Autonomous Vehicles

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Autonomous Vehicles https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Radar - Frequency bands:

Radar - Frequency bands W 75–110 GHz 2.7–4.0 mm used as a visual sensor for experimental autonomous vehicles, high-resolution meteorological observation, and imaging. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car:

Autonomous car Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar, lidar, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Some autonomous vehicles update their maps based on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car:

Autonomous car Numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles, including Mercedes-Benz, General Motors, Continental Automotive Systems, Autoliv Inc., Bosch, Nissan, Toyota, Audi, Vislab from University of Parma, Oxford University and Google, however last mentioned firm is not developing but more or less producing from what has been found in the user generated bigdatabase owned by the company https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - 1980s:

Autonomous car - 1980s In the 1980s, a vision-guided Mercedes-Benz robotic van, designed by Ernst Dickmanns and his team at the Bundeswehr University Munich in Munich, Germany, achieved a speed of 39 miles per hour (63 km/h) on streets without traffic. Subsequently, EUREKA conducted the €749 million Prometheus Project on autonomous vehicles from 1987 to 1995. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - 2000s:

Autonomous car - 2000s Autonomous vehicles have also been used in mining https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - 2010s:

Autonomous car - 2010s In 2010, Italy's VisLab from the University of Parma, lead by Professor Alberto Broggi, ran the VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge (VIAC), a 9,900-mile (15,900 km) test run which marked the first intercontinental land journey completed by autonomous vehicles https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - 2010s:

Autonomous car - 2010s In 2013, on July 12, VisLab conducted another pioneering test of autonomous vehicles, during which a robotic vehicle drove in downtown Parma with no human control, successfully navigating roundabouts, traffic lights, pedestrian crossings and other common hazards. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - 2010s:

Autonomous car - 2010s Although as of 2013, fully autonomous vehicles are not yet available to the public, many contemporary car models have features offering limited autonomous functionality https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Official projections:

Autonomous car - Official projections By Mid-2010's, Toyota plans to roll out near-autonomous vehicles dubbed Automated Highway Driving Assist with Lane Trace Control and Cooperative-adaptive Cruise Control. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Legislation:

Autonomous car - Legislation In the United States, state vehicle codes generally do not envisage — but do not necessarily prohibit — highly automated vehicles. To clarify the legal status of and otherwise regulate such vehicles, several states have enacted or are considering specific laws. As of the end of 2012, three U.S. states, (Nevada, Florida, and California) have successfully enacted laws addressing autonomous vehicles. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Legislation:

Autonomous car - Legislation Nevada thus became the first jurisdiction in the world where autonomous vehicles might be legally operated on public roads https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Legislation:

Autonomous car - Legislation On 1 July 2012, Florida became the second state to recognize the legality of autonomous vehicles. Florida's law clarifies that, "the State does not prohibit or specifically regulate the testing or operation of autonomous … vehicles on public roads." https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Legislation:

Autonomous car - Legislation In the 2013–2014 legislative session, Colorado and Michigan introduced legislation addressing the regulation of autonomous vehicles. Michigan's proposed bill is currently in the State Senate Transportation Committee. Colorado's proposed bill was rejected in committee in February 2013. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Forecasts:

Autonomous car - Forecasts Navigant Research forecasts that autonomous vehicles will gradually gain traction in the market over the coming two decades and by 2035, sales of autonomous vehicles will reach 95.4 million annually, representing 75% of all light-duty vehicle sales. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Notable projects:

Autonomous car - Notable projects The Google driverless car project maintains a test fleet of autonomous vehicles that has driven 300,000 miles (480,000 km) with no machine-caused accidents as of August 2012. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Notable projects:

Autonomous car - Notable projects The €800 million EC EUREKA Prometheus Project conducted research on autonomous vehicles from 1987 to 1995. Among its culmination points were the twin robot vehicles VITA-2 and VaMP of Daimler-Benz and Ernst Dickmanns, driving long distances in heavy traffic. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - Notable projects:

Autonomous car - Notable projects The 2010 VIAC Challenge saw four autonomous vehicles drive from Italy to China on a 100-day 9,900-mile (15,900 km) trip with only limited human intervention, such as in traffic jams and when passing toll stations. At the time, this was the longest-ever journey conducted by an unmanned vehicle. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Autonomous car - In film:

Autonomous car - In film The 2004 film I, Robot features autonomous vehicles driving on highways, allowing the car to travel safer at higher speeds than if manually controlled. The option to manually operate the vehicles is available. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Automobile:

Automobile Fully autonomous vehicles, also known as driverless cars, already exist in prototype (such as the Google driverless car), and are expected to be commercially available around 2020 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Mercedes-Benz - Robot cars:

Mercedes-Benz - Robot cars Partially encouraged by Dickmanns' success, in 1987 the European Union's EUREKA programme initiated the Prometheus Project on autonomous vehicles, funded to the tune of nearly €800 million https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Computer vision - Applications for computer vision:

Computer vision - Applications for computer vision Space exploration is already being made with autonomous vehicles using computer vision, e.g., NASA's Mars Exploration Rover and ESA's ExoMars Rover. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Areas of robotics - Branches of robotics :

