09 Baroque

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Baroque Striving to Impress :

Baroque Striving to Impress

Baroque: Definition:

Baroque: Definition A period of history A description of artistic/musical style after the Renaissance Originally a derogatory term

Causes and Origins:

Causes and Origins Counter reformation movement (glory of the church) Rulers wanted a style signifying glory Artist’s desire to be more expressive Originated in Italy

Characteristics:

Characteristics How does Baroque compare with the Renaissance? Unique contributions Emotion/Religious fervor/Realism Dramatic (light and shade/perspective) Exploration of form (elaborateness, exaggeration) but all in control Virtuosity

Architecture and Sculpture:

Architecture and Sculpture

Architecture Style:

Architecture Style Versailles Landscaping Hall of Mirrors Extravagance

Architecture Style:

Architecture Style St. Peter’s Square (Bernini)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Gian Lorenzo Bernini Baldacchino (Altar covering in St. Peters)

Bernini:

Bernini Ecstasy of St. Theresa

PowerPoint Presentation:

Reading 76 From Saint Teresa’s Visions It pleased the Lord that I should sometimes see the following vision. I would see beside me, on my left hand, an angel in bodily form—a type of vision which I am not in the habit of seeing, except very rarely. Though I often see representations of angels, my visions of them are of the type which I first mentioned. It pleased the Lord that I should see this angel in the following way. He was not tall, but short, and very beautiful, his face aflame that he appeared to be one of the highest types of angel who seem to be all afire. They must be those who are called cherubim: they do not tell me their names but I am well aware that there is a great difference between certain angels and others, and between these and others still, of a kind that I could not possibly explain. In his hands I saw a long golden spear and at the end of the iron tip I seemed to see a point of fire. With this he seemed to pierce my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. When he drew it out, I thought he was drawing them out with it and he left me completely afire with a great love for God. The pain was so sharp that it made me utter several moans; and so excessive was the sweetness caused me by this intense pain that one can never wish to lose it, nor will one’s soul be content with anything less than God. It is not bodily pain, but spiritual, though the body has a share in it – indeed, a great share. So sweet are the colloquies of love which pass between the soul and God that if anyone thinks I am lying I beseech God, in His goodness, to give him the same experience.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bernini David

PowerPoint Presentation:

"Bernini criticized Michelangelo for failing to make his figures appear as if made of flesh, and bragged that stone was 'like pasta' in his hands–that he could fashion marble like wax. And indeed he could. His genius for manipulating the act of perception–by altering perspective, or highlighting certain details in a rendering, or using materials and techniques to blur the lines between sculpture and painting–allowed Bernini to achieve new levels of authenticity in bringing a scene to life." – Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament , Vintage Books, 2001, p. 23.

Bernini:

Bernini Apollo and Daphne Pluto and Persephone

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi):

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi) The Calling of Saint Matthew Chiaroscuro Realism

Caravaggio:

Caravaggio The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew Emotion Perspective

Caravaggio:

Caravaggio David with the head of Goliath Emotion/realism Perspective (foreshortening) Light/darkness

Caravaggio: The Supper at Emmaus:

Caravaggio: The Supper at Emmaus Perspective Realism

Artemesia Gentileschi:

Artemesia Gentileschi Judith and Holofornes Emotion Realism Perspective

El Greco:

El Greco The Burial of Count Orgaz Religious fervor Virtuosity (color)

Diego Velazquez:

Diego Velazquez Las Meninas (Maids of Honor) Perspective Virtuosity (detail) The art of creating art (similar to the view of literature making literature in Don Quixote)

Velazquez: The Surrender of Breda (Las Lances):

Velazquez: The Surrender of Breda (Las Lances) Perspective Virtuosity

Peter Paul Rubens:

Peter Paul Rubens Henri IV Receiving the Portrait of Marie De Medici Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus

Anthony Van Dyke:

Anthony Van Dyke Charles I on Horseback Charles I: King of England at the Hunt

Rembrandt: Night Watch:

Rembrandt: Night Watch

Rembrandt:

Rembrandt Dr. Tulp’s Anatomy Lesson

Frans Hals:

Frans Hals The Laughing Cavalier

Jan Vermeer:

Jan Vermeer The Art of Painting Study of a Young Woman

Georges de La Tour:

Georges de La Tour Christ in the Carpenter’s Shop

Music :

Music

Baroque Music Innovations:

Baroque Music Innovations Invention of Opera Homophony Development of the orchestra and types of orchestration Development of new forms of vocal music Development of purely instrumental music New instruments Temperament

Invention of Opera:

Invention of Opera Singing and orchestra work together Use of an overture, several acts, etc Size of the orchestra increased Homophony

Claudio Monteverdi:

Claudio Monteverdi Made opera popular Technique to convey emotion Orfeo The Coronation of Poppea

Development of Instrumental Music:

Development of Instrumental Music Luther God could be experienced through music “The Devil flees from the voice of music just as he flees from the words of theology.” New vocal forms Hymn, anthem, cantata, oratorio

Baroque Music Innovations:

Baroque Music Innovations Purely instrumental music Counterpoint (a type of polyphony) Fugues Sonata, concerto, suite

Violin Invention:

Violin Invention Cremona, Italy Amati, Stradivari, Guarneri Became the heart of the orchestra Construction has not changed

Temperament:

Temperament Tempering: tuning that resulted in pleasant scales The Well Tempered Clavier Preludes and fugues written in all major and minor keys

Circle of Fifths:

Circle of Fifths do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do 1 st fifth 2 nd fifth 3 rd fifth 4 th fifth 5 th fifth 6 th fifth 7 th fifth Notes defined: do, sol re la mi ti fa do The ratio of the two "do" notes should be an even whole number

PowerPoint Presentation:

"The problem...began with the Greeks, who mistakenly believed that 3:2 was the real ratio of a perfect fifth, when it is obviously only an approximation. Anyone who multiplies this ratio and realizes that its 'circle' of twelve tones produces a last note that is out of tune with the first, yet continues to maintain 'that the ratio 3:2 is the actual one, he in truth ignores the essential character of addition and subtraction of ratios.' Any such person is stubbornly resisting the plain truth; his position is irrational and absurd." – Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament , Vintage Books, 2001, p. 145.

