ethics” good and bad or evil wholesome and unwholesome is same for the human and animal. It means the good and evil governs to be good to theall beings3. Whatever the definition interpretation and meaning of the word Ethic is its refers the study of human development and their behavioral standards. As mentioned above feeling laws human behavior and social norms can deviated or understand and learn through the Ethics. 5 / 15

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Buddhist Ethics According to the Buddhism Ethics or SILA means physical and mental well-being orwell-behavior and calmness. Person’s characters can be measured through his orher speaking words and physical behaviors. Eradication or avoidance of thesinful-unwholesome actions and doing good or wholesome deeds through body andmind is called Ethics SILA. This the reason why we use the words called ‘’Veramani’’ It’s mean‘separation.’’ In Buddhist ethologicalnot sticking to the unwholesome deeds and observing the wholesome deedshappens or occurs. Within every single person Ethics arise when there are not unwholesome thoughts like Unawareness Abhijja Ill-will or acrimonyVyapada and Intention of cruelty Vihimsa. A person he who understand that the presence of the ultimate happiness Nibbana five sorts of hindrances are barricade or blockade and stymie win or get released from the wars of sensual desire which lead to decide or get wrong decision seldom.Buddhist ethological philosophy defines it as Nekkhamma Sankappa or concepts. Though a person live a life like an ordinary people being won thewar of sensual desire he or she does not think to kill or hurt anyone. This isthe reason to be arisen good-will Avyapada and harmlessness Avihimsaconcepts. These three concepts are the firm foundation of understanding the existence of the Samsaara. It is called Samyak Ditthi or understanding or choosing what is right and wrong what is wholesome and unwholesome what is good and bad which leads to visualize the values of all above mentioned things. These Samyak Ditthi right understanding Samyak Sankappa right thought and Sammyak Ajiva right livelihood makes to arise ethics SILA within a person. Thus the ethics arise once within a person he or she becomes enthusiastic towards it. Begin to observe and apply it in his day to day life. Implies his or her physical andmental devotion. This is what called well- developed- characteristic person.According to Buddhism there are two ways of observing precepts called NiccaVasena and Uposatha Vasena. Five precepts PanchaSila Nicca Vasenameans observing the precepts according to the worldly statements Doing thesins accordance with the nature of the world and refraining from theunwholesome deeds. Besides regarding the significance and values of theparticular countries and times reacting within the societies and communitiesagainst the Samma Jiva or right livelihood is called worldly sinfulstatements. Within this five precepts consist those above mentioned Sammaor righteousness and well-being. To become and develop sorts of spiritualityand good character within oneself and the society where there we do live thisethologic was regarded as the ordinary people’s observable precepts. Among thefour Buddhist main sources called faith Saddhaprecepts Sila generosityChag and wisdom Panna Sila is to be counted as onemain resource.4 1. Panatipata pativirato hoti refrainingfrom killing is the first precepts within the five Sila. Every living beingslove their life. Dislikes to death. Therefore we should not kill anyone for thewell fare of once own self and benefits. Through this precept implies theindependency of all living beings. A person who does observe 6 / 15