Areas of robotics - Branches of robotics * Simultaneous localization and mapping - a technique used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build up a map within an unknown environment (without a priori knowledge), or to update a map within a known environment (with a priori knowledge from a given map), while at the same time keeping track of their current location. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Areas of robotics - Robotics competitions :

Areas of robotics - Robotics competitions * DARPA Grand Challenge - prize competition for American vehicle automation|autonomous vehicles, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the most prominent research organization of the United States United States Department of Defense|Department of Defense. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

DARPA Grand Challenge:

DARPA Grand Challenge The 'DARPA Grand Challenge' is a prize competition for American vehicle automation|autonomous vehicles, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the most prominent research organization of the United States United States Department of Defense|Department of Defense https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

DARPA Grand Challenge - History and background:

DARPA Grand Challenge - History and background Fully autonomous vehicles have been an international pursuit for many years, from endeavors in Japan (starting in 1977), Germany (Ernst Dickmanns and VaMP), Italy (the ARGO Project), the European Union (EUREKA Prometheus Project), the United States of America, and other countries. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Google driverless car - Commercialization :

Google driverless car - Commercialization The first bill is an amendment to an electric vehicle bill that provides for the licensing and testing of autonomous vehicles https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

EUREKA Prometheus Project:

EUREKA Prometheus Project The 'Eureka (organization)|Eureka PROMETHEUS Project' ('PRO'gra'M'me for a 'E'uropean 'T'raffic of 'H'ighest 'E'fficiency and 'U'nprecedented 'S'afety, 1987-1995) was the largest RD project ever in the field of driverless cars. It received in funding from the EUREKA member states, and defined the state of the art of autonomous vehicles. Numerous universities and car manufacturers participated in this Pan-European project. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Laser radar - Autonomous Vehicles:

Laser radar - Autonomous Vehicles Autonomous vehicles use LiDAR for obstacle detection and avoidance to navigate safely through environments. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Real-Time Control System - Overview :

Real-Time Control System - Overview Over three decades, it has evolved into a real-time control architecture for intelligent machine tools, factory automation systems, and intelligent autonomous vehicles.Jim Albus, Tony Barbera, Craig Schlenoff (2004) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Alberto Broggi - Main Milestones :

Alberto Broggi - Main Milestones namely races amongst autonomous vehicles that https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Alberto Broggi - Main Milestones :

Alberto Broggi - Main Milestones the history of autonomous vehicles: in 2005 TerraMax (vehicle)Deborah Braid, Alberto Broggi, and Gary Schmiedel, The TerraMax Autonomous Vehicle, Journal of Field Robotics, 23(9):693-708, September 2006 -a 14 ton truck- https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Bowler Wildcat - Research platform :

Bowler Wildcat - Research platform The second is used by the [http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~mobile Mobile Robotics Group] at Oxford University as part of their ongoing research into lifelong infrastructure-free navigation for autonomous vehicles. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Simultaneous localization and mapping:

Simultaneous localization and mapping 'Simultaneous localization and mapping' ('SLAM') is a technique used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build up a map within an unknown environment (without a priori knowledge), or to update a map within a known environment (with a priori knowledge from a given map), while at the same time keeping dead reckoning|track of their current location. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Navlab:

Navlab 'Navlab' is a series of autonomous and semi-autonomous vehicles developed by teams from The Robotics Institute at the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science|School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University. Later models were produced under a new department created specifically for the research called the The Carnegie Mellon University Navigation Laboratory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

History of transport - Aviation:

History of transport - Aviation In the beginning of the 21st century, subsonic military aviation focused on eliminating the pilot in favor of remotely operated or completely autonomous vehicles https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Driverless car:

Driverless car Some autonomous vehicles Simultaneous localization and mapping|update their maps based on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Driverless car:

Driverless car Numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles, including Mercedes-Benz, General Motors, Continental Automotive Systems, Autoliv Inc., Robert Bosch GmbH|Bosch, Nissan, Toyota, Audi, Vislab from University of Parma, Oxford University and Google https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Vehicular communication systems - Driver assistance systems:

Vehicular communication systems - Driver assistance systems Roadside units can provide drivers with information which help them in controlling the vehicle. These may be conventional vehicles driven by humans or they could even be autonomous vehicles. Even in the absence of RSUs, small transmitters may be able to issue warnings such as bridge or tunnel height or gate width: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

VaMP - Overview :

VaMP - Overview The VaMP was constructed by the team of Ernst Dickmanns at the Bundeswehr University of Munich and Mercedes-Benz in the 1990s as part of the 800 million ECU EUREKA Prometheus Project on autonomous vehicles (1987–1995) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Unmanned vehicle (disambiguation):

Unmanned vehicle (disambiguation) An 'unmanned vehicle' is a vehicle without a person (man) on board. Unmanned vehicles can either be 'remote controlled' or 'remote guided vehicles', or they can be 'autonomous vehicles' which are capable of sensing their environment and navigating on their own. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Renault-Nissan Alliance - USA:

Renault-Nissan Alliance - USA Renault does not currently sell cars in the United States, but the Renault–Nissan Alliance operates a Silicon Valley Research Center in Sunnyvale, California, specializing in autonomous driving and connected cars. The office works with Silicon Valley-based technology companies and collaborates with Renault and Nissan technical centers in France and Japan. Areas of research include: autonomous vehicles; Internet-connected vehicles; and the area of human machine interface. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Robert C. Michelson - Representative publications:

Robert C. Michelson - Representative publications *“Autonomous Vehicles,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 84, No. 8, August 1996, pp.1147–1164 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Robotic car - Potential obstacles:

Robotic car - Potential obstacles * Liability for damage.Gurney, Jeffrey K. [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2352108 Sue My Car Not Me: Products Liability and Accidents Involving Autonomous Vehicles], 2013 U. Ill. J. L. Tech. Pol'y, Fall 2013. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Robotic car - 2000s:

Robotic car - 2000s Autonomous vehicles have also been used in mining https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

VIAC:

VIAC 'VIAC', the 'VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge', is the challenge conceived by VisLab as an extreme test of Intelligent car|autonomous vehicles. It ran from July 20, 2010 to October 28, 2010, involving four driverless car|driverless vehicles driving with https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

VIAC - The idea:

VIAC - The idea The aim was to test and stress the current technology in a unique event: non-polluting and non-oil based Driverless car|autonomous vehicles in real traffic conditions on an extreme journey between two continents, the final outcome being a huge dataset with a very large variety of situations to be further used to refine the onboard perception system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

VIAC - Technical details:

VIAC - Technical details During the trip, demonstrations were scheduled in specific hot spots, showing autonomous vehicles following given routes, negotiating traffic, avoiding obstacles, and stopping when required. The first demonstration was held in Rome at the EUR district on October 29, 2009, when Rome's Major, Gianni Alemanno, officially presented the VIAC challenge. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

VIAC - Organization and Logistics:

VIAC - Organization and Logistics The logistics were managed by Overland Network, which provided 4 RVs (motor homes) and 3 additional trucks as a support. The expedition was therefore formed by 4 autonomous vehicles, 4 RVs, 3 trucks, and occupied about 20 people for three months. A satellite link broadcast live data and video streaming for the whole duration of the trip (except in China) so that everybody on the Internet was able to witness the progress of the experiment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Missouri University of Science and Technology - Student Engineering Projects:

Missouri University of Science and Technology - Student Engineering Projects The team builds autonomous vehicles that traverse obstacle courses consisting of lane markers and obstacles https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

University of Louisiana at Lafayette - Academic achievements:

University of Louisiana at Lafayette - Academic achievements In 2004, UL Lafayette students and faculty produced CajunBot, one of 25 autonomous vehicles that competed in the U.S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Image classification - Applications for computer vision:

Image classification - Applications for computer vision Space exploration is already being made with autonomous vehicles using computer vision, e.g., NASA's Mars Exploration Rover and ESA's ExoMars Rover. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Johnny Cab:

Johnny Cab Numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles, including Mercedes-Benz, General Motors, Continental Automotive Systems, Autoliv Inc., Robert Bosch GmbH|Bosch, Nissan, Toyota, Audi, Volvo, Vislab from University of Parma, Oxford University and Google https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Johnny Cab - 2000s:

Johnny Cab - 2000s Autonomous vehicles have also been used in mining. In December 2008, Rio Tinto Alcan began testing the Komatsu Limited|Komatsu Autonomous Haulage System – the world's first commercial autonomous mining haulage system – in the Pilbara iron ore mine in Western Australia. Rio Tinto has reported benefits in health, safety, and productivity. In November 2011, Rio Tinto signed a deal to greatly expand its fleet of driverless trucks. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Johnny Cab - 2010s:

Johnny Cab - 2010s * The 2004 film I, Robot (film)|I, Robot features autonomous vehicles driving on highways, allowing the car to travel safer at higher speeds than if manually controlled. The option to manually operate the vehicles is available. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Eshel Ben-Jacob - Multi-agent swarming:

Eshel Ben-Jacob - Multi-agent swarming This work has led to the creating of a new field of multi-agent swarming (swarming intelligence) as it explains the foundations of a wide variety of phenomena ranging from collective navigation (swarming intelligence) of bacteria , amoeba and insects, to flocking of birds and schools of fish as well as to the design of autonomous vehicles capable of functional self-organization even in the absence of an overall omniscient controller. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott - Academic buildings :

Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott - Academic buildings This building contains a Design Suite for Autonomous Vehicles and Freshman Engineering Lab which allow students to build robots, lighter-than-air vehicles, and more https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

Traffic congestion: Reconstruction with Kerner’s three-phase theory - Bibliography:

Traffic congestion: Reconstruction with Kerner’s three-phase theory - Bibliography * Palmer J., Rehborn H. (2009) Reconstruction of congested traffic patterns using traffic state detection in autonomous vehicles based on Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory, In: Proceedings of. 16th World Congress on ITS, Stockholm https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton - Research vessels:

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton - Research vessels A range of submersibles and autonomous vehicles is operated by scientists at NOCS (such as the Autosub Under Ice programme). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-autonomous-vehicles-toolkit.html

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