U4 PPT #1- War Ends All Wars

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The War to End all Wars? : 

The War to End all Wars? Unit 4 – World War I 1914–1919 Allied vs. Central Powers Collapse of the Empires Russian (Allied) German (Central) Austrian- Hungary (Central) Ottoman (Central)

Imperialism & Nationalism (?) : 

Imperialism & Nationalism (?) The Industrial Revelation during the turn of the century led to the colonization of other countries so they could develop their markets and gain more natural resources. Ethnic groups, often minorities, longed for independence or “self determination” from their imperialistic “conqueror”. This search for freedom often led to violence. Why? Nationalism led to Militarism and Alliances. Imperialism Nationalism Two Faces of Pride

Alliances : 

Alliances Central Powers (Triple Alliance) The alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Other nations allied with them in opposing the “Allies”. Allied Powers (Triple Entente) The alignment of the three powers, United Kingdom, France, and Russia and was supplemented by various agreements with Japan, the United States and Spain, constituted a powerful counterweight to the "Triple Alliance“ which was the roots of the Central Powers. German Empire Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria & Others Russian Empire France British Empire USA & Others

Slide 4: 

The United States was a “Neutral” until 1917 when they joined the Allied Powers.

The Black Hand : 

The Black Hand Austria-Hungary and Serbia were two countries that were experiencing the unrest and conflict of nationalism. Serbia believed that Bosnia and Herzegovina, both under Austria-Hungary's control, were rightfully Serbian territory - all where of Slavic descent. This unrest came to a head when the Austrian-Hungarian heir to the throne _____________________and his wife Sophie were assassinated in Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina on June 28th, 1914. “The Black Hand” (a Serbian secret society) favored a union between Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia and thought that the assassination of Ferdinand would help in achieving independence from Austro-Hungary. Archduke Francis Ferdinand

The War Begins 1914 : 

The War Begins 1914 Assassination of Ferdinand, July ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Russia mobilized their army on the boarder of Austria-Hungary to show their support for Serbia, (An agreement they made earlier in when Austria annexed Bosnia). Germany demanded that Russia pullback, but Russia feared a first strike and stayed. Kaiser Wilhelm and Tsar Nicholas II went to war on August 1st. German troops occupy Luxembourg and Belgium because they were in the way of Russia’s ally France. Germany declares war on France. Belgium was technically neutral so the United Kingdom declared war on Germany in response to the invasion of a neutral country and fear that their colonies in Africa and India where in jeopardy. Austria-Hungary sides with Germany and declares war on Russia. The United Kingdom and France declare war on Austria-Hungary. The Ottoman Empire enters the war on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary. War spread to other countries until everyone is involved in some way or another.

America’s Dilemma : 

America’s Dilemma Isolationism or save democracy? President Woodrow Wilson first declared a policy of strict neutrality (?) or ___________, but later said that America had to “make the world safe for Democracy”. The “Dove” became a ________. What drove America into war? “It’s the Economy stupid” Germany threatens US Shipping. Allied indebtedness In 1917 the people of America choose war? “Hawk” Isolationism

Battle lines : 

Battle lines ____________ extended from the English Channel to Switzerland in Western Europe. The Eastern Front was much more fluid – not the static entrenchments as in the Western Front. Russia was holding off the Germans along this front in Eastern Europe. Southern Theatres Ottoman Empire Sided with the Central Powers. Italian Participation Allied with the Central powers first then came to the Allied Powers later on. The Balkans Western Front Trench Warfare New technologies like Tanks and poison gas were used.

America’s Leaders : 

America’s Leaders President ______________ In order to “make the world safe for democracy”, Wilson wanted to be included in the peace talks after the war. General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing Doughboys and the American Expeditionary Forces Woodrow Wilson American troops prevented an Allied defeat.

America Enters the War (1917) : 

America Enters the War (1917) German (U-boat) sinks the passenger liner called the _______. Kaiser Wilhelm “Sink all ships in British waters” if they are not going to play by the rules neither are we. A coded “note” called the _________________ pushed the U.S. over the edge into war. What role did each of these countries play? Mexico, Germany, US, and Britain. Zimmerman Telegram Lusitania

Propaganda (?) : 

Propaganda (?) Committee on Public Information Inspire patriotism and hate for the enemy. Making an unpopular war, POPULAR. How? Pro-War Movies & Posters Pro-War songs. Cartoons “Leaks” to the media Problems often arise after the war when trying to “turn off” the stereotypes, fear, and hate that are generated by the propaganda.