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this preceptearns the dangerousness in this life and hereafter. Within the action ofkilling animals consist hatred ill-will enmity and malice so thephysically mentally and consciously too have to suffer. A person whorefrains from killing animals have no fears and hatred.5 2. Adinnadana pativirato hoti refrainingfrom stealing is a second precept. Adattadana means getting something that isnot given. Foundation of this precept is unawareness. It’s mean wishing othersthings and goods. A person who does steals others things arise fears andhatred within this life and hereafter. 3. Kamseu Micchacara pativirato hoti thirdprecept is refraining from the sexual misconducts. This precept is to beexpected the righteous way of sexual relationship between male and female. Dueto eluding exceeding and surpassing the socialconsent concert and convention and blatantly having strong desire to havesexual misconduct cause to commit this precepts. This sort of act is abarricade and blockade for the peaceful marriage life. Buddha taught that theperson who commit this precept lose his character within the society as a badperson and become a sinful person in this life and hereafter. It’s cause to beborn on the hell Bad states of mind. Many scholars try to put these preceptsamong the five sensual pleasure but ‘Kamesumicchacara Veramani’mentioning these words Buddha states as the sexual misconduct among the maleand female. A word ‘Kamesu’’ implies the sensual relation among the male andfemale. In S.N.2 Pancabhayavera Sutta theBuddha said that female-form female-sound female-taste and female- potthabbagravitate with the male’s sense and male-form male-sound male-taste andmale-potthabbas attach with female’s sense desire. The one who commit thisprecept also suffer and brings troublesome in this very life and hereafterlife. 4. Musavada pativirato hoti refrainingfrom telling lies is fourth precept. Words are the media which helps todevelop every sorts of relationship within the society and country wherethere we are living on. Growing the trustworthiness within each other throughthe expressed words is the reaction of this precept. Limitedness within thewords has shown in the kakacupama sutta.Should be spoken occasional words Kalena.Should be spoken valuable words Bhutena.Should be spoken soft words Sanhena.Useful words should be spoken Atthasanhitena.Compassionate and commiserative words should be spoken Mettena. A person who speaksdisregarding these facts will suffer here and hereafter. 5. Surameraya majjapamadatthana pativirato hoti last but least one is refraining from intoxicative drinks like cigarette alcohol etc. A person who drinks intoxicative drinks lead his life towards the states of heedlessnesswhich is the door to the all kinds of sins. This is also gives the fears and hatred within a person in this life and next who drinks intoxicative things. 6 Laypersons following the Mahayana tradition who have taken a Bodhisattva vow will also follow a strictly 7 / 15

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vegetarian diet. This is not so much an additional precept but a strengtheningof the first precept To undertake the training to avoid taking the life ofbeings. The eating of meat would be considered a contribution to the taking oflife indirect though it may be. The Buddhist clergy known as the Sangha are governed by 227 to 253 rules depending on the school or tradition for males or Bhikkhus and between 290 and 354 rules depending on the school or tradition for females or Bhikkhunis. These rules contained in the Vinaya or first collection of the Buddhist scriptures are divided into several groups each entailing a penalty for their breech depending on the seriousness of that breech. The first four rules for males and the first eight for females knownas Parajika or rules of defeat entail expulsion from the Order immediately ontheir breech. The four applying to both sexes are: Sexual intercourse killinga human being stealing to the extent that it entails a gaol sentence andclaiming miraculous or supernormal powers. Bhikkhunis additional rules relateto various physical contacts with males with one relating to concealing fromthe order the defeat or parajika of another. Before his passing the Buddha instructed that permission was granted for the abandonment or adjustment of minor rules should prevailing conditions demand such a change. These rules apply to all Sangha members irrespective of their Buddhist tradition. Wheneverwe regard these all the above mentioned facts which shows thousands worth values of the five precepts for the development and clear perspicuous and undisturbed existence of the person can understand its significant roles. Being the entrance door towards the mansion of wholesome deeds the Buddha preached it to make baggy easylax and liberal lose and simple way for the bondage which cause to be born again and again. A person inclines and trends towards the unwholesome deeds due to the sensual desire Kama hatred and ill- will Vyapada and intention of cruelty Vihimsa. That is the reason why five sensualdesires make to arise suffering and fearfulness in this life and hereafter. As well as through the wholesome deeds make the righteous personality five precepts play the main roles for the clear perspicuous and undisturbed society and country. To be accepted as the well-developed and righteous society there should be protected independency of the citizens. One’s livingright should be protected. Relationship between husband and wife should have a space convenienceopportunity permission and scope to continue ahead righteously andmoralistically. This also one of the firm pillar for the well-developedsociety. There should have a space and area to know the truth without any cheats and deceit. There should be space and areas to live separately from the drunkard and softy person. Those all the space and areas provide the precepts to a person to build a well-developed society and rightful characteristic along with the ultimate happiness Nibbana. Education and its significance This days and ages Ethics education is the topic that has received wide attention among the educationalist. Among the issues addressed is how to teach Ethics in thegeneral education system effectively. 8 / 15

