Verification

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Verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Authentication Factual verification:

Authentication Factual verification Determining the truth or factual accuracy of information in a message is generally considered a separate problem from authentication. A wide range of techniques, from detective work, to fact checking in journalism, to scientific experiment might be employed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Barcode Quality control and verification:

Barcode Quality control and verification Barcode verification examines scanability and the quality of the barcode in comparison to industry standards and specifications https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Barcode Quality control and verification:

Barcode Quality control and verification A barcode verifier works the way a reader does, but instead of simply decoding a barcode, a verifier performs a series of tests. For linear barcodes these tests are: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Barcode Quality control and verification:

Barcode Quality control and verification Minimum Edge Contrast https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Barcode Quality control and verification:

Barcode Quality control and verification Depending on the parameter, each ANSI test is graded from 0.0 to 4.0 (F to A), or given a pass or fail mark. Each grade is determined by analyzing the scan reflectance profile (SRP), an analog graph of a single scan line across the entire symbol. The lowest of the 8 grades is the scan grade and the overall ISO symbol grade is the average of the individual scan grades. For most applications a 2.5 (C) is the minimum acceptable symbol grade. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Barcode Quality control and verification:

Barcode Quality control and verification Compared with a reader, a verifier measures a barcode's optical characteristics to international and industry standards. The measurement must be repeatable and consistent. Doing so requires constant conditions such as distance, illumination angle, sensor angle and verifier aperture. Based on the verification results, the production process can be adjusted to print higher quality barcodes that will scan down the supply chain. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs Verification and validation can be seen in the social sciences domain, and validation seen in Computational Economics Face validation, sensitivity analysis, calibration and statistical validation have also been demonstrated https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs also provide an example of using VOMAS for Verification and Validation of a Forest Fire simulation model. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs VOMAS provides a formal way of Validation and Verification. If you want to develop a VOMAS, you need to start by designing VOMAS agents along with the agents in the actual simulation preferably from the start. So, in essence, by the time your simulation model is complete, you essentially can consider to have one model which contains two models: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs In other words, VOMAS allows for a flexible use of any given technique for the sake of Verification and Validation of an Agent-based Model in any domain. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based model Verification and validation of ABMs Details of Validated agent-based modeling using VOMAS along with several case studies are given in. This thesis also gives details of "Exploratory Agent-based Modeling", "Descriptive Agent-based Modeling" in addition to "Validated Agent-based Modeling" using several worked case study examples. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal methods - Verification:

Formal methods - Verification Once a formal specification has been developed, the specification may be used as the basis for proving properties of the specification (and hopefully by inference the developed system). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Software testing is used in association with verification and validation: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Verification: Have we built the software right? (i.e., does it implement the requirements). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Validation: Have we built the right software? (i.e., do the requirements satisfy the customer). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation The terms verification and validation are commonly used interchangeably in the industry; it is also common to see these two terms incorrectly defined. According to the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Verification is the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Validation is the process of evaluating a system or component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Verification is confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software testing - Software verification and validation:

Software testing - Software verification and validation Validation is confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISO/IEC 7816 - 7816-11 Personal verification through biometric methods:

ISO/IEC 7816 - 7816-11 Personal verification through biometric methods According to its abstract, it specifies the usage of interindustry commands and data objects related to personal verification through biometric methods in integrated circuit cards. The interindustry commands used are defined in ISO/IEC 7816-4. The data objects are partially defined in this International Standard, partially imported from ISO/IEC 19785-1. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISO/IEC 7816 - 7816-11 Personal verification through biometric methods:

ISO/IEC 7816 - 7816-11 Personal verification through biometric methods ISO/IEC 7816-11 also presents examples for enrollment and verification and addresses security issues. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Encryption - Message verification:

Encryption - Message verification Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message; for example, verification of a message authentication code (MAC) or a digital signature https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Encryption - Message verification:

Encryption - Message verification Digital signature and encryption must be applied at message creation time (i.e. on the same device it has been composed) to avoid tampering. Otherwise any node between the sender and the encryption agent could potentially tamper it. It should be noted that encrypting at the time of creation only adds security if the encryption device itself has not been tampered with. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Philosophy of science - Empirical verification:

Philosophy of science - Empirical verification Science relies on evidence to validate its theories and models, and the predictions implied by those theories and models should be in agreement with observation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Philosophy of science - Empirical verification:

Philosophy of science - Empirical verification Nevertheless, while the basic concept of empirical verification is simple, in practice, there are difficulties as described in the following sections. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software construction - Constructing for verification:

Software construction - Constructing for verification Constructing for verification means building software in such a way that faults can be ferreted out readily by the software engineers writing the software, as well as during independent testing and operational activities. Specific techniques that support constructing for verification include following coding standards to support code reviews, unit testing, organizing code to support automated testing, and restricted use of complex or hard-to-understand language structures, among others. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures As work processes change, previous recovery procedures may no longer be suitable. Checks include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures Are all work processes for critical functions documented? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures Have the systems used for critical functions changed? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures Are the documented work checklists meaningful and accurate? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business continuity planning - Testing and verification of recovery procedures Do the documented work process recovery tasks and supporting disaster recovery infrastructure allow staff to recover within the predetermined recovery time objective? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Nondestructive testing - Weld verification:

Nondestructive testing - Weld verification In manufacturing, welds are commonly used to join two or more metal parts https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Nondestructive testing - Weld verification:

Nondestructive testing - Weld verification Welds may be tested using NDT techniques such as industrial radiography or industrial CT scanning using X-rays or gamma rays, ultrasonic testing, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle inspection or via eddy current. In a proper weld, these tests would indicate a lack of cracks in the radiograph, show clear passage of sound through the weld and back, or indicate a clear surface without penetrant captured in cracks. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Nondestructive testing - Weld verification:

Nondestructive testing - Weld verification Welding techniques may also be actively monitored with acoustic emission techniques before production to design the best set of parameters to use to properly join two materials https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Man-in-the-browser - Out-of-band transaction verification:

Man-in-the-browser - Out-of-band transaction verification The downside is that the OOB transaction verification adds to the level of the end-user's frustration with more and slower steps. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Network analyzer (electrical) - Network analyzer verification kits:

Network analyzer (electrical) - Network analyzer verification kits A number of verification kits are available to verify the network analyzer is performing to specification. These typically consist of transmission lines with an air dielectric and attenuators. The Agilent 85055A kit includes a 10 cm airline, stepped impedance airline, 20 dB and 50 dB attenuators with data on the devices measured by the manufacturer and stored on both a floppy disk and USB stick. Older versions of the 85055A have the data stored on tape and floppy disks rather than on USB sticks. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software):

Verification and validation (software) In software project management, software testing, and software engineering, verification and validation (V&V) is the process of checking that a software system meets specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose. It may also be referred to as software quality control. It is normally the responsibility of software testers as part of the software development lifecycle. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Validation checks that the product design satisfies or fits the intended use (high-level checking), i.e., the software meets the user requirements. This is done through dynamic testing and other forms of review. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Verification and validation are not the same thing, although they are often confused. Boehm succinctly expressed the difference between them: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Validation: Are we building the right product? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Verification: Are we building the product right? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions According to the Capability Maturity Model (CMMI-SW v1.1), https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Validation: The process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements. [IEEE-STD-610] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Verification: The process of evaluating software to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. [IEEE-STD-610] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions In other words, validation ensures that the product actually meets the user's needs, and that the specifications were correct in the first place, while verification is ensuring that the product has been built according to the requirements and design specifications. Validation ensures that "you built the right thing". Verification ensures that "you built it right". Validation confirms that the product, as provided, will fulfill its intended use. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Fault – wrong or missing function in the code. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Failure – the manifestation of a fault during execution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Malfunction – according to its specification the system does not meet its specified functionality. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Within the modeling and simulation community, the definitions of validation, verification and accreditation are similar: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Validation is the process of determining the degree to which a model, simulation, or federation of models and simulations, and their associated data are accurate representations of the real world from the perspective of the intended use(s). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Accreditation is the formal certification that a model or simulation is acceptable to be used for a specific purpose. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions:

Verification and validation (software) - Definitions Verification is the process of determining that a computer model, simulation, or federation of models and simulations implementations and their associated data accurately represent the developer's conceptual description and specifications. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Related concepts:

Verification and validation (software) - Related concepts Both verification and validation are related to the concepts of quality and of software quality assurance. By themselves, verification and validation do not guarantee software quality; planning, traceability, configuration management and other aspects of software engineering are required. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Classification of methods:

Verification and validation (software) - Classification of methods In mission-critical systems, where flawless performance is absolutely necessary, formal methods may be used to ensure the correct operation of a system. However, often for non-mission-critical systems, formal methods prove to be very costly and an alternative method of V&V must be sought out. In such cases, syntactic methods are often used. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Test cases:

Verification and validation (software) - Test cases A test case is a tool used in the process. They may be prepared for verification - to determine if the process that was followed to develop the final product is right -, and also for validation - if the product is built according to the requirements of the user. Other methods, such as reviews, may be used early in the life cycle to provide for validation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Independent Verification and Validation:

Verification and validation (software) - Independent Verification and Validation Verification and validation often is carried out by a separate group from the development team. In such cases, the process is called "independent verification and validation", or simply IV&V. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation (software) - Regulatory environment:

Verification and validation (software) - Regulatory environment Verification and validation must meet the compliance requirements of law regulated industries, which is often guided by government agencies or industrial administrative authorities. For instance, the FDA requires software versions and patches to be validated. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Requirement - Verification:

Requirement - Verification All requirements should be verifiable. The most common method is by test. If this is not the case, another verification method should be used instead (e.g. analysis, demonstration or inspection or review of design). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Requirement - Verification:

Requirement - Verification Certain requirements, by their very structure, are not verifiable. These include requirements that say the system must never or always exhibit a particular property. Proper testing of these requirements would require an infinite testing cycle. Such requirements must be rewritten to be verifiable. As stated above all requirements must be verifiable. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Requirement - Verification:

Requirement - Verification Non-functional requirements, which are unverifiable at the software level, must still be kept as a documentation of customer intent https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility Located in the heart of West Virginia's emerging technology sector, NASA's IV&V Program was established in 1993 as part of an Agency-wide strategy to provide the highest achievable levels of safety and cost-effectiveness for mission critical software https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility Today, independent verification and validation (IV&V) is an Agency-level function, delegated from OSMA to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and managed by NASA IV&V https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility NASA's IV&V Program houses approximately 270 employees and leverages the expertise of in-house partners and contractors. Its facilities are located in Fairmont, West Virginia. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Projects:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Projects NASA's IV&V Program is the lead NASA organization for system software IV&V, and is responsible for the management of all system software IV&V efforts within the Agency. NASA's IV&V Program's role is to provide value-added service to the Agency's system software projects, primarily by appropriately performing IV&V on system software based on the cost, size, complexity, life span, risk, and consequences of failure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Projects:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Projects NASA's IV&V Program also provides independent technical assessments of NASA systems and software processes/products to identify developmental and operational risks https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Projects:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Projects Visit our website for a complete list of our current projects. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Educator Resource Center:

Independent Verification and Validation Facility - Educator Resource Center Thanks to a grant with Fairmont State University, the Independent Verification and Validation Program Educator Resource Center (ERC) provides resources and training opportunities for approximately 1,000-2,000 in-service, pre-service, and informal educators in West Virginia annually. The materials and training cover a wide range of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) topics. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software quality control - Verification & Validation:

Software quality control - Verification & Validation Verification and Validation assures that a software system meets a user's needs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software quality control - Verification & Validation:

Software quality control - Verification & Validation Verification: "Are we building the product right". The software should conform to its specification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software quality control - Verification & Validation:

Software quality control - Verification & Validation Validation: "Are we building the right product". The software should do what the user really requires. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software quality control - Verification & Validation:

Software quality control - Verification & Validation Assessment of whether the system is usable in an operational situation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software quality control - Verification and Validation of Methods:

Software quality control - Verification and Validation of Methods Requirements Verification Matrix https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification:

Software verification Software verification is a discipline of software engineering whose goal is to assure that software fully satisfies all the expected requirements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification:

Software verification There are two fundamental approaches to verification: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification:

Software verification Dynamic verification, also known as Test or Experimentation - This is good for finding bugs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification:

Software verification Static verification, also known as Analysis - This is useful for proving correctness of a program although it may result in false positives https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Dynamic verification is performed during the execution of software, and dynamically checks its behaviour; it is commonly known as the Test phase. Verification is a Review Process. Depending on the scope of tests, we can categorize them in three families: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Test in the small: a test that checks a single function or class (Unit test) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Test in the large: a test that checks a group of classes, such as https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Module test (a single module) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Integration test (more than one module) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Non functional test (performance, stress test) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Software verification is often confused with software validation. The difference between verification and validation: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Software verification asks the question, "Are we building the product right?"; that is, does the software conform to its specification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) Software validation asks the question, "Are we building the right product?"; that is, is the software doing what the user really requires. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation):

Software verification - Dynamic verification (Test, experimentation) The aim of software verification is to find the errors introduced by an activity, i.e. check if the product of the activity is as correct as it was at the beginning of the activity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Static verification (Analysis):

Software verification - Static verification (Analysis) Static verification is the process of checking that software meets requirements by doing a physical inspection of it. For example: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Static verification (Analysis):

Software verification - Static verification (Analysis) Software metrics calculation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Software verification - Static verification (Analysis):

Software verification - Static verification (Analysis) Verification by Analysis - The analysis verification method applies to verification by investigation, mathematical calculations, logical evaluation, and calculations using classical textbook methods or accepted general use computer methods. Analysis includes sampling and correlating measured data and observed test results with calculated expected values to establish conformance with requirements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

DO-178B - Verification:

DO-178B - Verification Document outputs made by this process: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

DO-178B - Verification:

DO-178B - Verification Software verification cases and procedures (SVCP) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

DO-178B - Verification:

DO-178B - Verification Review of all requirements, design and code https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

DO-178B - Verification:

DO-178B - Verification Testing of executable object code https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

DO-178B - Verification:

DO-178B - Verification Analysis of all code and traceability from tests and results to all requirements is typically required (depending on software level). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification:

Formal verification In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification:

Formal verification Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification:

Formal verification The verification of these systems is done by providing a formal proof on an abstract mathematical model of the system, the correspondence between the mathematical model and the nature of the system being otherwise known by construction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Approaches to formal verification:

Formal verification - Approaches to formal verification One approach and formation is model checking, which consists of a systematically exhaustive exploration of the mathematical model (this is possible for finite models, but also for some infinite models where infinite sets of states can be effectively represented finitely by using abstraction or taking advantage of symmetry) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Approaches to formal verification:

Formal verification - Approaches to formal verification This approach has the disadvantage that it typically requires the user to understand in detail why the system works correctly, and to convey this information to the verification system, either in the form of an sequence of theorems to be proved or in the form of specifications of system components (e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Approaches to formal verification:

Formal verification - Approaches to formal verification A slightly different (and complementary) approach is program derivation, in which efficient code is produced from functional specifications by a series of correctness-preserving steps. An example of this approach is the Bird-Meertens Formalism, and this approach can be seen as another form of correctness by construction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Formal verification for software:

Formal verification - Formal verification for software Logical inference for the formal verification of software can be further divided into: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Formal verification for software:

Formal verification - Formal verification for software the more traditional 1970s approach in which code is first written in the usual way, and subsequently proven correct in a separate step; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Formal verification for software:

Formal verification - Formal verification for software dependently typed programming, in which the types of functions include (at least part of) those functions' specifications, and type-checking the code establishes its correctness against those specifications. Fully featured dependently typed languages support the first approach as a special case. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Verification and validation:

Formal verification - Verification and validation Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. Validation is the complementary aspect. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Verification and validation:

Formal verification - Verification and validation Validation: "Are we trying to make the right thing?", i.e., is the product specified to the user's actual needs? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Verification and validation:

Formal verification - Verification and validation Verification: "Have we made what we were trying to make?", i.e., does the product conform to the specifications? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Verification and validation:

Formal verification - Verification and validation The verification process consists of static/structural and dynamic/behavioral aspects. E.g., for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). Validation usually can be done only dynamically, i.e., the product is tested by putting it through typical and atypical usages ("Does it satisfactorily meet all use cases?"). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Industry use:

Formal verification - Industry use Important aspects of hardware design are amenable to automated proof methods, making formal verification easier to introduce and more productive. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Formal verification - Industry use:

Formal verification - Industry use As of 2011, several operating systems have been formally verified: NICTA's Secure Embedded L4 microkernel, sold commercially as seL4 by OK Labs; OSEK/VDX based real-time operating system ORIENTAIS by East China Normal University; Green Hills Software's Integrity operating system; and SYSGO's PikeOS. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Build verification test:

Build verification test In software testing, a Build Verification Test (BVT), also known as Build Acceptance Test, is a set of tests run on each new build of a product to verify that the build is testable before the build is released into the hands of the test team. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Build verification test - Scope:

Build verification test - Scope The build acceptance test is generally a short set of tests, which exercises the mainstream functionality of the application software. Any build that fails the build verification test is rejected, and testing continues on the previous build (provided there has been at least one build that has passed the acceptance test). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Build verification test - Purpose:

Build verification test - Purpose Running a BVT before initiating a full test run is important because it lets developers know right away if there is a serious problem with the build, and they save the test team wasted time and frustration by avoiding test of an unstable build. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Security alarm - Enhanced Call Verification:

Security alarm - Enhanced Call Verification Enhanced Call Verification (ECV) helps reduce false dispatches 25–50% while still protecting citizens, and is mandated in several US jurisdictions, although the alarm industry has successfully opposed it in others. ECV requires central station personnel to attempt to verify the alarm activation by making a minimum of two phone calls to two different responsible party telephone numbers before dispatching law enforcement to the scene. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Security alarm - Enhanced Call Verification:

Security alarm - Enhanced Call Verification The first alarm-verification call goes to the location the alarm originated. If contact with a person is not made a second call is placed to a different number. The secondary number, best practices dictate, should be to a telephone that is answered even after hours, preferably a cellular phone of a decision maker authorized to request or bypass emergency response. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Security alarm - Video verification:

Security alarm - Video verification Video verification documents a change in local conditions by using cameras to record video signals or image snapshots. The source images can be sent over a communication link, usually an Internet protocol (IP) network, to the central station where monitors retrieve the images through proprietary software. The information is then relayed to law-enforcement and recorded to an event file, which can later be used as prosecution evidence. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Security alarm - Video verification:

Security alarm - Video verification An example of how this system works is when a passive infrared or other sensor is triggered a designated number of video frames from before and after the event is sent to the central station. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Security alarm - Video verification:

Security alarm - Video verification A second video solution can be incorporated into to a standard panel, which sends the central station an alarm. When a signal is received, a trained monitoring professional accesses the on-site digital video recorder (DVR) through an IP link to determine the cause of the activation. For this type of system, the camera input to the DVR reflects the alarm panel's zones and partitioning, which allows personnel to look for an alarm source in multiple areas. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation:

Verification and validation Verification and Validation are independent procedures that are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose. These are critical components of a quality management system such as ISO 9000. The words "verification" and "validation" are sometimes preceded with "Independent" (or IV&V), indicating that the verification and validation is to be performed by a disinterested third party. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation:

Verification and validation It is sometimes said that validation can be expressed by the query "Are you building the right thing?" and verification by "Are you building it right?" https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation:

Verification and validation In practice, the usage of these terms varies. Sometimes they are even used interchangeably. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation:

Verification and validation The PMBOK guide, an IEEE standard, defines them as follows in its 4th edition: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation:

Verification and validation "Validation. The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification." https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation:

Verification and validation "Verification. The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition. It is often an internal process. Contrast with validation." https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Overview:

Verification and validation - Overview Verification can be in development, scale-up, or production https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Overview:

Verification and validation - Overview Additional validation procedures also include those that are designed specifically to ensure that modifications made to an existing qualified development flow or verification flow will have the effect of producing a product, service, or system (or portion thereof, or set thereof) that meets the initial design requirements, specifications, and regulations; these validations help to keep the flow qualified https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Overview:

Verification and validation - Overview It is sometimes said that validation can be expressed by the query "Are you building the right thing?" and verification by "Are you building it right?". "Building the right thing" refers back to the user's needs, while "building it right" checks that the specifications are correctly implemented by the system. In some contexts, it is required to have written requirements for both as well as formal procedures or protocols for determining compliance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Overview:

Verification and validation - Overview It is entirely possible that a product passes when verified but fails when validated. This can happen when, say, a product is built as per the specifications but the specifications themselves fail to address the user’s needs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Activities:

Verification and validation - Activities Verification of machinery and equipment usually consists of design qualification (DQ), installation qualification (IQ), operational qualification (OQ), and performance qualification (PQ) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Activities:

Verification and validation - Activities Qualification of machinery/equipment is venue dependent, in particular items that are shock sensitive and require balancing or calibration, and re-qualification needs to be conducted once the objects are relocated https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Activities:

Verification and validation - Activities When machinery/equipment qualification is conducted by a standard endorsed third party such as by an ISO standard accredited company for a particular division, the process is called certification. Currently, the coverage of ISO/IEC 15408 certification by an ISO/IEC 27001 accredited organization is limited, the scheme requires a fair amount of efforts to get popularized. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Validation work can generally be categorized by the following functions: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Prospective validation – the missions conducted before new items are released to make sure the characteristics of the interests which are functioning properly and which meet safety standards. Some examples could be legislative rules, guidelines or proposals, methods, theories/hypothesis/models products and services https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Retrospective validation – a process for items that are already in use and distribution or production. The validation is performed against the written specifications or predetermined expectations, based upon their historical data/evidences that are documented/recorded. If any critical data is missing, then the work can not be processed or can only be completed partially. The tasks are considered necessary if: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation prospective validation is missing, inadequate or flawed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation the change of legislative regulations or standards affects the compliance of the items being released to the public or market. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Some of the examples could be validation of: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation ancient scriptures that remain controversial https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation clinical decision rules https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Full-scale validation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Partial validation – often used for research and pilot studies if time is constrained. The most important and significant effects are tested. From an analytical chemistry perspective, those effects are selectivity, accuracy, repeatability, linearity and its range. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Re-validation/Locational or Periodical validation – carried out, for the item of interest that is dismissed, repaired, integrated/coupled, relocated, or after a specified time lapse https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation population profiles and sizes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation out-of-specification] (OOS) investigations, due to the contamination of testing reagents, glasswares, the aging of equipment/devices, or the depreciation of associated assets etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation In GLP accredited laboratories, verification/revalidation will even be conducted very often against the monographs of the Ph.Eur., IP to cater for multinational needs or USP and BP etc to cater for national needs. These laboratories must have method validation as well. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation Concurrent validation – conducted during a routine processing of services, manufacturing or engineering etc. Examples of these could be https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation duplicated sample analysis for a chemical assay https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation triplicated sample analysis for trace impurities at the marginalized levels of detection limit, or/and quantification limit https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation:

Verification and validation - Categories of verification and validation single sample analysis for a chemical assay by a skilled operator with multiplicated online system suitability testings https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation:

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation The most tested attributes in validation tasks may include, but are not limited to https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation:

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation Accuracy and precision https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation:

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation System suitability – In a broad way, it usually includes a test of ruggedness among inter-collaborators, or a test of robustness within an organization However, the U.S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation:

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation their intensive labouring demands and time consumption https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation:

Verification and validation - Aspects of validation To solve this kind of difficulties, some regulatory bodies or compendial methods usually provide the advices on what the circumstances or conditions that the performing of a specified system suitability test should be beared and compulsory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification and validation - Further reading:

Verification and validation - Further reading Majcen, N.; Taylor, P. (2010). Practical examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry 1 (ISBN 978-92-79-12021-3). European Union. p. 217. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Bitcoin protocol - Payment verification:

Bitcoin protocol - Payment verification It is possible to verify Bitcoin payments without running a full network node https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Bitcoin protocol - Payment verification:

Bitcoin protocol - Payment verification Businesses that receive frequent payments will probably still want to run their own nodes for more independent security and quicker verification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Hardware description language - Design verification with HDLs :

Hardware description language - Design verification with HDLs Historically, design verification was a laborious, repetitive loop of writing and running simulation test cases against the design under test. As chip designs have grown larger and more complex, the task of design verification has grown to the point where it now dominates the schedule of a design team. Looking for ways to improve design productivity, the Electronic design automation|EDA industry developed the Property Specification Language. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Hardware description language - Design verification with HDLs :

Hardware description language - Design verification with HDLs In formal verification terms, a property is a factual statement about the expected or assumed behavior of another object https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Hardware description language - Design verification with HDLs :

Hardware description language - Design verification with HDLs The assertions do not model circuit activity, but capture and document the designer's intent in the HDL code. In a simulation environment, the simulator evaluates all specified assertions, reporting the location and severity of any violations. In a synthesis environment, the synthesis tool usually operates with the policy of halting synthesis upon any violation. Assertion-based verification is still in its infancy, but is expected to become an integral part of the HDL design toolset. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Falsifiability - Verificationism:

Falsifiability - Verificationism In the philosophy of science, verificationism (also known as the verifiability theory of meaning) holds that a statement must, in principle, be empirically verifiable in order that it be both meaningful and scientific. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Falsifiability - Verificationism:

Falsifiability - Verificationism This was an essential feature of the logical positivism of the so-called Vienna Circle that included such philosophers as Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, the Berlin philosopher Hans Reichenbach, and the logical empiricism of A.J. Ayer. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Falsifiability - Verificationism:

Falsifiability - Verificationism Popper noticed that the philosophers of the Vienna Circle had mixed two different problems, that of meaning and that of demarcation, and had proposed in verificationism a single solution to both. In opposition to this view, Popper emphasized that there are meaningful theories that are not scientific, and that, accordingly, a criterion of meaningfulness does not coincide with a criterion of demarcation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Falsifiability - Verificationism:

Falsifiability - Verificationism Thus, Popper urged that verifiability be replaced with falsifiability as the criterion of demarcation. On the other hand, he strictly opposed the view that non-falsifiable statements are meaningless or otherwise inherently bad, and noted that falsificationism does not imply it.Logic of Scientific Discovery, section 6, footnote *3 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Voice control - Verification versus identification :

Voice control - Verification versus identification In a sense speaker verification is a 1:1 match where one speaker's voice is matched to one template (also called a voice print or voice model) whereas speaker identification is a 1:N match where the voice is compared against N templates. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Voice control - Verification versus identification :

Voice control - Verification versus identification From a security perspective, identification is different from verification. For example, presenting your passport at border control is a verification process - the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. Conversely, a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Voice control - Verification versus identification :

Voice control - Verification versus identification Speaker verification is usually employed as a gatekeeper in order to provide access to a secure system (e.g.: telephone banking). These systems operate with the user's knowledge and typically requires their cooperation. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion, alert automated systems of speaker changes, check if a user is already enrolled in a system, etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Voice control - Verification versus identification :

Voice control - Verification versus identification In forensic applications, it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of best matches and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication :

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication The largest verified computation ([email protected]) uses verification by replication. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication :

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication The client machine sends identical workunits to multiple computers (at least 2). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication :

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication When not enough results are returned in a reasonable amount of time -- due to machines accidentally turned off, communication breakdowns, etc. -- or the results do not agree -- due to computation errors, cheating by submitting false data without actually doing the work, etc. -- then the client machine sends more identical workunits to other worker machines. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication :

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication Once a minimum quorum (often 2) of the results agree, then the client assumes those results (and other identical results for that workunit) are correct. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication :

Verifiable computing - Verification by replication The client grants credit to all machines that returned the correct results. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Output computation and verification:

Verifiable computing - Output computation and verification In this stage, the worker uses the public information associated with the function F and the input, which are calculated in the previous two phases, to compute an encoded output of the function F on the provided input. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Output computation and verification:

Verifiable computing - Output computation and verification This result is then returned to the client to verify its correctness by computing the actual value of the output by Code|decoding the result returned by the worker using the private information calculated in the previous phases. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verifiable computing - Output computation and verification:

Verifiable computing - Output computation and verification The defined notion of verifiable computation scheme minimizes the interaction between the client and the worker into exactly two messages, where a single message sent from each party to the other party during the different phases of the protocol. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies:

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies When first revealed, Microsoft unveiled a number of features and policies for Xbox One games that placed an emphasis on the console's always-connected design and digital content delivery, which were claimed to bring a number of benefits to both developers and players https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies:

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies Gaming and PC websites expressed concern over the restriction on the resale of used games, and the requirement of online verification every 24 hours for offline games https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies:

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies Xbox Chief Marketing and Strategy Officer Yusuf Mehdi defended the changes, stating that Xbox One was primarily designed with digital distribution in mind, and that the changes to the licensing model on the console would be easier to understand when applied to just digital copies of games https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies:

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies In planning its presentation of the competing PlayStation 4 at the E3 2013 conference, Sony looked at the negative criticism Microsoft received for its Xbox One DRM policies; SCE Worldwide Studios president Shuhei Yoshida stated that the PlayStation 4's DRM policy, which generally allows for used games and sharing, was well established before the unveiling of Xbox One, but called the public reaction a very useful source for how to present details of the console's capabilities https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies:

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies In response to the growing criticism, Microsoft released a statement on June 19 outlining how the policies as originally envisioned would be dropped in favor of a system that works in much the same way as the Xbox 360 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies:

Xone - Initial used games and Internet verification policies In an August 2013 interview with Eurogamer, Microsoft Studio's CEO Phil Spencer stated that their changes on Xbox One are part of a two-way conversation we have with our customers, and a strength on their ability to react to feedback, rather than a negative https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Barcodes - Quality control and verification:

Barcodes - Quality control and verification *Minimum Edge Contrast https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Beta testing - Software verification and validation:

Beta testing - Software verification and validation * Verification: Have we built the software right? (i.e., does it implement the requirements). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Beta testing - Software verification and validation:

Beta testing - Software verification and validation * Validation: Have we built the right software? (i.e., do the requirements satisfy the customer). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Beta testing - Software verification and validation:

Beta testing - Software verification and validation : Verification is the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Beta testing - Software verification and validation:

Beta testing - Software verification and validation : Validation is the process of evaluating a system or component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Beta testing - Software verification and validation:

Beta testing - Software verification and validation : Verification is confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Beta testing - Software verification and validation:

Beta testing - Software verification and validation : Validation is confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification :

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification * Functional verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification :

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification * Clock Domain Crossing Verification (CDC check): Similar to Lint programming tool|linting, but these checks/tools specialize in detecting and reporting potential issues like data loss, Metastability in electronics|meta-stability due to use of multiple clock domains in the design. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification :

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification * Formal verification, also model checking: Attempts to prove, by mathematical methods, that the system has certain desired properties, and that certain undesired effects (such as deadlock) cannot occur. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification :

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification * Formal equivalence checking|Equivalence checking: algorithmic comparison between a chip's RTL-description and synthesized gate-netlist, to ensure functional equivalence at the logical level. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification :

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification * Static timing analysis: Analysis of the timing of a circuit in an input-independent manner, hence finding a worst case over all possible inputs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification :

Electronic design automation - Analysis and verification * Physical verification, PV: checking if a design is physically manufacturable, and that the resulting chips will not have any function-preventing physical defects, and will meet original specifications. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Phishing - Transaction verification and signing:

Phishing - Transaction verification and signing Solutions have also emerged using the mobile phone[http://www.safesigner.com Using the smartphone to verify and sign online banking transactions], SafeSigner. (smartphone) as a second channel for verification and authorization of banking transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

V-Model - Systems Engineering and verification :

V-Model - Systems Engineering and verification It involved early and comprehensive identification of goals, a concept of operations that describes user needs and the operating environment, thorough and testable system requirements, detailed design, implementation, rigorous acceptance testing of the implemented system to ensure it meets the stated requirements (system verification), measuring its effectiveness in addressing goals (system validation), on-going operation and maintenance, system upgrades over time, and eventual retirement. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

V-Model - Systems Engineering and verification :

V-Model - Systems Engineering and verification The process emphasizes requirements-driven design and testing. All design elements and acceptance tests must be traceable to one or more system requirements and every requirement must be addressed by at least one design element and acceptance test. Such rigor ensures nothing is done unnecessarily and everything that is necessary is accomplished. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Neurolinguistics - Probe verification:

Neurolinguistics - Probe verification Some studies use a probe verification task rather than an overt acceptability judgment; in this paradigm, each experimental sentence is followed by a probe word, and subjects must answer whether or not the probe word had appeared in the sentence https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification In his 1997 interview with Charles Platt, Podkletnov insisted that his gravity-shielding work was reproduced by researchers at universities in Toronto and Sheffield, but none have come forward to acknowledge this https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification A group at NASA in Huntsville did not finish their attempts to verify Podkletnov's original gravity shielding experiment. Two attempts were made to repeat the superconductor rotation experiment, one in-house and one through an SBIR. In both cases, large superconductor disks were fabricated. However, in both cases, the funding did not allow for the development of the rotation system needed for the completion of the test. No attempt has been made by NASA to repeat the second impulse experiment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification In a BBC news item, it was alleged that researchers at Boeing were funding a project called GRASP (Gravity Research for Advanced Space Propulsion) which would attempt to construct a gravity shielding device, but a subsequent Popular Mechanics news item stated that Boeing had denied funding GRASP with company money, although Boeing acknowledged that it could not comment on black projects.[http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/research/1282281.html?page=3 Science Does The Impossible: February 2003 Cover Story - Popular Mechanics] A possible solution of this contradiction has been suggested: it is alleged that the GRASP proposal was presented to Boeing, but that Boeing chose not to fund it.[http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/technology/gravity_research_020731.html Gravity Shielding Still Science Fiction, Boeing Says] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification In 2013 an experiment was proposed that uses recent advances in HTSC materials ie MgB2 disks to attempt to duplicate the effect. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification The proposed experiment would layer MgB2 and YBa2Cu3O7 (Type 1 and Type 2) superconductors which has never been attempted before, and as such there would be a junction between different mechanisms of superconductivity. [http://benthamscience.com/ebooks/Sample/9781608053995-sample.pdf High Temperature Superconductors as Quantum Sources of Gravitational Waves: The HTSC GASER. Chapter 3 of book Gravity-Superconductors Interactions: Theory and Experiment, Bentham Science Publishers] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification Such a junction formed by accident could explain the difficulties NASA and others had in duplicating the experiment as without this the gravitational tunnel junction or GTD would not function. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification In December 2013 it was reported that CERN would be attempting to prove the existence of antigravity from antimatter due to CP violation. If this interpretation is correct then the Podkletnov effect mechanism would in fact be positron trapping within domain walls in the lattice so the proposed Y123/MgB2/Y123 layering would allow anti-Cooper pairs to form and remain stable for hours at a time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification:

Eugene Podkletnov - Attempted verification One experiment which might work would be to use a positron source such as Tc99m near the disk and thus charge up the assembly, this would permit long term study to be carried out. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2):

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2) This verification step is a protective measure to ensure that a T cell is responding to a foreign antigen https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2):

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2) The second signal involves an interaction between CD28 on the CD4+ T cell and the proteins CD80 (B7.1) or CD86 (B7.2) on the professional APCs. Both CD80 and CD86 activate the CD28 receptor. These proteins are also known as Co-stimulation|co-stimulatory molecules. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2):

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2) Although the verification stage is necessary for the activation of naïve helper T cells, the importance of this stage is best demonstrated during the similar activation mechanism of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2):

T helper cell - Verification (Signal 2) Once the naïve T cell has both pathways activated, the biochemical changes induced by Signal 1 are altered, allowing the cell to activate instead of anergise. The second signal is then obsolete; only the first signal is necessary for future activation. This is also true for memory T cells, which is one example of acquired immunity|learned immunity. Faster responses occur upon reinfection because memory T cells have already undergone confirmation and can produce effector cells much sooner. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based models - Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based models - Verification and validation of ABMs Verification and validation can be seen in the social sciences domain, and validation seen in Computational Economics Face validation, sensitivity analysis, calibration and statistical validation have also been demonstrated https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based models - Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based models - Verification and validation of ABMs also provide an example of using VOMAS for Verification and Validation of a Forest Fire simulation model. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Agent-based models - Verification and validation of ABMs:

Agent-based models - Verification and validation of ABMs Details of Validated agent-based modeling using VOMAS along with several case studies are given in. PhD Thesis This thesis also gives details of Exploratory Agent-based Modeling, Descriptive Agent-based Modeling in addition to Validated Agent-based Modeling using several worked case study examples. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Rainforest Alliance - Carbon offset verification :

Rainforest Alliance - Carbon offset verification The organization verifies carbon offset projects to standards that address greenhouse gas sequestration, biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihoods. The Rainforest Alliance verifies projects to the standards of the Climate, Community Biodiversity Alliance,[http://www.climate-standards.org/] Chicago Climate Exchange and Plan Vivo.[http://www.planvivo.org/] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Pasteurization - Verification:

Pasteurization - Verification Direct microbiological techniques are the ultimate measurement of pathogen contamination but these are costly and time consuming (24-48 hours), which means that products are able to spoil by the time pasteurisation is verified. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Pasteurization - Verification:

Pasteurization - Verification As a result of the unsuitability of microbiological techniques, milk pasteurization efficacy is typically monitored by checking for the presence of alkaline phosphatase, which is denatured by pasteurisation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Pasteurization - Verification:

Pasteurization - Verification Phosphatase denaturation was originally monitored using a phenol-phosphate substrate. When hydrolysed by the enzyme these compounds liberate phenols, which were then reacted with dibromoquinonechlorimide to give a colour change, which was measured by checking absorption at 610 nm (spectrophotometry). Some of the phenols used were inherently coloured (phenolpthalein, nitrophenol) and were simply assayed unreacted. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Pasteurization - Verification:

Pasteurization - Verification Spectophotometric analysis is satisfactory but it is relatively low accuracy because many natural products are coloured. As a result of this, modern systems (since 1990) use Fluorometer|fluorometry which is able to detect much lower levels of raw milk contamination. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Cryptographic hash function - Password verification:

Cryptographic hash function - Password verification A related application is password verification (first invented by Roger Needham) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Cryptographic hash function - Password verification:

Cryptographic hash function - Password verification In 2013 a long-term competition was announced to choose a new, standard algorithm for password hashing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

SystemVerilog - Verification and synthesis software:

SystemVerilog - Verification and synthesis software Many third-party providers have announced or already released SystemVerilog verification IP. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

SystemVerilog - Verification and synthesis software:

SystemVerilog - Verification and synthesis software In the design synthesis role (transformation of a hardware-design description into a gate-netlist), SystemVerilog adoption has been slow. Many design teams use design flows which involve multiple tools from different vendors. Most design teams cannot migrate to SystemVerilog RTL-design until their entire front-end tool suite (linters, formal verification and automated test structure generators) support a common language subset. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures * Are all work processes for critical functions documented? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures * Have the systems used for critical functions changed? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures * Are the documented work checklists meaningful and accurate? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures:

Business impact analysis - Testing and verification of recovery procedures * Do the documented work process recovery tasks and supporting disaster recovery infrastructure allow staff to recover within the predetermined recovery time objective? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Quirks mode - Mode verification:

Quirks mode - Mode verification In most browsers, the Document Object Model extension document.compatMode indicates the rendering mode for the current page. In standards mode and almost-standards mode, document.compatMode contains the value CSS1Compat, while in quirks mode it equals BackCompat. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Quirks mode - Mode verification:

Quirks mode - Mode verification Additionally, in Mozilla Firefox and Opera (web browser)|Opera the rendering mode in use for a given page is indicated on the 'Page info' informational box. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

CETO Wave Power - Commercial demonstration and independent verification of results :

CETO Wave Power - Commercial demonstration and independent verification of results On completion of Stage 1 of the Perth Wave Energy Project, Carnegie enlisted Frazer-Nash Consultancy Ltd to verify the CETO 3 unit's measured and modelled capacity. During the CETO 3 in-ocean trial, Frazer–Nash verified the peak measured capacity to be 78 kW and delivered a sustained pressure of 77 bar, above what is required for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification:

Self-verification 'Self-verification' is a social psychology|social psychological theory that asserts people want to be known and understood by others according to their firmly held beliefs and feelings about themselves, that is self-views (including self-concepts and self-esteem). A competing theory to self-verification is self-enhancement or the drive for positive evaluations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification:

Self-verification Self-verification processes are also adaptive for groups, groups of diverse backgrounds and the larger society, in that they make people predictable to one another thus serve to facilitate social interaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification:

Self-verification Developed by William Swann (1983), the theory grew out of earlier writings which held that people form self-views so that they can understand and predict the responses of others and know how to act toward them.Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views:

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views There are individual differences in people's views of themselves. Among people with positive self-views, the desire for self-verification works together with another important motive, the desire for positive evaluations or self enhancement.Jones, 1973 For example, those who view themselves as insightful will find that their motives for both self-verification and self-enhancement encourage them to seek evidence that other people recognize their insightfulness. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views:

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views Self-verification strivings tend to prevail over self-enhancement strivings when people are certain of the self-conceptPelham Swann, 1994 and when they have extremely depressive self-views.Giesler, Josephs, Swann, 1996 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views:

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views For example, self-verification strivings may cause people with negative self-views to interpersonal attraction|gravitate toward partners who mistreat them, undermine their feelings of self-worth, or even abuse them https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views:

Self-verification - Difference between positive and negative self-views These findings and related ones point to the importance of efforts to improve the self-views of those who suffer from low self-esteem and depression.Swann, Chang-Schneider McClarty, 2007 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior The latter finding revealed that self-verification strivings may sometimes trump positivity strivings.Robinson Smith-Lovin, 1992; Swann, Stein-Seroussi, Giesler, 1992; see Swann, Chang-Schneider, Angulo, in press, for a review https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior Self-verification motives operate for different dimensions of the self-concept and in many different situations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior Self-verification theory suggests that people may begin to shape others' evaluations of them before they even begin interacting with them. They may, for example, display identity cues (see: impression management). The most effective identity cues enable people to signal who they are to potential interaction partners. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior * Physical appearance, such as clothes, body posture, demeanor.e.g., Pratt Rafaeli, 1997 For example, the low self-esteem person who evokes reactions that confirm her negative self-views by slumping her shoulders and keeping her eyes fixed on the ground. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior * Other cues, such as the car someone buys, the house they live in, the way they decorate their living environment. For example, an Sport utility vehicle|SUV evokes reactions that confirm a person's positive self-view. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior Self-verification strivings may also influence the social contexts that people enter into and remain in https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior When people fail to gain self-verifying reactions through the display of identity cue or through choosing self-verifying social environments, they may still acquire such evaluations by systematically evoking confirming reactions. For example, depressed people behave in negative ways toward their room mates, thus causing these room mates to reject them.Swann, Wenzlaff, Krull, Pelham, 1992 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Effects on behavior:

Self-verification - Effects on behavior Self-verification theory predicts that when people interact with others, there is a general tendency for them to bring others to see them as they see themselves https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias:

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias There are at least three relevant aspects of information processing in self-verification: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias:

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias #Attention: People will attend to evaluations that are self-confirming while ignoring non-confirming evaluations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias:

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias #Interpretation of information: people tend to interpret information in ways that reinforce their self-views.Shrauger Lund, 1975 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias:

Self-verification - Role of confirmation bias Failing this, they may strive to see more self-verification than actually exists https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Preference for novelty:

Self-verification - Preference for novelty People seem to prefer modest levels of novelty; they want to experience phenomena that are unfamiliar enough to be interesting, but not so unfamiliar as to be frightening or too familiar as to be boring.e.g., Berlyne, 1971 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Preference for novelty:

Self-verification - Preference for novelty The implications of people's preference for novelty for interpersonal relationship|human relationships are not straightforward and obvious https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Tension with self-enhancement:

Self-verification - Tension with self-enhancement In addition, self-reported emotional reactions favor self-enhancement while more thoughtful processes favor self-verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Tension with self-enhancement:

Self-verification - Tension with self-enhancement If researchers want to learn if people prefer verification or positivity in a giving setting, they must study people with negative self-views.For a review, see Swann et al., in press https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Self-concept change:

Self-verification - Self-concept change Although self-verification strivings tend to stabilize people's self-views, changes in self-views may still occur https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Self-concept change:

Self-verification - Self-concept change Alternatively, people may themselves conclude that a given self-view is dysfunctional or obsolete and take steps to change it https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Criticism:

Self-verification - Criticism Second, self-verification strivings are not limited to people with globally negative self-views; even people with high self-esteem seek negative evaluations about their flaws.Swann, Pelham Krull, 1989 Finally, even people with positive self-views appear to be uncomfortable with overly positive evaluations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Criticism:

Self-verification - Criticism Other critics have suggested that when people with negative self-views seek unfavorable evaluations, they do so as a means of avoiding truly negative evaluations or for purposes of self-improvement, with the idea being that this will enable them to obtain positive evaluations down the road https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-verification - Criticism:

Self-verification - Criticism Recent criticism challenges the notion of a motive to self-verify. Raison oblige theory|Raison Oblige Theory putatively accounts for all examples of self-verifying behavior and offers an alternate explanation of why people appear to verify their self view. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Internet fraud - Car export companies verification:

Internet fraud - Car export companies verification Whilst the vast majority of websites in Japan are of genuine business companies, but it is also a fact that online scams and fraud are alive, well and very big business in Japan. It is very important for foreign importers to verify each company and do not send money until full satisfaction. Verification of each Japanese companies under Japan Company Trust Organization can also be helpful. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

EFTPOS - Cardholder verification:

EFTPOS - Cardholder verification At ATMs, only PIN verification is available, and all new credit cards are now issued with PINs regardless of whether or not they have a chip https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

EFTPOS - Cardholder verification:

EFTPOS - Cardholder verification For some merchants, transactions below a specific threshold value can be approved without authentication (either signature or PIN). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

EFTPOS - Cardholder verification:

EFTPOS - Cardholder verification The third digit is used to indicate the preferred card verification method (e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speech verification:

Speech verification 'Speech verification' uses speech recognition to verify the correctness of the pronounced speech. Speech verification doesn't try to decode unknown speech from a huge search space, but instead, knowing the expected speech to be pronounced, it attempts to verify the correctness of the utterance's pronunciation, cadence, pitch, and stress. Pronunciation assessment is the main application of this technology which is sometimes called computer-aided pronunciation teaching. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Carbon Trust - Carbon Footprinting, Verification and Carbon Trust Standard:

Carbon Trust - Carbon Footprinting, Verification and Carbon Trust Standard The Carbon Trust provides voluntary carbon certification services and carbon labelling schemes – it verifies organisation and product carbon footprint data and provides marks of quality to organisations to demonstrate standards have been met. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Carbon Trust - Carbon Footprinting, Verification and Carbon Trust Standard:

Carbon Trust - Carbon Footprinting, Verification and Carbon Trust Standard From February 2013 the Carbon Trust introduced the water standard to go alongside its carbon standard. In November 2013 it announced the launch of the world’s first international standard for organisational waste reduction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Intelligent speed adaptation - Speed and location determining/ verification technology :

Intelligent speed adaptation - Speed and location determining/ verification technology There are four types of technology currently available for determining local speed limits on a road and determining the speed of the vehicle. These are: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction A theoretical work in published in 1967 by Soviet physicist Victor Veselago showed that a refractive index with negative values is possible and that this does not violate the laws of physics. As discussed previously (above), the first metamaterial had a range of frequencies over which the refractive index was predicted to be negative for one direction of wave propagation|propagation. It was reported in May 2000. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction In 2001, a team of researchers constructed a prism composed of metamaterials (negative index metamaterials) to experimentally test for negative refractive index. The experiment used a waveguide to help transmit the proper frequency and isolate the material. This test achieved its goal because it successfully verified a negative index of refraction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction The experimental demonstration of negative refractive index was followed by another demonstration, in 2003, of a reversal of Snell's law, or reversed refraction. However, in this experiment negative index of refraction material is in free space from 12.6 to 13.2GHz. Although the radiated frequency range is about the same, a notable distinction is this experiment is conducted in free space rather than employing waveguides. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction Furthering the authenticity of negative refraction, the power flow of a wave transmitted through a dispersive left-handed material was calculated and compared to a dispersive right-handed material. The transmission of an incident field, composed of many frequencies, from an isotropic nondispersive material into an isotropic dispersive media is employed. The direction of power flow for both nondispersive and dispersive media is determined by the time-averaged https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction Poynting vector. Negative refraction was shown to be possible for multiple frequency signals by explicit calculation of the Poynting vector in the LHM. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation Besides reversed values for index of refraction, Veselago predicted the occurrence of reversed Cherenkov radiation (also known simply as CR) in a left-handed medium https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation CR and the 1937 theory has led to a large array of applications in high energy physics https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation:

Negative index of refraction - Experimental verification of reversed Cherenkov radiation It has been difficult to experimentally prove the reversed Cherenkov radiation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Jeanne Calment - Verification :

Jeanne Calment - Verification Exceeding any other longevity case reported, Calment establishes the record as the most-verifiable supercentenarian ever recorded. Beginning with the 1876 census (Calment is listed as a one-year old), she was indexed within fourteen census documents until 1975 (conducted sometime after she celebrated her 100th birthday). She was still managing independently at the time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Toad Data Modeler - Verification:

Toad Data Modeler - Verification Models can be verified and list of errors, warnings and hints can be displayed as a result of model verification process. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Conventional Forces in Europe - Verification:

Conventional Forces in Europe - Verification The treaty included unprecedented provisions for detailed information exchanges, on-site inspections, challenge inspections, and on-site monitoring of destruction. Treaty parties received an unlimited right to monitor the process of destruction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification:

Speaker verification 'Speaker recognition' is the identification of the person who is speaking by characteristics of their human voice|voices (voice biometrics), also called 'voice recognition'. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification:

Speaker verification In addition, there is a difference between the act of authentication (commonly referred to as 'speaker verification' or 'speaker authentication') and identification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification:

Speaker verification Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades and uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. These acoustic patterns reflect both Human anatomy|anatomy (e.g., size and shape of the throat and Human mouth|mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e.g., voice pitch, speaking style). Speaker verification has earned speaker recognition its classification as a behavioral biometric. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Verification versus identification :

Speaker verification - Verification versus identification From a security perspective, identification is different from verification. For example, presenting your passport at border control is a verification process: the agent compares your face to the picture in the document. Conversely, a police officer comparing a sketch of an assailant against a database of previously documented criminals to find the closest match(es) is an identification process. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Verification versus identification :

Speaker verification - Verification versus identification Speaker verification is usually employed as a gatekeeper in order to provide access to a secure system (e.g. telephone banking). These systems operate with the users' knowledge and typically require their cooperation. Speaker identification systems can also be implemented covertly without the user's knowledge to identify talkers in a discussion, alert automated systems of speaker changes, check if a user is already enrolled in a system, etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition:

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition Because of the process involved, verification is faster than identification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition:

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition If the text must be the same for enrollment and verification this is called text-dependent recognition. In a text-dependent system, prompts can either be common across all speakers (e.g.: a common pass phrase) or unique. In addition, the use of shared-secrets (e.g.: passwords and PINs) or knowledge-based information can be employed in order to create a multi-factor authentication scenario. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition:

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition As text-independent technologies do not compare what was said at enrollment and verification, verification applications tend to also employ speech recognition to determine what the user is saying at the point of authentication. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition:

Speaker verification - Variants of speaker recognition In text independent systems both acoustics and speech analysis techniques are used. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Technology:

Speaker verification - Technology The various technologies used to process and store voice prints include frequency estimation, hidden Markov models, Gaussian mixture models, pattern matching algorithms, neural networks, matrix representation,Vector Quantization and Decision_tree_learning|decision trees. Some systems also use anti-speaker techniques, such as cohort models, and world models. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Technology:

Speaker verification - Technology Some systems adapt the speaker models after each successful verification to capture such long-term changes in the voice, though there is debate regarding the overall security impact imposed by automated adaptation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Technology:

Speaker verification - Technology Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. The technology traditionally uses existing microphones and voice transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wired or wireless). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Speaker verification - Technology:

Speaker verification - Technology Digitally recorded audio voice identification and analogue recorded voice identification uses electronic measurements as well as critical listening skills that must be applied by a forensic expert in order for the identification to be accurate. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Wikileaks - Verification of submissions:

Wikileaks - Verification of submissions WikiLeaks states that it has never released a misattributed document and that documents are assessed before release https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Wikileaks - Verification of submissions:

Wikileaks - Verification of submissions According to statements by Assange in 2010, submitted documents are vetted by a group of five reviewers, with expertise in different topics such as language or Computer programming|programming, who also investigate the background of the leaker if his or her identity is known. In that group, Assange has the final decision about the assessment of a document. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Requirements - Verification :

Requirements - Verification Non-functional requirements, which are unverifiable at the software level, must still be kept as a documentation of customer intent https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Antispam - SMTP callback verification:

Antispam - SMTP callback verification Since a large percentage of spam has forged and invalid sender (from) addresses, some spam can be detected by checking that this from address is valid. A mail server can try to verify the sender address by making an SMTP connection back to the mail exchanger for the address, as if it was creating a bounce, but stopping just before any email is sent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Antispam - SMTP callback verification:

Antispam - SMTP callback verification One of the ways of reducing the load on innocent servers is to use other spam detection methods first and save callback verification for last. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Circuit design - Verification and testing :

Circuit design - Verification and testing Verification is the process of going through each stage of a design and ensuring that it will do what the specification requires it to do https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Circuit design - Verification and testing :

Circuit design - Verification and testing Testing is the real-world counterpart to verification, testing involves physically building at least a prototype of the design and then (in combination with the test procedures in the specification or added to it) checking the circuit really does do what it was designed to. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification :

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification There is no official complete register of blocked sites. Blocked content includes: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification :

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification * Court orders (mainly for copyright issues) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification :

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification * Unilateral blocking (some websites have been reported as being blocked without any known court order on the sole initiative of certain ISPs) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification :

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification * Gambling regulations (Belgian gambling laws requires a Gambling business to have a local physical gambling point and proper license in order to provide online gambling) Official Law Text, 10 January 2010 : http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=frla=Ftable_name=loicn=2010011012 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification :

Websites blocked in Belgium - Verification The only reported technique used by Belgian ISPs to block such websites is DNS hijacking|DNS Hijacking where requests toward the blocked websites would be redirected to a government owned web page: the StopPage.Official Belgian Government Stop Page http://193.191.245.56/Future of Copyright, Article Belgian Court of Appeal prefers DNS blocking over IP blocking , 30 November 2011 : http://www.futureofcopyright.com/home/blog-post/2011/11/30/belgian-court-of-appeal-prefers-dns-blocking-over-ip-blocking.html https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Fault-tolerant computer system - Fault tolerance verification and validation:

Fault-tolerant computer system - Fault tolerance verification and validation The most important requirement of design in a Fault-tolerant design|fault tolerant computer system is making sure it actually meets its requirements for reliability https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

DreamSpark - Verification:

DreamSpark - Verification Proof of student status is required to download software and obtain product keys. On the DreamSpark website, students can verify their identity using ISIC cards, access codes ordered by school administrators, or .edu email addresses. Students remain verified for 12 months afterwards. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification Sites are blocked using various methods across the Big 5 UK Internet Service Provider|ISPs,[https://wiki.openrightsgroup.org/wiki/Big_5_ISPs Big 5 ISPs], Open Rights Group Wiki, 28 July 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013. making it difficult to ascertain whether a site is 'blocked' or not. There is no official register of blocked sites, nationally blocked content includes: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification * Cleanfeed (content blocking system)#United Kingdom|Cleanfeed, a system from the Internet Watch Foundation developed to block child pornography https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification * Content-control software|ISP content categorization data on mobile networks and ISP Default Filters https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification * Blacklist (computing)|Blacklists focused against malware and technical threats. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification * Court orders for ISPs with over 400,000 subscribers, as per the Digital Economy Act 2010|Digital Economy Act. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification Of these, only court ordered related site blocks to larger ISPs with 96.5%[http://www.thinkbroadband.com/factsheet/broadband-factsheet-q3-2013.pdf UK Broadband Factsheet Q3 2013 - Page 3], ThinkBroadband, page 3. Retrieved 23 November 2013. of the UK residential market can be cited from publicly available sources. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification The technical measures used to block sites include DNS hijacking, DNS blocking, IP address blocking, and Deep packet inspection, making consistent detection problematic. One known method is ISP Data scraping|scraping DNS of domains subject to blocking orders to produce a list of IPs to block. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification :

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom - Verification The Open Rights Group has proposed adding the new HTTP status code '451' to help streamline and add transparency to the process of determining when a site is blocked.[http://www.451unavailable.org/ 451 unavailable - Site blocked for legal reasons], Open Rights Group https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process:

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process Google allows users to use a two-step verification process. To access a Google service using the two-step verification process, a user has to go through the following two stages: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process:

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process *The first step is to log in using the username and password. This is an application of the knowledge factor. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process:

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process *The implementation of the second step requires a mobile phone or the Google Authenticator application, which is an application of the knowledge factor https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process:

Two-factor authentication - Google's two-step verification process If the user opts to use the Google Authenticator (or another supported code generator application),https://support.google.com/accounts/answer/180744?hl=en he/she simply opens the application, which generates a new code every 30 seconds https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Two-factor authentication - Other sites offering two-step verification service:

Two-factor authentication - Other sites offering two-step verification service * Buffer (application)|Buffer https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Two-factor authentication - Other sites offering two-step verification service:

Two-factor authentication - Other sites offering two-step verification service * Dashlanehttps://www.dashlane.com/security https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Cryptographic hash functions - Password verification:

Cryptographic hash functions - Password verification In 2013 a long-term Password Hashing Competition was announced to choose a new, standard algorithm for password hashing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Trusted Computing - Verification of remote computation for grid computing:

Trusted Computing - Verification of remote computation for grid computing Trusted Computing could be used to guarantee participants in a grid computing system are returning the results of the computations they claim to be instead of forging them. This would allow large scale simulations to be run (say a climate simulation) without expensive redundant computations to guarantee malicious hosts are not undermining the results to achieve the conclusion they want. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Logic simulation - Use in verification and validation:

Logic simulation - Use in verification and validation Logic simulation may be used as part of the Verification and validation|verification process in designing hardware. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Logic simulation - Use in verification and validation:

Logic simulation - Use in verification and validation Simulations have the advantage of providing a familiar look and feel to the user in that it is constructed from the same language and symbols used in design. By allowing the user to interact directly with the design, simulation is a natural way for the designer to get feedback on their design. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory:

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory:

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory Two considerations are thought to drive the search for self-verifying feedback:Swann, W. B., Jr., Stein-Seroussi, A., Giesler, R. B. (1992). Why people self-verify. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62,392-401 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory:

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory * We feel more comfortable and secure when we believe that others see us in the same way that we see ourselves. Actively seeking self-verifying feedback helps people avoid finding out that they are wrong about their self-views. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory:

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory * Self-verification theory assumes that social interactions will proceed more smoothly and profitably when other people view us the same way as we view ourselves. This provides a second reason to selectively seek self-verifying feedback. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory:

Self-knowledge (psychology) - Self-verification theory These factors of self-verification theory create controversy when persons suffering from low-self-esteem are taken into consideration. People who hold negative self-views about themselves selectively seek negative feedback in order to verify their self-views. This is in stark contrast to self-enhancement motives that suggest people are driven by the desire to feel good about themselves. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Logical positivism - Verification:

Logical positivism - Verification The logical positivists' initial stance was that a statement is cognitively meaningful only if some finite procedure conclusively determines its truth.For a classic survey of other versions of verificationism, see Carl G Hempel, Problems and changes in the empiricist criterion of meaning, Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 1950;'41':41-63 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Logical positivism - Verification:

Logical positivism - Verification Ethics and aesthetics were subjective preferences, while theology and other metaphysics contained pseudostatements, neither true nor false https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Logical positivism - Weak verification:

Logical positivism - Weak verification Thus, all are open to weak verification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value:

Card Verification Value A 'card security code' (CSC), sometimes called 'card verification data' (CVD), 'card verification number' (CVN), 'card verification value' (CVV or CVV2), 'card verification value code' (CVVC), 'card verification code' (CVC or CVC2), 'verification code' ('V-code' or 'V code'), 'card code verification' (CCV), or 'signature panel code' (SPC) are different terms for a security feature for Card not present transaction|card not present payment card transactions against credit card fraud. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value:

Card Verification Value The CSC is in addition to the bank card number which is embossed or printed on the card. The CSC is also in addition to the Personal identification number|PIN or passwords associated with the card. The PIN is not printed or embedded on the card but is manually entered by the cardholder during a point-of-sale (card present) transaction. Contactless payment|Contactless card and chip cards may electronically generate their own code, such as iCVV or Dynamic CVV. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value:

Card Verification Value MasterCard started issuing CSCs in 1997 and Visa in the United States issued them by 2001. American Express started to use the CSC in 1999 in response to growing internet transactions and card member complaints of spending interruptions when the security of a card has been brought into question. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Description:

Card Verification Value - Description * VISA (credit card)|Visa – card verification value (CVV2) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Description:

Card Verification Value - Description * Discover Card|Discover – card identification number (CID) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Description:

Card Verification Value - Description * American Express – CID or unique card code https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Description:

Card Verification Value - Description * Debit Card – CSC or card security code https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Types of codes:

Card Verification Value - Types of codes There are several types of security codes: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Types of codes:

Card Verification Value - Types of codes * The first code, called CVC1 or CVV1, is encoded on track-2 of the magnetic stripe of the card and used for card present transactions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Types of codes:

Card Verification Value - Types of codes * The second code, and the most cited, is CVV2 or CVC2. This code is often sought by merchants for card not present transactions occurring by mail or fax or over the telephone or Internet. In some countries in Western Europe, card issuers require a merchant to obtain the code when the cardholder is not present in person. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Location of code:

Card Verification Value - Location of code The second type of CSC is a three- or four-digit value printed on the front of the card or on the signature strip on the back. It is not encoded on the magnetic stripe but is printed flat, not embossed like the card number. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Location of code:

Card Verification Value - Location of code * American Express cards have a four-digit code printed on the front side of the card above the number. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Location of code:

Card Verification Value - Location of code * MasterCard, Visa, Diners Club, Discover, and Japan Credit Bureau|JCB credit and debit cards have a three-digit card security code. The code is the final group of numbers printed on the back signature panel of the card. New North American MasterCard and Visa cards feature the code in a separate panel to the right of the signature strip. This has been done to prevent overwriting of the numbers by signing thecard. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Security benefits:

Card Verification Value - Security benefits As a security measure, merchants who require the CVV2 for card not present payment card transactions are required by the card issuer not to store the CVV2 once the individual transaction is authorized and completed https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Security benefits:

Card Verification Value - Security benefits The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) also prohibits the storage of CSC (and other sensitive authorisation data) post transaction authorisation. This applies globally to anyone who stores, processes or transmits card holder data. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Security benefits:

Card Verification Value - Security benefits Since the CSC is not contained on the magnetic stripe of the card, it is not typically included in the transaction when the card is used face to face at a merchant https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Security benefits:

Card Verification Value - Security benefits Supplying the CSC code in a transaction is intended to verify that the customer has the card in their possession. Knowledge of the code proves that the customer has seen the card, or has seen a record made by somebody who saw the card. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Limitations:

Card Verification Value - Limitations * The use of the CSC cannot protect against phishing scams, where the cardholder is tricked into entering the CSC among other card details via a fraudulent website https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Limitations:

Card Verification Value - Limitations * Since the CSC may not be stored by the merchant for any length of time (after the original transaction in which the CSC was quoted and then authorized and completed), a merchant who needs to regularly bill a card for a regular subscription would not be able to provide the code after the initial transaction. Payment gateways, however, have responded by adding periodic bill features as part of the authorization process. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Limitations:

Card Verification Value - Limitations * Some card issuers do not use the CSC. However, transactions without CSC are likely to be subjected to higher card processing cost to the merchants, and fraudulent transactions without CSC are more likely to be resolved in favour of the cardholder. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Limitations:

Card Verification Value - Limitations * It is not mandatory for a merchant to require the security code for making a transaction, hence the card is still prone to fraud even if only its number is known to phishers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Card Verification Value - Generation of CSC:

Card Verification Value - Generation of CSC The CSC for each card (form 1 and 2) is generated by the card issuer when the card is issued. It is calculated by encrypting the bank card number, expiration date and service code with encryption keys known only to the card issuer, and decimalising the result. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates It is not mandatory to get a verification agency to audit a BEE Scorecard. It is however a requirement to have suitable documentation/evidence to score any points. SANAS (South African National Accreditation System) and IRBA (Independent Regulatory Body for Auditor) has been mandated with accrediting the Verification Agencies. This accreditation has been put in place to ensure the consistency of the independent verification of B-BBEE contributions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates BEE Certificates can be issued by any Verification Agency so long as they are approved to do so by SANAS or IRBA. Accounting officers registered in term of the Close corporation act of 1984 can also issue the BBBEE certificates for EMEs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates The Certificate can only be issued once a full verification has been performed and the documentation presented by your company has been verified. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates On the certificate, the following information should be listed: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates *Type of Certificate (Group/Entity/Division) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates *Value Adding Supplier (Yes/No) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates :

Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment - Verification B-BBEE Certificates No additional information is required to be provided to a business' customers. A BEE Certificate is sufficient evidence of a business' B-BBEE Compliance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Maintenance philosophy - Operational Verification:

Maintenance philosophy - Operational Verification This generally involves using the system in its normal mode of operation, which could involve actual operation or simulated operation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Shop drawings - Indication of dimensions needing verification from the jobsite:

Shop drawings - Indication of dimensions needing verification from the jobsite Most jobsite dimensions, such as the dimensions between two surfaces on the jobsite, need to be verified https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Shop drawings - Indication of dimensions needing verification from the jobsite:

Shop drawings - Indication of dimensions needing verification from the jobsite In remodeling and renovation work, it is essential that field dimensions be verified prior to fabrication. Some fabricators, such as Cabinet (furniture)|cabinet and casework suppliers, prefer not to rely on the contractor’s verification and will verify the dimensions with their own personnel. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Java performance - Split bytecode verification:

Java performance - Split bytecode verification (Note that other verifiers, such as the Java/400 verifier for IBM iSeries|System i, can perform most verification in advance and cache verification information from one use of a class to the next.) However, as the Java Java Platform#Class libraries|Class libraries are also regular Java classes, they must also be loaded when they are used, which means that the start-up time of a Java program is often longer than for C++ programs, for example. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Java performance - Split bytecode verification:

Java performance - Split bytecode verification A technique named 'Split-time verification', first introduced in the Java Platform, Micro Edition|J2ME of the Java platform, is used in the Java Virtual Machine since the Java version history|Java version 6. It splits the verification of Java bytecode|bytecode in two phases: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Java performance - Split bytecode verification:

Java performance - Split bytecode verification * Design-time - during the compilation of the class from source to bytecode https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Java performance - Split bytecode verification:

Java performance - Split bytecode verification * runtime - when loading the class. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Java performance - Split bytecode verification:

Java performance - Split bytecode verification In practice this technique works by capturing knowledge that the Java compiler has of class flow and annotating the compiled method bytecodes with a synopsis of the class flow information. This does not make runtime verification appreciably less complex, but does allow some shortcuts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Mental chronometry - Sentence-picture verification:

Mental chronometry - Sentence-picture verification Mental chronometry has been used in identifying some of the processes associated with understanding a sentence https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Self-refuting idea - Verification- and falsification-principles:

Self-refuting idea - Verification- and falsification-principles The statements statements are meaningless unless they can be empirically verified and statements are meaningless unless they can be empirically falsified have both been called self-refuting on the basis that they can neither be empirically verified nor falsified.See e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification Functional verification is a part of more encompassing design verification, which, besides functional verification, considers non-functional aspects like timing, layout and power. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification This effort is equivalent to program verification, and is NP-hard or even worse - and no solution has been found that works well in all cases https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *Logic simulation simulates the logic before it is built. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *Simulation acceleration applies special purpose hardware to the logic simulation problem. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *Emulation builds a version of system using programmable logic. This is expensive, and still much slower than the real hardware, but orders of magnitude faster than simulation. It can be used, for example, to boot the operating system on a processor. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *Formal verification attempts to prove mathematically that certain requirements (also expressed formally) are met, or that certain undesired behaviors (such as deadlock) cannot occur. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *Intelligent verification uses automation to adapt the testbench to changes in the register transfer level code. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *HDL-specific versions of lint programming tool|lint, and other heuristics, are used to find common problems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification Simulation based verification (also called 'dynamic verification') is widely used to simulate the design, since this method scales up very easily. Stimulus is provided to exercise each line in the HDL code. A test-bench is built to functionally verify the design by providing meaningful scenarios to check that given certain input, the design performs to specification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification A simulation environment is typically composed of several types of components: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *The Random test generator|generator generates input vectors that are used to search for anomalies that exist between the intent (specifications) and the implementation (HDL Code) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *The Device driver|drivers translate the stimuli produced by the generator into the actual inputs for the design under verification. Generators create inputs at a high level of abstraction, namely, as transactions or assembly language. The drivers convert this input into actual design inputs as defined in the specification of the design's interface. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *The simulator produces the outputs of the design, based on the design’s current state (the state of the flip-flops) and the injected inputs. The simulator has a description of the design net-list. This description is created by synthesizing the HDL to a low gate level net-list. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *The Machine code monitor|monitor converts the state of the design and its outputs to a transaction abstraction level so it can be stored in a 'score-boards' database to be checked later on. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification *The checker validates that the contents of the 'score-boards' are legal. There are cases where the generator creates expected results, in addition to the inputs. In these cases, the checker must validate that the actual results match the expected ones. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification:

Functional verification Different Code coverage|coverage metrics are defined to assess that the design has been adequately exercised. These include functional coverage (has every functionality of the design been exercised?), statement coverage (has each line of HDL been exercised?), and branch coverage (has each direction of every branch been exercised?). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Functional verification - Functional verification tools:

Functional verification - Functional verification tools * Avery Design Systems: SimCluster (for parallel logic simulation) and Insight (for formal verification) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISP Formal Verification Tool:

ISP Formal Verification Tool This means that the tool verifies all relevant interleavings of a concurrent program by replaying the actual program code without building verification models https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISP Formal Verification Tool:

ISP Formal Verification Tool Other recent tools of this genre include the [http://javapathfinder.sourceforge.net/ Java Pathfinder], [http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/downloads/b23f8dc3-bb73-498f-bd85-1de121672e69/default.aspx Microsoft's CHESS tool], and [http://www.usenix.org/events/nsdi09/tech/ MODIST]. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISP Formal Verification Tool:

ISP Formal Verification Tool Kirby, ``Dynamic Verification of MPI Programs with Reductions in Presence of Split Operations and Relaxed Orderings, Computer Aided Verification [http://www.princeton.edu/cav2008/ (CAV 2008)], pp https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISP Formal Verification Tool:

ISP Formal Verification Tool ISP has been used to successfully verify up to 14,000 lines of MPI/C code for deadlocks and assertion violations. It currently supports over 60 Message Passing Interface|MPI 2.1 functions, and has been tested with MPICH2, OpenMPI,and Message Passing Interface|Microsoft MPI libraries. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

ISP Formal Verification Tool:

ISP Formal Verification Tool ISP is available for download for linux and Mac OS X; as a Visual Studio plugin for running under Microsoft Windows|Windows, and as an Eclipse (software)|Eclipse plugin.. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification :

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification USP establishes written (documentary) and physical (Reference standard|reference) standards for medicines, food ingredients, dietary supplement products and ingredients. These standards are used by regulatory agencies and manufacturers to help to ensure that these products are of the appropriate identity, as well as strength, quality, purity, and consistency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification :

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification Prescription and over-the-counter medicines available in the United States must, by United States Code|federal law, meet USP-NF public standards, where such standards exist. Many other countries use the USP-NF instead of issuing their own pharmacopeia, or to supplement their government pharmacopeia. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification :

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification USP's standards for food ingredients can be found in its Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification :

United States Pharmacopeia - Product quality–standards and verification USP also conducts verification programs for dietary supplement products and ingredients. These are testing and audit programs. Products that meet the requirements of the program can display the USP Verified Dietary Supplement Mark on their labels. This is different from seeing the letters “USP” alone on a dietary supplement label, which means that the manufacturer is claiming to adhere to USP standards. USP does not test such products as it does with USP Verified products. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Luhn algorithm - Verification of the check digit:

Luhn algorithm - Verification of the check digit digits = digits_of(card_number) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Evi (software) - Knowledge accumulation and verification :

Evi (software) - Knowledge accumulation and verification Evi gathers information for its database in two ways: importing it from credible external databases (which for them includes Wikipedia: Citation Required) and from user submission following a consistent format and detailed process for input.[http://www.semanticfocus.com/blog/entry/title/true-knowledge-the-natural-language-question-answering-wikipedia-for-facts/ True Knowledge: The Natural Language Question Answering Wikipedia for Facts] Semantic Focus https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Evi (software) - Knowledge accumulation and verification :

Evi (software) - Knowledge accumulation and verification One method involves a system of checks and balances in some ways similar to Wikipedia's, allowing users to modify or agree/disagree with information presented by True Knowledge https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Evi (software) - Knowledge accumulation and verification :

Evi (software) - Knowledge accumulation and verification In November 2010, True Knowledge used some 300 million facts to calculate that Sunday, 11 April 1954, was the most boring day since 1900. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm For Bob to authenticate Alice's signature, he must have a copy of her public-key curve point Q_A. Bob can verify Q_A is a valid curve point as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm # Check that Q_A is not equal to the identity element O, and its coordinates are otherwise valid https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm # Verify that r and s are integers in [1, n-1]. If not, the signature is invalid. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm # Calculate e = \textrm(m), where HASH is the same function used in the signature generation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm # Calculate the curve point (x_1, y_1) = u_1 \times G + u_2 \times Q_A. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm # The signature is valid if r \equiv x_1 \pmod, invalid otherwise. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm:

Elliptic Curve DSA - Signature verification algorithm Note that using Straus's algorithm (also known as Shamir's trick), a sum of two scalar multiplications u_1 \times G + u_2 \times Q_A can be calculated faster than two scalar multiplications done independently. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses It was common for nobles to falsify the size of the forces under their command by, for example, borrowing men from another noble in order to make up their quota. The ability of the overseers to detect and control such practices declined with time and by the middle of Muhammad Shah's reign (1719—1748), all such precautions had fallen into abeyance, amid the general confusion and deepening corruption. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses This branding, with the consequent periodical musters for the purpose of comparison and verification, formed a separate department under the Bakhshi with its own superintendent (daroghali), and this was known as the dargh-O-tashah or verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses Every man brings his own horse and offers himself to be enlisted https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'Descriptive Rolls' - When an officer entered the service a Chihrah or descriptive roll of the new mansbdar was first of all drawn up, showing his name, his father's name, his tribe or caste, his place of origin, followed by details of his personal appearance. In the imperial service the chihrahs were written on red paper sprinkled with gold leaf. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'Roll for Troopers' - The troopers were also described, but not quite so elaborately. This is called as (Chihrah -i-Tabinan). In this the trooper personal appearance and details of horse were written. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'Descriptive Roll of Horses (Chihrah-i-aspan)' - The next thing done was to make out an elaboratedescription of the horse or horses. There were twenty principal divisions according to colour, and eight of these were again subdivided, so that there were altogether fifty-eight divisions. Then there were fifty-two headings for the marks which might occur on the horse's body. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'The Imperial Brand' - The hot iron was applied on the horse's thigh The signs used in Akbar's reign. But in the end he adopted a system of numerals. In Alamgirs reign and about that time there were twenty different brands (tamghah). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'The Noble's Brand' - In addition to the imperial brand, a second mark was required by each noble for the recognition of the horses ridden by his own men. Towards the end of the period the great nobles often had the first or last letter of their name as their special brand. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'Classification of Horses' - There were seven classes of horses founded on their breed — https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses #Mujannas, resembling Persian, and mostly Turk or Persian geldings https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses The Arab horses were still in use at the time of Mughals. The Tazi and Janglah were Indian https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses horses. The former beingheld of superior quality to the latter. The Yabu waS the Kabuli, stout-built, slow, and of somewhat sluggish temperament. The Turki was an animal from Bukhara or the Oxus country. the Iraqi came from Mesopotamia. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses According as the standard was exceeded or not come up to, the branding officer made an allowance or deduction by a fixed table. This calculation was styled tafawat-i-aspan (discrepancy of horses). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses *'Subordinate Establishment' - An Establishment of farriers, blacksmith's forge and Surgeons was made by each Mansabdar according to following scale - https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses Thirty men on foot were required to be entertained for every thousand rank of Mansabdar. These includes water carriers, farriers, pioneers, matchlock men and bowmen. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses If he were paid in jagir, he had to muster his men for verification once a year, and, in addition, a period of six months' grace was allowed https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses A mansabdar lost the whole of his pay for the period since the last verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses:

Army of the Mughal Empire - Branding and verification of horses held to be sufficient. There were three seasons appointed for verification, from the 26th Shawwal to the 15th Zul Qa'dah (twenty days), the 19th Safar to the I5tli Rabf I (twenty-five days), and the 16th Jamadi II to the 15th Rajab (twenty-nine days). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Age of the Earth - Helioseismic verification:

Age of the Earth - Helioseismic verification The radiometric date of meteorites can be verified with studies of the Sun. The Sun can be dated using Helioseismic#Helioseismic dating|helioseismic methods that strongly agree with the radiometric dates found for the oldest meteorites. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

List of important publications in theoretical computer science - Proof verification and the hardness of approximation problems:

List of important publications in theoretical computer science - Proof verification and the hardness of approximation problems Description: These three papers established the surprising fact that certain problems in NP remain hard even when only an approximative solution is required. See PCP theorem. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Four color theorem - Simplification and verification:

Four color theorem - Simplification and verification Since the proving of the theorem, efficient algorithms have been found for 4-coloring maps requiring only Big O notation|O(n2) time, where n is the number of vertices https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Four color theorem - Simplification and verification:

Four color theorem - Simplification and verification In 2005, Benjamin Werner and Georges Gonthier formalized a proof of the theorem inside the Coq proof assistant. This removed the need to trust the various computer programs used to verify particular cases; it is only necessary to trust the Coq kernel . https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Authenticate - Factual verification:

Authenticate - Factual verification Determining the truth or factual accuracy of information in a message is generally considered a separate problem from authentication. A wide range of techniques, from detective work, to fact checker|fact checking in journalism, to scientific experiment might be employed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Epistemic theories of truth - Verificationist views:

Epistemic theories of truth - Verificationist views In positivism (philosophy)|positivism, a proposition is meaningful, and thus capable of being true or false, if and only if it is verifiable by sense|sensory experiences. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Epistemic theories of truth - Verificationist views:

Epistemic theories of truth - Verificationist views A-priorism, often used in the Field of study|domains of logic and mathematics, holds a proposition true if and only if a priori reasoning can verify it. In the related certainty theory, associated with Descartes and Spinoza, a proposition is true if and only if it is known with certainty. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Epistemic theories of truth - Verificationist views:

Epistemic theories of truth - Verificationist views Another theory of truth which is related to a priorism is the concept-containment theory of truth https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Encrypt - Message verification :

Encrypt - Message verification Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message; for example, verification of a message authentication code (MAC) or a digital signature https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Encrypt - Message verification :

Encrypt - Message verification Digital signature and encryption must be applied to the ciphertext when it is created (typically on the same device used to compose the message) to avoid tampering; otherwise any node between the sender and the encryption agent could potentially tamper with it. Encrypting at the time of creation is only secure if the encryption device itself has not been tampered with. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eschatological verification:

Eschatological verification 'Eschatological verification' describes a case where a statement can be verifiable if true but not falsifiable if false. The term is most commonly used in relation to God and the afterlife. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eschatological verification:

Eschatological verification John Hick has expressed the premise as an allegory of a quest to a Celestial City https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eschatological verification - Sources:

Eschatological verification - Sources *Alston, William P. Functionalism and Theological Language. In Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989a. 33–34. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eschatological verification - Sources:

Eschatological verification - Sources *Hick, John H. Faith and Knowledge. 2nd ed. London, UK: Macmillan, 1988. 177–178. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eschatological verification - Sources:

Eschatological verification - Sources *Hick, John H. Philosophy or Religion. 4th ed. London, UK: Prentice Hall, 1990. 82–89, also see 135–136. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Eschatological verification - Sources:

Eschatological verification - Sources *The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. University of Tennessee, Martin. 21 June 2008 http://www.iep.utm.edu. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verificationism:

Verificationism 'Verificationism' was a movement in Western philosophy—in particular, analytic philosophy—that emerged in the 1920s by the efforts of a group of philosophers known as the logical positivists, who aimed to formulate criteria to ensure philosophical statements' meaningfulness and to objectively assess their truth value|falsity or truth https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verificationism:

Verificationism The viability of a sharp observational-theoretical distinction was frequently called into question, but that particular problem need not detain us now.—were by the 1960s found irreparably untenable, signaling the demise of verificationism and, with it, of the entire movement launched by logical positivism. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verificationism - Evolution:

Verificationism - Evolution Rudolf Carnap and Otto Neurath led a faction seeking liberalization of empiricism, a faction that also switched from Ernst Mach|Mach's phenomenalism—which accorded the mind virtually no power to know objects, and restricted scientific talk to phenomena as experienced patterns of sensations—to Neurath's physicalism, which shifts talk to spatiotemporal, publicly observable objects and events.Antony G Flew, A Dictionary of Philosophy, rev 2nd edn (New York: St Martin's Press, 1984), [http://books.google.com/books?id=MmJHVU9Rv3YCpg=PA245dq=Neurath+physicalism+verification Neurath], p 245. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verificationism - Evolution:

Verificationism - Evolution Ayer|A J Ayer proposed two types of verification—strong and weak—while weak verification would be obtainable when a proposition is rendered probable https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verificationism - Problems:

Verificationism - Problems Despite employing abundant logical and mathematical tools to formalize a universal law's probability as degree of confirmation, Rudolf Carnap never succeeded in this endeavor https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Hybrid system - Hybrid Systems Formal verification|Verification :

Hybrid system - Hybrid Systems Formal verification|Verification A possible theoretical characterization of this is algorithms that succeed with hybrid systems verification in all robust cases Martin Fränzle: Analysis of Hybrid Systems: An ounce of realism can save an infinity of states, Springer LNCS 1683 implying that many problems for hybrid systems, while undecidable, are at least quasi-decidable Stefan Ratschan: Safety verification of non-linear hybrid systems is quasi-decidable, Formal Methods in System Design, volume 44, pp https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification:

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification Ayer distinguishes between ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ verification, noting that there is a limit to how conclusively a proposition can be verified. ‘Strong’ (fully conclusive) verification is not possible for any empirical proposition, because the validity of any proposition always depends upon further experience. ‘Weak’ (probable) verification, on the other hand, is possible for any empirical proposition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification:

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification Ayer also distinguishes between practical and theoretical verifiability. Propositions for which we do not have a practical means of verification may still be meaningful if we can verify them in principle. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification:

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification Literal meaning must also be distinguished from factual meaning. Literal meaning is an attribute of statements that are either analytic or empirically verifiable. Factual meaning is an attribute of statements that are meaningful without being analytic. Thus, statements that have factual meaning say something about the real world. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification:

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification Ayer agrees with Hume that there are two main classes of propositions: those that concern 'relations of ideas,' and those that concern 'matters of fact.' Propositions about 'relations of ideas' include the a priori propositions of logic and mathematics. Propositions about 'matters of fact,' on the other hand, make assertions about the empirical world. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification:

Language, Truth, and Logic - Types of verification Ayer argues that philosophic propositions are analytic, and that they are concerned with 'relations of ideas.' The task of philosophy is to clarify the logical relationships of empirical propositions. If the meaning of propositions is defined by verifiability, then philosophy cannot provide speculative truths about metaphysical statements that cannot be empirically verified. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Tablebase - Step 3: Verification :

Tablebase - Step 3: Verification After the tablebase has been generated, and every position has been evaluated, the result must be verified independently. The purpose is to check the Consistency|self-consistency of the tablebase results. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Tablebase - Step 3: Verification :

Tablebase - Step 3: Verification For example, in Figure 1 above, the verification program sees the evaluation mate in three ply (Kc6). It then looks at the position in Figure 2, after Kc6, and sees the evaluation mate in two ply. These two evaluations are consistent with each other. If the evaluation of Figure 2 were anything else, it would be inconsistent with Figure 1, so the tablebase would need to be corrected. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Kenyan general election, 2013 - Register verification:

Kenyan general election, 2013 - Register verification On 13 January 2013 IEBC opened its voter register for inspection. Voters were to verify their details before 26 January to enable the commission clean the register ahead of the poll. The options include visiting respective registration centers, the IEBC website or the use of mobile phone numbers via an SMS service (using National Identity Card or Passport numbers used during registration). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Kenyan general election, 2013 - Register verification:

Kenyan general election, 2013 - Register verification The IEBC announced on 23 February 2013 that it had has removed 20,000 voters who had registered more than once from the voter roll. The names were identified during continuing activities to clean up the register. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight):

Verification (spaceflight) 'Verification' in the field of space systems engineering covers two Verification and validation|verification processes: Qualification and Acceptance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview :

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview In the field of spaceflight verification standards are developed NASA and the European Cooperation for Space Standardization|ECSS, and to specify requirements for the verification of a space system product, such as:[http://www.everyspec.com/ESA/ECSS-E-10-02A_14991/ Space Engineering Verification], ECSS-E-10-02A, 17 November 1998, p.11. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview :

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview * the fundamental concepts of the verification process, https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview :

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview * the rules for the implementation of the verification programme. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview :

Verification (spaceflight) - Overview Verification is one main reason that costs for space systems are high. All data are to be documented and to stay accessible for potential, later failure analyses. In previous times that approach was executed down to piece-parts level (resistors, switches etc.) whereas nowadays it is tried to reduce cost by usage of CAM (Commercial, Avionics, Military) equipment for non-safety relevant units. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance Qualification is the formal proof that the design meets all requirements of the specification and the parameters agreed in the Interface Control Documents (ICD) including tolerances due to manufacturing imperfections, wear-out within specified life-time, faults etc. The end of the qualification process is the approval signature of the customer on the Certificate of Qualification (COQ) agreeing that all his requirements are met. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance Acceptance is the formal proof that the product identified by its serial number meets all requirements of the specification and is free of workmanship and material failures. Acceptance is based on the preceding qualification by reference to the used design / manufacturing documentation. The end of the acceptance process is the approval signature of the customer on the Certificate of Acceptance (COA) agreeing that all his requirements are met by the product to be delivered. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance Qualification verification methods are https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance * Review of design using configuration controlled drawings (for software code review) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance * Test (functions under specified environment, mass, dimensions etc.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance * Inspection (especially for Human Factors Engineering requirements with astronauts for manned spacecraft). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance Each software element will be tested alone and as part of the overall system configuration until considered as qualified. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance :

Verification (spaceflight) - Qualification and Acceptance * Inspection by Quality Insurance engineers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Proto-language - Definition and verification:

Proto-language - Definition and verification Typically, the proto-language is not known directly. It is by definition a linguistic reconstruction formulated by applying the comparative method to a group of languages featuring similar characteristics. The tree is a statement of similarity and a hypothesis that the similarity results from descent from a common language. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Proto-language - Definition and verification:

Proto-language - Definition and verification The comparative method, a process of deductive reasoning|deduction, begins from a set of characteristics, or characters, found in the attested languages. If the entire set can be accounted for by descent from the proto-language, which must contain the proto-forms of them all, the tree, or phylogeny, is regarded as a complete explanation and by Occam's razor, is given credibility. More recently such a tree has been termed perfect and the characters labeled compatible. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Proto-language - Definition and verification:

Proto-language - Definition and verification No trees but the smallest branches are ever found to be perfect https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Proto-language - Definition and verification:

Proto-language - Definition and verification Some universally accepted proto-languages are Proto-Indo-European language|Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Uralic language|Proto-Uralic, and Proto-Dravidian language|Proto-Dravidian. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Proto-language - Definition and verification:

Proto-language - Definition and verification In a few fortuitous instances, which have been used to verify the method and the model (and probably ultimately inspired it), a literary history exists from as early as a few millennia ago, allowing the descent to be traced in detail https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Proto-language - Definition and verification:

Proto-language - Definition and verification The first person to offer systematic reconstructions of an unattested proto-language was August Schleicher; he did so for Proto-Indo-European language|Proto-Indo-European in 1861.. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Personal Identity Verification:

Personal Identity Verification 'FIPS 201' ('Federal Information Processing Standards|Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 201') is a Federal government of the United States|United States federal government standard that specifies 'Personal Identity Verification' ('PIV') requirements for Federal employees and contractors. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Personal Identity Verification:

Personal Identity Verification In response to HSPD-12, the National Institute of Standards and Technology|NIST Computer Security Division initiated a new program for improving the identification and authentication of Federal employees and contractors for access to Federal facilities and information systems. FIPS 201 was developed to satisfy the technical requirements of HSPD-12, approved by the United States Secretary of Commerce|Secretary of Commerce, and issued on February 25, 2005. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Personal Identity Verification:

Personal Identity Verification FIPS 201 together with National Institute of Standards and Technology|NIST SP 800-78 (Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Sizes for PIV) are required for U.S. Federal Agencies, but do not apply to US National Security systems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Personal Identity Verification:

Personal Identity Verification The Government Smart Card Interagency Advisory Board has indicated that to comply with FIPS 201 PIV II, US government agencies should use smart card technology. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) :

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) * An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 3 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) :

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) The purpose of 'Verification' (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) :

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) ** SP 1.1 Select Work Products for Verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) :

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) ** SP 1.3 Establish Verification Procedures and Criteria https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) :

Process area (CMMI) - Verification (VER) ** SP 3.2 Analyze Verification Results https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification:

Runtime verification Moreover, through its reflective capabilities runtime verification can be made an integral part of the target system, monitoring and guiding its execution during deployment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - History and Context:

Runtime verification - History and Context Runtime verification is intimately related to other well-established areas, such as testing (particularly model-based testing) when used before deployment and fault-tolerant systems when used during deployment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - History and Context:

Runtime verification - History and Context Within the broad area of runtime verification, one can distinguish several categories, such as: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - History and Context:

Runtime verification - History and Context * specification-less monitoring that targets a fixed set of mostly concurrency-related properties such as atomicity. The pioneering work in this area is by Savage et al. with the Eraser algorithmStefan Savage, Michael Burrows, Greg Nelson, Patrick Sobalvarro, and Thomas Anderson. 1997. Eraser: a Dynamic Data Race Detector for Multithreaded Programs. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 15(4), November 1997, pp. 391-411. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - History and Context:

Runtime verification - History and Context * monitoring with respect to temporal logic specifications; early contributions in this direction has been made by Lee, Kannan, and their collaborators,Moonjoo Kim, Mahesh Viswanathan, Insup Lee, Hanêne Ben-Abdellah, Sampath Kannan, and Oleg Sokolsky, Formally Specified Monitoring of Temporal Properties, Proceedings of the European Conference on Real-Time Systems, June 1999.Insup Lee, Sampath Kannan, Moonjoo Kim, Oleg Sokolsky, Mahesh Viswanathan, Runtime Assurance Based On Formal Specifications, Proceedings of International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, June 1999 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - The examples below discuss some simple properties which have been considered, possibly with small variations, by several runtime verification groups by the time of this writing (April 2011). To make them more interesting, each property below uses a different specification formalism and all of them are parametric. Parametric properties are properties about traces formed with parametric events, which are events that bind data to parameters. Here a parametric property has the form \forall parameters : \varphi, where \varphi is a specification in some appropriate formalism referring to generic (uninstantiated) parametric events. The intuition for such parametric properties is that the property expressed by \varphi must hold for all parameter instances encountered (through parametric events) in the observed trace. None of the following examples are specific to any particular runtime verification system, though support for parameters is obviously needed. In the following examples Java syntax is assumed, thus :

Runtime verification - The examples below discuss some simple properties which have been considered, possibly with small variations, by several runtime verification groups by the time of this writing (April 2011). To make them more interesting, each property below uses a different specification formalism and all of them are parametric. Parametric properties are properties about traces formed with parametric events, which are events that bind data to parameters. Here a parametric property has the form \forall parameters : \varphi, where \varphi is a specification in some appropriate formalism referring to generic (uninstantiated) parametric events. The intuition for such parametric properties is that the property expressed by \varphi must hold for all parameter instances encountered (through parametric events) in the observed trace. None of the following examples are specific to any particular runtime verification system, though support for parameters is obviously needed. In the following examples Java syntax is assumed, thus is logical equality, while = is assignment. Some methods (e.g., update() in the UnsafeEnumExample) are dummy methods, which are not part of the Java API, that are used for clarity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - HasNext :

Runtime verification - HasNext The Java [http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/Iterator.html Iterator] interface requires that the hasNext() method be called and return true before the next() method is called. If this https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - HasNext :

Runtime verification - HasNext The figure to the right shows a finite state machine that defines a possible monitor for checking and enforcing this property with runtime verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - \forall ~ \text ~ i \quad i.\text() ~ \rightarrow ~ \odot (i.\text() :

Runtime verification - \forall ~ \text ~ i \quad i.\text() ~ \rightarrow ~ \odot (i.\text() Conceptually, this means that there will be one copy of the monitor for each possible Iterator in a test program, although runtime verification systems need not implement their parametric monitors this way https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - UnsafeEnum :

Runtime verification - UnsafeEnum The [http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/Vector.html Vector] class in Java has two means for iterating over its elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - UnsafeEnum :

Runtime verification - UnsafeEnum Some events may concern several monitors at the same time, such as v.update(), so the runtime verification system must (again conceptually) dispatch them to all interested monitors https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - SafeLock :

Runtime verification - SafeLock The previous two examples show finite state properties, but properties used in runtime verification may be much more complex https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - SafeLock :

Runtime verification - SafeLock In the extreme, it is possible that there will be an instance of the property, i.e., a copy of the context-free parsing mechanism, for each possible combination of Thread with Lock; this happens, again, intuitively, because runtime verification systems may implement the same functionality differently https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Research Challenges and Applications:

Runtime verification - Research Challenges and Applications Most of the runtime verification research addresses one or more of the topics listed below. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead:

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead Observing an executing system typically incurs some runtime overhead (hardware monitors may make an exception). It is important to reduce the overhead of runtime verification tools as much as possible, particularly when the generated monitors are deployed with the system. Runtime overhead reducing techniques include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead:

