Measures of Personality

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Slide1:

Measures of Personality Dr. B. S. Navi Associate Professor, Local Head RCU PG Centre, Vijayapur DR. B. S. NAVI 1

Slide2:

Measures of Personality . Reliability : consistency or stability of a measure over time. Validity: accuracy or truth of a measure. Is it measuring what it is supposed to? You must have high levels of reliability in order to have validity. DR. B. S. NAVI 2

Slide3:

Dart Throwing Analogy The goal is to hit the bulls eye. The person who throws the dart and hits the bullseye is a valid dart thrower. What would be a reliable dart thrower? Someone who can throw the dart in the same place each time. Can you be a reliable dart thrower, but not a valid one? DR. B. S. NAVI 3

Slide4:

Types of Personality Measures Objective – paper and pencil self-report tests: These measures are clear to all what a specific response means. Examples: MMPI-2: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Over 500 item test that is used to detect mental illness. CPI: California Personality Inventory. Self-report measure that is used to detect normal and successful patterns of behavior. DR. B. S. NAVI 4

Slide5:

Projective tests – intentionally vague or ambiguous stimuli are used to encourage projection of unconscious materials. [Freud] a. Rorschach inkblots (Hermann Rorschach, 1927) b. TAT [Thematic Apperception Test] (Henry Murray, 1943) DR. B. S. NAVI 5

Rorschach inkblots:

Rorschach inkblots What do you see? DR. B. S. NAVI 6

More blots:

More blots What do you see? DR. B. S. NAVI 7

More blots:

More blots DR. B. S. NAVI 8

Thematic Apperception Test:

Thematic Apperception Test DR. B. S. NAVI 9

Thematic Apperception Test:

Thematic Apperception Test DR. B. S. NAVI 10

Measuring personality :

Measuring personality Humanist theorists do not believe you can measure or rate personality They do however use a Q-sort test This is used mainly during therapy to examine the self-concept, and the extent to which the true self and the ideal self match (or are mismatched), and to study changes in the client’s perception of self during the course of treatment ( Malim & Birch, 1998) Used a client-centred approach to therapy DR. B. S. NAVI 11

How is Personality Measured?:

How is Personality Measured? Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation Self-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences. DR. B. S. NAVI 12

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Carl Jung’s work People are fundamentally different People are fundamentally alike People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences DR. B. S. NAVI 13

MBTI Preferences:

MBTI Preferences DR. B. S. NAVI 14

Assessment of personality:

Assessment of personality observation interview rating … personality inventory projective techniques DR. B. S. NAVI 15

History of personality assessment:

History of personality assessment Pseudosciences : phrenology, physiognomy, graphology DR. B. S. NAVI 16

History of personality assessment:

History of personality assessment Type theories: Galen – theory of body humors (sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic type) Kretschmer , Lombroso, Sheldon – body type theories DR. B. S. NAVI 17

Contemporary assessment of personality:

Contemporary assessment of personality Trait theories: Allport , Cattel …( factor analysis) Hans Eysenck: 3 dimensions, biological basis of differences Big Five no theory of development relies too heavily on simple mathematical techniques exaggerate the consistency of human behavior can lead to circular reasoning DR. B. S. NAVI 18

Contemporary assessment of personality:

Contemporary assessment of personality Humanistic theories: self concept scales MMPI (empirical basis ) DR. B. S. NAVI 19

Projective Testing Techniques:

Projective Testing Techniques

Projective techniques :

Projective techniques not psychometric instruments used in clinical settings, special training study of personality and adjustment use symbolic, pictorial, verbal and expressive stimuli uncovering of covert, latent, unconscious aspects of personality DR. B. S. NAVI 21

The concept of “projection”:

The concept of “projection” unwittingly attributing one’s own drives, needs, perceptions, attitudes and style to others giving meaning to relatively ambiguous or unstructured stimuli by drawing upon one’s own private desires, traits, fears, and experience DR. B. S. NAVI 22

Projective techniques: disguised tests:

Projective techniques: disguised tests no awareness of psychological interpretation responses should be free of personal censorship dominant psychological characteristics are “hidden” in the responses DR. B. S. NAVI 23

Classification of “projectives”:

Classification of “ projectives ” Frank, 1948 what they require or seek to evoke from the subject constitutive constructive interpretive cathartic refractive DR. B. S. NAVI 24

Rorschach’s “Ink blot test”:

Rorschach’s “Ink blot test” DR. B. S. NAVI 25

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DR. B. S. NAVI 26

Criticism:

Criticism Lack of satisfactory internal consistency, or test-retest reliability. Failure to provide cogent evidence for clinical validity. Failure of the individual Rorschach scoring categories to relate to diagnosis. Lack of prognostic, or predictive validity with respect to the outcome of treatment, or later behavior. Individual differences between groups of normal subjects. Failure to find any significant relationships between Rorschach scores and intelligence, or creative ability . DR. B. S. NAVI 27

Draw a person test:

Draw a person test DR. B. S. NAVI 28

TAT – Thematic apperception test (Murray, 1943):

TAT – Thematic apperception test (Murray, 1943) DR. B. S. NAVI 29

Rozenzweig’s Picture-frustration Study:

Rozenzweig’s Picture-frustration Study DR. B. S. NAVI 30

Make a Picture Story:

Make a Picture Story DR. B. S. NAVI 31

Slide32:

THANK YOU DR. B. S. NAVI 32

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