Slide 12: 

Sedition & Patriotism (?) : 

Sedition & Patriotism (?) Espionage Act of 1917 Sedition Act of 1918 Eugene V. Debs Debs made an anti-war speech in Canton, Ohio, protesting World War I, and was arrested under the Sedition Act of 1918. Read his speech and decide for yourself if the punishment fits the crime? He was convicted and sentenced to serve ten years in prison and disenfranchised for life, losing his citizenship.

Versailles Treaty : 

Versailles Treaty The ____________ of 1919 was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I. The Treaty made official the ____________ or cease fire that took effect on Nov. 11, 1918 at eleven o'clock in the morning or the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.“ In Germany the treaty caused shock and humiliation which some claimed contributed to the collapse of the Weimar Republic in 1933 and Adolf Hitler's rise to power and ultimately leading to WWII. After WWII we began to call this holiday “Veterans Day.” Casualties 20 million wounded, 9 million died soldiers, 20 million hunger and disease related to war. Treaty of Versailles Armistice

The War to End all Wars : 

The War to End all Wars ____________ presented a program of 14 points to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. A Summary In the 1920 presidential election Wilson’s political party, the Democrats lost power to Warren Harding’s Republicans. The United States never joined the League of Nations, but the UN was formed 1945. President Wilson Open covenants of peace. (Transparency) A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims. (Self-Determination through democracy) A general association of nations. (League of Nations)

Cause & Effect of WWI (?) : 

Cause & Effect of WWI (?) Russian Empire Despite some early successes in the war the Russian government was soon overburdened. Tsar ___________could not uphold his responsibility to lead both at home and on the front. The people back home lost confidence in their leader. The October Revolution led by the Bolsheviks under the leadership of ____________ and Leon Trotsky took control of Russia and set up the first _________ nation of the twentieth century. The Soviet Union and the United States fought as allies in WWII, but fought against each other in the ________ from 1945-1989 that nearly led to the ruin of both nations. Nicholas II Vladimir Lenin Communist Cold War

German Empire : 

German Empire As part of the ________ treaty Germany was forced to pay reparations (money) to France and Britain. France and Britain used the money to pay back the United States. The Great Depression hit the world economies hard in the ________ and Germany, as the loser in the war, was hit the hardest. Hardships and self pity fueled a strong since of ____________ in the German people. Socialism brought the people together under a common goal, which produced the Nazi political party, and fascism. Versailles 1930’s nationalism _______ in an attempt to regain Germany’s lost identity/nationalism and land after WWI invaded the Rhineland and Poland in 1939 which set off _______ that led to the deaths of millions of innocent people around the world including 6 million Jews. Hitler WWII

Ottoman Empire/Middle East : 

Ottoman Empire/Middle East Britain and France were given “Mandates” under the ______________ when the Ottoman Empire was split up after WWI. Their control resulted in the creation of a number of politically artificial states that were put under the watch of the _____________ powers. The legitimacy of the boundaries separating these states, and the lack of a _____________, fueled conflicts that are still at issue today. The Ottoman was split into the states of Trans-Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia among other Gulf States. League of Nations unified population Western/Allied

Trouble in the Middle East : 

Trouble in the Middle East IRAQ Iraq never relinquished its “rights” to the oil-rich and strategically placed country of ________. The British (and then the Americans) worked to hold Iraq's _______________________regions together without much success. Saudi Arabia The fundamental form of Islam called “Wahhabi” gained strength in Saudi Arabia in an attempt to prevent “Western” influence in the region. Kurdish, Sunni and Shia Kuwait Balfour Declaration was accepted, especially by Israel, as the Britain’s commitment to the establishment of a Jewish national home in the British Mandate of _________. Palestine

Arab-Israeli Wars : 

Arab-Israeli Wars Riots broke out throughout Palestine in the 1920’s and 30’s in opposition to the _____ immigration. The Arab majority were upset about the stated intent of Britain, the League of Nations and the local Jewish population to establish a ___________ 1948 Arab-Israeli War 1956 Suez War 1967 Six-Day War 1973 Yom Kippur War Jewish Jewish Homeland.

America and the Middle East : 

America and the Middle East 1982 Lebanon War 1987-1993 First Intifada 1990-1991 Gulf War – Liberate Kuwaitis or Oil? 2000 Intifada 2003 Iraq War – Democracy, dictators or WMD’s? Refugee issues Jewish settlements in West Bank and Gaza Legitimacy of Israel Democracy Lack Woman’s Rights 60% of all the world's oil reserves are contained in the Middle East.