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead Good system instrumentation is critical for any runtime verification tool, unless the tool explicitly targets existing execution logs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead:

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead A dual and ultimately equivalent approach tends to become the norm in runtime verification, namely to use static analysis to reduce the amount of otherwise exhaustive monitoring https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead:

Runtime verification - Reducing Runtime Overhead However, unlike in other verification approaches (e.g., model checking), the number of states or the size of the generated monitor is less important in runtime verification; in fact, some monitors can have infinitely many states, such as the one for the 'SafeLock' property above, although at any point in time only a finite number of states may have occurred https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties:

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties An additional inconvenience, particularly in the context of runtime verification, is that many existing specification languages are not expressive enough to capture the intended properties. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties:

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties Designing universally better or domain-specifically better specification formalsism for runtime verification is and will continue to be one of its major research challenges. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties:

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties * 'Quantitative properties.' Compared to other verification approaches, runtime verification is able to operate on concrete values of system state variables, which makes it possible to collect statistical information about the program execution and use this information to assess complex quantitative properties. More expressive property languages that will allow us to fully utilize this capability are needed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties:

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties * 'Better interfaces.' Reading and writing property specifications is not easy for non-experts. Even experts often stare for minutes at relatively small temporal logic formulae (particularly when they have nested until operators). An important research area is to develop powerful user interfaces for various specification formalisms that would allow users to more easily understand, write and maybe even visualize properties. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties:

Runtime verification - Specifying Properties Even if the overall quality of the automatically mined specifications is expected to be lower than that of manually produced specifications, they can serve as a start point for the latter or as the basis for automatic runtime verification tools aimed specifically at finding bugs (where a poor specification turns into false positives or negatives, often acceptable during testing). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Execution Models and Predictive Analysis:

Runtime verification - Execution Models and Predictive Analysis When runtime verification is used for testing, one can afford more comprehensive instrumentations that augment events with important system information that can be used by the monitors to construct and therefore analyze more refined models of the executing system https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification:

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification Unlike testing or exhaustive verification, runtime verification holds the promise to allow the system to recover from detected violations, through reconfiguration, micro-resets, or through finer intervention mechanisms sometimes referred to as tuning or steering. Implementation of these techniques within the rigorous framework of runtime verification gives rise to additional challenges. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification:

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification * 'Specification of actions.' One needs to specify the modification to be performed in an abstract enough fashion that does not require the user to know irrelevant implementation details. In addition, when such a modification can take place needs to be specified in order to maintain the integrity of the system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification:

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification * 'Reasoning about intervention effects.' It is important to know that an intervention improves the situation, or at least does not make the situation worse. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification:

Runtime verification - Behavior Modification * 'Action interfaces.' Similar to the instrumentation for monitoring, we need to enable the system to receive action invocations. Invocation mechanisms are by necessity going to be dependent on the implementation details of the system. However, at the specification level, we need to provide the user with a declarative way of providing feedback to the system by specifying what actions should be applied when under what conditions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Aspect-oriented Programming:

Runtime verification - Aspect-oriented Programming Many current runtime verification tools are hence built in the form of specification compilers, that take an expressive high-level specification as input and produce as output code written in some Aspect-oriented programming language (most often AspectJ). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Combination with Formal Verification:

Runtime verification - Combination with Formal Verification Then one can use formal verification (or static analysis) to discharge monitors, same way a compiler uses static analysis to discharge rutime checks of type correctness or memory safety. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Increasing Coverage:

Runtime verification - Increasing Coverage Compared to the more traditional verification approaches, an immediate disadvantage of runtime verification is its reduced coverage. This is not problematic when the runtime monitors are deployed with the system (together with appropriate recovery code to be executed when the property is violated), but it may limit the effectiveness of runtime verification when used to find errors in systems. Techniques to increase the coverage of runtime verification for error detection purposes include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Increasing Coverage:

Runtime verification - Increasing Coverage This use of runtime verification makes it closely related to model-based testing, although the runtime verification specifications are typically general purpose, not necessarily crafted for testing reasons https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Increasing Coverage:

Runtime verification - Increasing Coverage * 'Dynamic symbolic execution.' In symbolic execution programs are executed and monitored symbolically, that is, without concrete inputs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Runtime Verification (RV):

Runtime verification - Runtime Verification (RV) * '[http://rv2011.eecs.berkeley.edu/Home.html '2nd International Conference on Runtime Verification, September 2011, San Francisco, USA']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Runtime Verification (RV):

Runtime verification - Runtime Verification (RV) * '[http://www.rv2010.org/ '1st International Conference on Runtime Verification, November 2010, Malta']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Runtime Verification (RV):

Runtime verification - Runtime Verification (RV) * '[http://www.runtime-verification.org/ 'Earlier Workshops on Runtime Verification']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA):

Runtime verification - Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA) * '[http://www.cs.purdue.edu/woda11/index.html 'Workshop on Dynamic Analysis 2011']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA):

Runtime verification - Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA) * '[http://www.isr.uci.edu/woda10/Welcome.html 'Workshop on Dynamic Analysis 2010']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA):

Runtime verification - Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA) * '[http://www.cs.purdue.edu/woda11/earlier.html 'Earlier Workshops on Dynamic Analysis']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Dagstuhl Events:

Runtime verification - Dagstuhl Events * '[http://www.dagstuhl.de/en/program/calendar/semhp/?semnr=10451 '2010 Dagstuhl Seminar on Runtime Verification, Diagnosis, Planning and Control for Autonomous Systems']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Dagstuhl Events:

Runtime verification - Dagstuhl Events * '[http://www.dagstuhl.de/en/program/calendar/semhp/?semid=32256 '2007 Dagstuhl Seminar on Runtime Verification']' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - AspectBench Compiler group [http://www.aspectbench.org/] :

Runtime verification - AspectBench Compiler group [http://www.aspectbench.org/] :The AspectBench Compiler supports [http://abc.comlab.ox.ac.uk/papers#oopsla2005 tracematches], a way to match on the execution history of Java (programming language)|Java and AspectJ programs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Formal Systems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign [http://fsl.cs.uiuc.edu] :

Runtime verification - Formal Systems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign [http://fsl.cs.uiuc.edu] :Work within the Formal Systems Laboratory focuses on [http://fsl.cs.uiuc.edu/index.php/MOP Monitoring], [http://fsl.cs.uiuc.edu/index.php/jPredictor Prediction], and [http://fsl.cs.uiuc.edu/index.php/jMiner Mining]. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Commercial Systems:

Runtime verification - Commercial Systems * [http://contrastsecurity.com/ 'Contrast Security'] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Runtime verification - Commercial Systems:

Runtime verification - Commercial Systems * [http://runtimeverification.com/ 'Runtime Verification, Inc.'] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification:

File verification 'File verification' is the process of using an algorithm for verifying the integrity or authentication|authenticity of a computer file. This can be done by comparing two files bit-by-bit, but requires two copies of the same file, and may miss systematic corruptions which might occur to both files. A more popular approach is to also store checksums (hashes) (digests) of files for later comparison. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - Integrity verification :

File verification - Integrity verification File integrity can be compromised, usually referred to as the file becoming Data corruption|corrupted. A file can become corrupted by a variety of ways: faulty storage media, errors in transmission, write errors during copying or moving, software bugs, and so on. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - Integrity verification :

File verification - Integrity verification hash function|Hash-based verification ensures that a file has not been corrupted by comparing the file's hash value to a previously calculated value. If these values match, the file is presumed to be unmodified. Due to the nature of hash functions, hash collisions may result in false positives, but the likelihood of collisions is often negligible with random corruption. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - Authenticity verification :

File verification - Authenticity verification It is often desirable to verify that a file hasn't been modified in transmission or storage by untrusted parties, for example, to include malicious code such as viruses or Backdoor (computing)|backdoors https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - Authenticity verification :

File verification - Authenticity verification For this purpose, cryptographic hash functions are employed often. As long as the hash sums cannot be tampered with mdash; for example, if they are communicated over a secure channel mdash; the files can be presumed to be intact. Alternatively, digital signatures can be employed to assure tamper resistance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats A 'checksum file' is a small file that contains the checksums of other files. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats There are a few well-known checksum file formats. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats Several utilities, such as md5deep, can use such checksum files to automatically verify an entire directory of files in one operation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats The particular hash algorithm used is often indicated by the file extension of the checksum file. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats The .sha1 file extension indicates a checksum file containing 160-bit-bit SHA-1 hashes in sha1sum format. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats The .md5 file extension, or a file named MD5SUMS, indicates a checksum file containing 128-bit MD5 hashes in md5sum format. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - File formats :

File verification - File formats The .sfv file extension indicates a checksum file containing 32-bit CRC32 checksums in simple file verification format. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - Products :

File verification - Products * [http://www.guardtime.com/signatures/ KSI] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

File verification - Products :

File verification - Products * [http://www.ov2.eu/programs/rapidcrc-unicode RapidCRC Unicode (Open Source)] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification:

Forecast verification 'Forecast verification' is a subfield of the climate, atmospheric and ocean sciences dealing with validating, verifying as well as determining the predictive power of prognostic model forecasts. Because of the complexity of these models, forecast verification goes a good deal beyond simple measures of association (statistics)|statistical association or mean squared error|mean error calculations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification - Defining the problem:

Forecast verification - Defining the problem To determine the value of a forecasting|forecast, we need to measure it against some baseline, or minimally accurate forecast https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification - Defining the problem:

Forecast verification - Defining the problem The second example suggests a good method of normalizing a forecast before applying any skill measure https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification - Defining the problem:

Forecast verification - Defining the problem One way of thinking about it is, how much does the forecast reduce our uncertainty? Tang et al. (2005) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification - Defining the problem:

Forecast verification - Defining the problem used the conditional entropy to characterize the uncertainty of ensemble forecasting|ensemble predictions of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation|El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification - Defining the problem:

Forecast verification - Defining the problem where p is the ensemble distribution and q is the climatological distribution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Forecast verification - For more information:

Forecast verification - For more information The World Meteorological Organization maintains a useful web page on forecast verification. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Silentbanker - Out-of-band transaction verification:

Silentbanker - Out-of-band transaction verification The downside is that the OOB transaction verification adds to the level of the end-user's frustration with more and slower steps. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem :

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem The problem of constructing practical algorithms to determine whether sentences with large numbers of propositional variables are tautologies is an area of contemporary research in the area of automated theorem proving. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem :

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem The method of truth tables illustrated above is provably correct – the truth table for a tautology will end in a column with only T, while the truth table for a sentence that is not a tautology will contain a row whose final column is F, and the valuation corresponding to that row is a valuation that does not satisfy the sentence being tested https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem :

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem As an efficient procedure, however, truth tables are constrained by the fact that the number of valuations that must be checked increases as 2k, where k is the number of variables in the formula. This exponential growth in the computation length renders the truth table method useless for formulas with thousands of propositional variables, as contemporary computing hardware cannot execute the algorithm in a feasible time period. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem :

Tautology (logic) - Efficient verification and the Boolean satisfiability problem The problem of determining whether there is any valuation that makes a formula true is the 'Boolean satisfiability problem'; the problem of checking tautologies is equivalent to this problem, because verifying that a sentence S is a tautology is equivalent to verifying that there is no valuation satisfying \lnot S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation):

Verification (disambiguation) * Verification and validation, in engineering or quality management systems, it is the act of reviewing, inspecting or testing, in order to establish and document that a product, service or system meets regulatory or technical standards. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation):

Verification (disambiguation) * Verification (spaceflight), in the space systems engineering area, covers the processes of qualification and acceptance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation):

Verification (disambiguation) * Third-party verification, use of an independent organization to verify the identity of a customer https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation):

Verification (disambiguation) * Authentication https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation):

Verification (disambiguation) * Forecast verification, verifying prognostic output from a numerical model https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** CAPTCHA, device to verify that a user of a web-site is human to prevent automated abuse https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** Intelligent verification, automatically adapts the testbench to changes in RTL https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** Runtime verification, during execution https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** Software verification, An overview of techniques for verifying software https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** Functional verification of design of digital hardware https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** Physical verification, design of a circuit https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing:

Verification (disambiguation) - Computing ** Testing to confirm that the system, subsystem or component meets documented requirements or specifications levied on the design. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Analog verification:

Analog verification Discussion of analog verification began in 2005 when it started to become recognized that the analog portion of large mixed-signal chips had become so complex that a significant and ever increasing number of these chips were being designed with functional errors in the analog portion that prevented them from operating correctly. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Analog verification - Technical details:

Analog verification - Technical details Analog verification is built on the idea that transistor level simulation will always be too slow to provide adequate functional verification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Analog verification - Technical details:

Analog verification - Technical details So instead, the verification proceeds hierarchically https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Intelligent verification:

Intelligent verification 'Intelligent Verification', also referred to as intelligent testbench automation, is a form of functional verification used to verify that an electronic hardware design conforms to specification before device fabrication. Intelligent verification uses information derived from the design and existing test description to automatically update the test description to target design functionality not verified, or covered by the existing tests. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Intelligent verification:

Intelligent verification Intelligent verification software has this key property: given the same test environment, the software will automatically change the tests to improve functional design coverage in response to changes in the design. Other properties of intelligent verification may include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Intelligent verification:

Intelligent verification * Automatically tracking paths through design structure to coverage points, to create new tests. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Intelligent verification:

Intelligent verification * Ensuring that various aspects of the design are only verified once in the same test sets. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

Intelligent verification:

Intelligent verification Intelligent Verification uses existing logic simulation testbenches, and automatically targets and maximizes the following types of design coverage: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html

For More Information, Visit::

For More Information, Visit: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-verification-toolkit.html The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com

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