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Wide research and based on theory ofmoral development among the students done by Kohlberg students who hasstudied Ethics initially are more attentive in lectures moral sensitive andmoral judgment. Much educationalresearch has proved that in good Education Ethical studies significance.Armstrong one of the educationists came to conclusion that effective ethic education should be beyond the “moral sensitive” and “moral judgment” including ethical behavior and virtuous life to be developed education system among the students. Mêlée argued tediously saying that educations should be integrate professional rules of conduct moral values and moral virtues.7According to him education is “Permanent attitudes and interior strength for moral behavior.” He listed transitive virtues that should be developed amongthe students. They are 1. Fairness 2. Integrity 3. Truthfulness 4. Honesty 5. Loyalty 6. Faithfulness 7. Trustworthiness 8. Service to thecommon good 9. Justice and 10. Benevolence etc. Whenever we developed those among mentioned transitive virtues we move towards the states of self mastering stages. Melee listed four kinds of self mastering stages. They are. 1. Courage 2. Perseverance 3. Diligence and 4. Humanity in his model external influential ethical knowledge and moral sensitivity. 9 / 15

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Aristotle discussed ethical education for the moral sensitivity and moral judgment for the self development. Aristotle says practical wisdom the capacity to perceive right means moral judgment and moral motivation. Where there the moral judgments are there is moral behavior.Where there the persona morally developed there would be govern rationalthoughts. Because of this rational logical and moral thoughts lead to develop the self society and country. Socrates in his age developed moral educationamong the ancient Athenian for the betterment of self society and the country.He made to realize the moral life to live than living blind life. “ : ” ‘Education or knowledge gives moral judgment and moral sensitivity. Moral judgment moralsensitivity and disciplines give well-behavior. Well behavior leads towards the right ways of earning and righteous way of life brings happiness within and out.” Through this abovementioned stanza also can be understood the importance of ethics for the all living beings and its benefits. Buddhist Ethics and Education In accordance with Buddha’s teaching the ultimate goal of a Buddhist is the elimination of all suffering or the attainment of the highest happiness. The state achieved is called “Nirvana.” To reach nirvanawhat the practitioner needs to follow is a formulated approach described in theeight noble paths: right view right thought right speech right conductright livelihood right endeavor right meditation and right abiding orconcentration.19 The eight noble paths are the Buddhist prescription forcultivating ethical behavior. They are also the Buddhist’s prescription for achieving the highest state in life. Thus for a Buddhist ethics and life areone. To practice ethics is to live and to live is to practice ethical behavior. Ethics is the foundation of human happiness without ethics there isno happiness. Ethics is the foundation of any Buddhist’s behavior or endeavornot an element of his or her utility function. Ethics is the Buddhist’s utilityfunction itself. Since the “Eight Noble Paths” constitute the core of Buddhist ethics education framework we shall describe each of the paths morefully: Right view Samma Ditthi 10 / 15

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One of the noteworthy and important features of Buddhist ethics is belief which start with the words called right view or insight of reality in epistemological level. In Buddhist philosophy the entirephenomenon’s exists bounding to each other. Nothing can exist permanently andindependently. Right views leads towards to understand this phenomena as it is. Right thought Samma Sankappa Following right views practicing right thoughts. In this step practitioner correctly requires to apply fundamental wisdom and development of compassion commiseration and loving kindness towards the all living beings. Since all the things exist depending to each other to be created the universe such as everything existences has its cause and effects to be existed. Buddhist right though helps to study and understand these conceptseffectively. Each situation is different and unique. Identifying and underlyingthose conditions and causes give to arise ethical dilemma practitioner willchose right and correct course of action. Right speech Samma Vaca Moral reasoning is usually followed by moral behavior.Buddhists explicitly emphasize three aspects of moral behavior: right speechright conduct and right livelihood. 27 Right speeches requires a Buddhist to speak express and communicate truthfully with honesty faithfully within tegrity amicably with benevolence and directly with effectiveness. Speech actually encompasses language and its usage. Right Conduct Samma Kammanta Right conduct requires a Buddhist to behave in ways that create no harm to others. For a Buddhist five basic rules of conduct are proscribed: no killing no stealing no lies no sexual misconduct and no intoxication. In a modern society right conduct can be interpreted as human behavior that does not cause any harm or damage to one’s self and other fellow human beings. The principle of no harm can be interpreted as a “fair” trade oran arm’s length transaction between two willing parties involved within atransaction. Some of these rules of conduct pertain more toward personal conduct however a couple of them the prohibition of lies and stealing are directly related to the foundational values of the accountants’ code of professional conduct. Right livelihood Samma Ajiva Right livelihood address about the ethics and responsibilities of economical life. In general economical life is harmful toother living beings social morality or the natural environment discourageuntil the people 11 / 15

