Traumatic Brain Injuries

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Traumatic Brain Injuries:

Brianna Butler Traumatic Brain Injuries

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A traumatic brain injury is defined as an alteration in brain function , or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force . Symptoms can be physical, cognitive, and/or emotional. TBI


1.7 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury each year. 5.3 million Americans live with a long-term disability as a result of TBI. 75% of TBI are classified as “mild”. Males are more likely than females to sustain a brain injury, at any age. Statistics

PowerPoint Presentation:

Frontal Lobe Attention Organization Speaking Personality Mental Flexibility Temporal Lobe Memory Understanding language Sequencing Hearing Brain Stem Breathing Concentration Heart rate Sleep and wake cycles

PowerPoint Presentation:

Injuries scattered throughout both sides cause: Reduced thinking speed Confusion Reduced attention and concentration Fatigue Impaired cognitive skills

Adults vs. Children:

Symptoms are similar in both, but the impact is very different. Children’s brains are still developing. TBI in children have a more devastating impact. The cognitive impairments in children may not show up immediately after the injury. Problems arise when learning new and complex material. Also when be expected to behave in a socially appropriate way. Adults vs. Children

Causes of TBI:

Causes of TBI

TBI vs. ABI:

ABI or Acquired Brain Injury is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. It is an injury to the brain that has occurred after birth. (Stroke, Tumor, ect .) TBI vs. ABI

Outcomes of TBI:

52,000 die 275,000 are hospitalized 1,365,000 are treated and released from an emergency department Among children ages 0 to 14 years 2,685 deaths 37,000 hospitalizations 435,000 emergency department visits Outcomes of TBI

Balance and Vestibular Issues:

Dizziness and balance problems, or vestibular disorders, occur after a brain injury. Symptoms are delayed and happen days or months after an injury. Symptoms include: Visual, Hearing, and/or Cognitive/Psychological. 40 % of individuals with a traumatic brain injury suffer from balance issues. Balance and Vestibular Issues


Pain relief Nervousness or fear Blood clots Seizures Depression Psychotic symptoms or hallucinations Muscle spasms Sleep disorders Attention or alertness Medications

Behavior Guidelines:

Allow time for rest Keep environment simple Keep instruction simple Give feedback and set goals Be calm and redirect Provide choices Decrease chances of failure Vary activities Over plan Divide Tasks Behavior Guidelines

TBI students in the classroom:

Teachers may see these type of changes in a student after a brain injury. Physical- tiredness, lack of interest, awkward and slowed movements/reactions, sensitivity to light/sound. Cognitive- forgetfulness, sudden failure in learning new material, word-finding difficulties, inattention, problems with organization. Emotional- moodiness, depression, anxiety. TBI students in the classroom

Teaching Strategies :

Teachers should focus on helping TBI students in the following areas. Attention/Concentration- Reduce distractions, divide work into smaller sections, ask student to summarize orally, use cue words to alert student to focus/pay attention. (look, listen, name) Establish a nonverbal cueing system. Memory- Frequently repeat information, assignment sheets or post it notes, teach student to categorize or chunk information. Teaching Strategies

Teaching Strategies:

Organization- Additional time, written checklists/schedules, outline of class lectures, color coated materials, have the student help plan a class activity to practice organization skills. Following directions- provide oral and written instructions, ask student to repeat directions, underline/highlight material, slow down the pace, rewrite complex directions into simpler terms. Teaching Strategies

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