PowerPoint Presentation:

"Acceptance [of equal temperament] did not come easily. Critics claimed the resulting music had been robbed of its beauty and emotional impact; supporters countered that since all things are subjective, human ears and minds would learn to adapt. The arguments, however, went well beyond musical aesthetics. Equal temperament represented an assault on an idea that had gripped thinkers in nearly every field as a powerful metaphor for a universe ruled by mathematical law." – Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament , Vintage Books, 2001, p. 6.

PowerPoint Presentation:

"Tempering meant that the principle of usefulness was more basic than the principle of purity." – Adapted from: Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament , Vintage Books, 2001, p. 8.

Innovations in Orchestra:

Innovations in Orchestra Concertos Solo instruments Grosso led to orchestra works Composers notation: Specified instrumental parts Dynamic markings and speed Key signature in the title

Antonio Vivaldi:

Antonio Vivaldi “Red Priest” Details and complexity Operas Influenced Bach The Four Seasons

Vivaldi: Sonnet for Spring:

Vivaldi: Sonnet for Spring Spring has come with its gaiety, The birds salute it with joyous song, And the brooks, caressed by Zephyr’ Flow meanwhile with sweet murmur. The sky is covered with dark clouds Announced by lightning and thunder, But when they are silenced, the little birds Return to fill the air with their song: Then does the meadow, in full flower, Ripple with its leafy plants. The goatherd dozes, guarded by his faithful dog. Rejoicing in the pastoral bagpipes, Nymphs and Shepherds dance ‘neath heaven’s canopy, For the radiant onset of Springtime.

George Frederick Handel:

George Frederick Handel Personal Life Watermusic Royal Fireworks Operas Company in London Wrote castratos Largo from Xerxes

George Frederick Handel:

George Frederick Handel Oratorios Long text with chorus and orchestra No costumes and staging Developed after lack of interest for operas Messiah Overture Glory to God Hallelujah Chorus

Johann Sebastian Bach:

Johann Sebastian Bach Personal life Work life Over 1000 musical pieces Public complained for his flowery music Musicians felt his music too difficult Engaged the mind in search for God After death became well known

PowerPoint Presentation:

“Since the best man could not be obtained, mediocre ones would have to be accepted.” -Leipzig town council member commenting on the hiring of Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach:

Johann Sebastian Bach Musical Contributions: Over 1000 pieces in every genre except opera Cantatas (one per week for 8 years) #140 part 1 part 4 part 7 Protestant themes (in search of God) Counterpoint/fugue Complex compositions (upside down) Hymns ( A Mighty Fortress ) Brandenburg Concertos

Literature:

Literature

Cervantes :

Cervantes Don Quixote de la Mancha Greatest literature work in Spanish First Novel Reality versus illusion

Don Quixote :

Don Quixote (Sancho’s early opinion of Don Quixote) “I have seen from countless signs that this master of mine is a raving lunatic who ought to be tied up – and me, I can’t be much better, for since I follow him and serve him, I’m more of a fool than he…” (Sancho’s later view of reality) “Anything’s possible…for her beauty confused me, as her ugliness did your worship. But let’s leave it all in God’s hands.”

John Milton:

John Milton Devout Puritan Defender of Cromwellian Commonwealth Political Activist and Essayist Paradise Lost Sonnet— When I consider

Paradise Lost :

Paradise Lost (Milton) At the day’s dawning, having said their morning prayers, Adam and Eve began considering how they might best accomplish their growing work. (Simple) They said their prayers and planned their work. (Simpler) They prayed and worked hard. (Simplest) They had too much to do.

Paradise Lost :

Paradise Lost “…Hail, horrors! Hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: Here we may reign secure; and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.” - Satan in Paradise Lost

When I Consider How My Life is Spent:

When I Consider How My Life is Spent When I consider how my light is spent, E’re half my days, in this dark world and wide, And that one Talent which is death to hide, Lodg’d with me useless, though my Soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker, and present My true account, least he returning chide, Doth God exact day-labour, light denied, I fondly ask; But patience to prevent That murmur, soon replies, God doth not need Either man’s work or his own gifts; his State Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed And post o’re Land and Ocean without rest: They also serve who only stand and wait. - John Milton

Thank You:

Thank You

Messiah:

Messiah No tongue can speak, neither can there be written by any man, neither can the hearts of men conceive so great and marvelous things as we both saw and heard Jesus speak; and no one can conceive of the joy which filled our souls at the time we heard him pray for us unto the Father. (3 Ne. 17:17)

Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin):

Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin) Baroque comedy Targeted the Catholic church Tartuffe

PowerPoint Presentation:

"[Those] who insist on believing in the purity of the simple ratios of old over all aural evidence to the contrary...they are like the person who proclaims, 'The sun may lie, but not the clock.'" – Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament , Vintage Books, 2001, p. 146.