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understand right ways of living. In ancient society prohibited trades orprofessions included hunting animals for a living slave trading andprostitution. Wrongful livelihood also includes making a living by deceitpatter prognostication or pursuing gains with games. 29 The emphasis on right livelihood is a very interesting feature of Buddhist ethics reflecting a Buddhist’s belief that individual ethics should include social responsibility arisen from one’s economic activities. For the accounting profession the implication is clear: accounting for social responsibility should be taught and discussed as an integral part of the firm’s report to the general public. Right meditation Samma Samadhi Right meditation is an important and unique technique in Buddhist ethics education framework. In a meditation session a practitioneradjusts his or her body and mind to an optimal condition by maintainingrelaxation and mindfulness at a balanced state. He or she then contemplates theinterdependent and interconnected reality reflects on the concept of“selflessness” and immerges him or herself in the sentiment of “greatcompassion.” The purpose of the meditation is to reconcile any intellectualinconsistencies and to eliminate any emotional afflictions that arecounter-productive in the cultivation process of moral sentiment wisdom andvirtues. Meditation with different technique developed by Buddhists are design to achieve the key goals of life. For examplescompassion in meditation practitioner reflects it to develop inter connected relationship between all living beings. Whenever there are interconnectedrelationship between all living beings there would be arose sympatheticfeeling towards all the living beings and happiness. Right concentration or abiding Samma Samadhi To be able to meditate correctly and effectivelypractitioners need to be able to concentrate their minds on the things of their foci. Without the capability of concentration meditation will not be possible or productive. Thus right concentration holds the key to all other stages ofmoral development in the Buddhist ethics education framework. Right endeavor Right endeavor requires a Buddhist to apply steady andcontinuous efforts in developing moral behavior. Recognizing that self-identityand egocentrism are inherent in human nature the Buddhist incessantlypractices right endeavor over his or her life or even several lifetimes if onebelieves in incarnation to obtain results. Simply said virtues or ethicalbehavior do not come naturally they require each practitioner’s firmcommitment to self-improvement and constant reinforcements. Right endeavor isconsistent with the importance of repetition 12 / 15

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and practicing in this regard.In modern learning theory36 describes how repetition strengthens synapticconnection consolidates memory reduces burdens of working memory andincreases process fluency of brains. The importance of commitment andmotivation in moral development is documented in one recent study. 37 Usingmultiple methodologies the authors found that subjects who committedthemselves to moral improvement achieved better outcomes in ethical problemrecognition and ethical behavioral intentions. 1 2Outline of Ethics page 21 3Outline of Ethics page 22. 4‘’Khatama ca gahapati sila sampada idha gahapati ariya savako panatipatapativirato hoti. Adinnadana………… …………..Kamesumicchacara…………………..Musavada……………………Suramerayamajjapamadatthanapativirato hoti. Ayam vuccati gahapati silasampada.’’ A.N. 2 Pattakamma Sutta 124 page. 5‘’Yam gahapati panatipati panatipata paccaya ditthadhammikampi bhayampasavati. Samparaikampi bhayam veram pasavati. Chetasikampi dukkham domanassmapatisamvedeti. Panatipata pativiratassa evam tam bhayam vupasantam hoti.’’ 6Madahi papani karonti bala karonti channehi jane pamatte Etam punnyayatanam vivajje ummadanam mohanambalakantam S.N. Dhammika Sutta 401 page 7 Buddhist education frame work. Journal of religion and business ethics by University Libraries 13 / 15

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Guestbook 14 / 15

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