Report Writing

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Process, steps and types

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Dr. B. S. Navi Professor and Chairman Department of Commerce Rani Channamma University, Belagavi . REPORT WRITING 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 1

OUTLINE OF THE TALK:

OUTLINE OF THE TALK Introduction Features of report Types of report Stages in Report Writing Effective report writing Structure of report Components of Report Planning of report Common mistakes in report writing Importance of report writing Conclusion 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 2

Introduction:

Introduction It is a study of facts & information It is formed in a structured format b ased on observation and analysis It is an outcome of an any event Reports are often conveyed in writing, speech, television, or film . 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 3

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Report is an administrative necessity. Most official form of information or works are completed via report. Report is always written in a sequential manner in order of occurrence. A research is generally conducted to probe into a problem resulting in a research report. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 4

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The purpose of the written report is to present the results of research , but more importantly to provide a persuasive argument to readers of what you have found. Research report is to provide the rationale for the research. This rationale should address four issues: What is the nature of the issue or problem the research investigates? Why is this worthy of investigation? What previous researchers discovered about this issue or problem? What does your research attempt to prove ? 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 5

Features of Report Writing:

Features of Report Writing It has a clear thoughts It is complete & self-explanatory It is comprehensive but compact It is accurate in all aspects It has suitable format for readers It support facts & is factual It has an impersonal style 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 6

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It follows an impartial approach It has all essential technical details It is presented in a lucid style It is a reliable document It is arranged in a logical manner It has proper date & signature It has a reference to relevant details 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 7

Types of report:

Types of report Research Report Business Report Scientific Report Routine Report Investigation Report Project Report Director’s Report 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 8

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INFORMAL REPORTS: The informal report functions to inform, analyze, and recommend. Usually takes the form of a memo, letter or a very short document like a monthly financial report, monthly activities report, research and development report, etc. It is written according to organization style and rules, but usually does not include the preliminary (front) and supplemental (back) material. The informal report is usually more controversial in tone and typically deals with everyday problems and issues addressed to a narrow readership inside the organization . 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 9

Types of Informal Reports:

Types of Informal R eport s Progress report Sales activity report Personnel evaluation Financial report Feasibility report Literature review Credit report 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 10

FORMAL REPORTS:

FORMAL REPORTS The formal report is the collection and interpretation of data and information. The formal report is complex and used at an official level. It is often a written account of a major project. Examples of subject matter include new technologies, the advisability of launching a new project line, results of a study or experiment, an annual report, or a year old review of developments in the field . 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 11

Types of Informal Reports:

Informational reports Analytical reports Recommendation reports Types of Informal R eport s 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 12

OTHER REPORTS:

OTHER REPORTS NARRATIVE REPORT: Most widely used Information written in a logical manner or sequence. All the case studies or formal narration are written in this format. All the steps are to be followed accordingly. SPECIALIZED REPORT: Summary of reports about specialized law enforcement and police problems may be either narrative, chronological or both. It may not follow a single pattern due to the different case types and description. ACCIDENT REPORT: The report defines complete description of the accident. It describes the location and the loss occurred. It is important for documentation. It is required to start any investigation . NON CHRONOLOGICAL REPORT: The purpose is to describe the way things are, this type is mainly used in letter, non fiction book, information leaflet, catalogue etc. The opening contains a general classification, a description of chosen subject then the paragraphs about different aspects of the subject and lastly conclusion . 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 13

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FORMAT OF A REPORT Although , there is no set report writing format, however, there are general sections that should be included. Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered. There are numerous possible formats available for writing a report, and it mostly depends on the context of topic . 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 14

THE PLAN FOR PREPARING A FORMAL REPORT:

THE PLAN FOR PREPARING A FORMAL REPORT Identify the readers Determine your purpose Formulate specific questions Conduct research to answer the questions Draw valid conclusions Decide on recommendations Write the report 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 15

STAGES IN REPORT WRITING:

STAGES IN REPORT WRITING Many researchers find it difficult to make their research reports meaningful though they toil and moil to complete the project successfully. Many a time they lose heart when they start writing their report, because they realise that their effort is not up to the mark. They have the desire but not necessary skill, nor they have the will to humble themselves and pick up; they pose too much. They are like a school boy who starts writing his homework with great enthusiasm. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 16

Contd…:

Contd … Though he is ignorant of what he is doing, he poses as an expert; and hence he has difficulty in learning it from somebody. It ultimately motivates him to be a copy-master, and ruin himself. This is how many so-called researchers happen to be copy-masters and compliers. Some wish to have a bed of roses in research and report writing. They may be task masters, but they fail to complete their task. Some may be good researchers, who may be painstaking but easy going. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 17

Contd..:

Contd.. They may keep on waiting complacently until the eleventh hour in the process. Their overconfidence may prove to be fatal for the whole mission. At last they are forced to complete a hotchpotch report. Taking all these realities into account, following steps may be suggested to complete the research task of writing report…. Plan the project well in advance, fix the target and final date of completing the report The time for completing data collection and data processing should be well planned 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 18

Contd..:

Contd.. The time for report writing should be planned in advance, it should not be put off till the last minute. At least one-third of the project time should be earmarked for this purpose. Make layout of the structure of the report, arrange the data, documents, bibliography, etc. in groups in conformity with the structure of the report. Prepare an outline based on the structure, which should cover the main points and sub-points in detail. Prepare a rough point-by-point skeleton for each chapter theme, and crystallise the report in a mental exercise. Do not hesitate to discuss the skeleton with somebody who is well-versed in research and who can be taken into confidence. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 19

Contd..:

Contd.. In the event of any doubt, get it cleared by reading, thinking, recollecting and discussing before going further. Put in a logical manner It is always good to get the benefit of the guidance of a good guide at all stages. Avoid easy going and short-cut methods and don’t hesitate to write an entire first draft. The whole report is to be prepared in black and white; then be aware that it is not at all perfect, and therefore, calls for much improvement. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 20

Contd…:

Contd … Keep rough draft away until you can bring a fresh mind to bear upon it. So substantial changes can be made with appropriate and experienced one. Revise the draft thoroughly before the report is typed. Remove unwanted and irrelevant portion. The draft may be read many times and corrected before it is finalised. Once the report undergoes a proper purging process, and appropriate format may be selected, which makes the report more attractive . 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 21

Report structure:

Report structure 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 22

Preliminary section:

Preliminary section Title page Letter of transmittal Letter of authorization Table of contents Executive summary Acknowledgements 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 23

Background section:

Background section Problem definition Study background Review of literature Study scope & objectives 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 24

Methodology section:

Methodology section Research frame work or design Sampling design Data collection methodology Data analysis Study results & findings 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 25

Final section:

Final section Interpretation of results Conclusions & recommendations Limitations of the study 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 26

End notes:

End notes Appendices Bibliography Footnotes Glossary of terms 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 27

Structure of report:

Structure of report Title page Acknowledgements Table of Contents Abbreviations and/or glossary Abstract Introduction Body Conclusion References/ Bibliogra p hy 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 28

Components of a Report:

Components of a R eport Title page: It should include the title, your name and the name of the tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department. The logo of the organization should also be printed. Acknowledgements : A list of people and organization's who have helped you in the compilation of report and other related work. Contents page: A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and sub-sections of the report. Page numbers should be marked correctly. Abstract : A summary of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations should be written to give a general overview of report. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 29

Slide30:

5. Introduction: The first page of the report needs to have an introduction. You will explain the problem and show the reader why the report is being made. 6. Body : This is the main section of the report. There needs to be several sections, with each having a subtitle. The various sections include Review of Literature, Materials and Methods and Results. A discussion section can also be included at the end of the body to go over by findings and their significance. 7. Conclusion : A conclusion should draw out the implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. The significance and relevance of study is discussed in this section. 8. References : This is a list giving the full details of all the sources to which you have made reference within your text . Contd … 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 30

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Significance of effective documentation:

Significance of effective documentation Provides a framework for the work that can be conducted in the same or related areas A knowledge base on the topic under study Provides the necessary guidance for taking appropriate actions. Authenticates the quality of the work carried out Establishes the strength of the findings obtained. Is a one-way communication of the researcher’s study and analysis. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 36

RELEVANCE OF REPORT WRITING:

RELEVANCE OF REPORT WRITING REPORT AS A MEANS OF INTERNAL COMMUNICATION A report acts as an effective means of communication within the organization. It provides feedback to employees. It is prepared for the information and guidance of others connected with the matter / problem. REPORT FACILITATES DECISION MAKING AND PLANNING Report provide reliable data which can be used in the planning and decision making process. It acts as a treasure house of reliable information for long term planning and decision making. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 37

Contd…:

Contd … REPORT DISCLOSES UNKNOWN INFORMATION Reports provide information, which may not be known previously. The committee members collect data, draw conclusions and provide information which will be new to all concerned parties. Even new business opportunities are visible through unknown information available in the reports. REPORT GIVES INFORMATION TO EMPLOYEES Reports are available to managers and departments for internal use. They are widely used by the departments for guidance. Report provide a feedback to employees and are useful for their self-improvement. 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 38

Research process and research report:

Research process and research report Hypothesis Design Experiment Testing Reporting Introduction Methods Results Conclusion Title Abstract References Appendix Research process Research report Problem definition Approach to problem Research design Field work Data preparation & Analysis Report preparation & Presentation 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 39

Do’s and Don’ts:

Do’s and Don’ts Do’s Don’ts Analytical reporting Convenience writing Accurate Study Roundabout manner Authenticity of data Provocative style Consistency Unnecessary data Communicativeness Unnecessary Jargon Clarity and Conciseness Vague writing Direct approach Investigative method Simplicity Suggestiveness Systematic presentation 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 40

Conclusion:

Conclusion It is any informational work made with an intention to relay information or recounting certain events in a presentable manner . It helps the management in an organization for making plans & solving issues in the organization 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 41

Thank You:

Thank You 20-01-2021 Dr. B. S. Navi 42

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