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Transaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card Transaction steps:

Credit card Transaction steps Authorization: The cardholder presents the card as payment to the merchant and the merchant submits the transaction to the acquirer (acquiring bank). The acquirer verifies the credit card number, the transaction type and the amount with the issuer (Card-issuing bank) and reserves that amount of the cardholder's credit limit for the merchant. An authorization will generate an approval code, which the merchant stores with the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card Transaction steps:

Credit card Transaction steps Some transactions may be submitted in the batch without prior authorizations; these are either transactions falling under the merchant's floor limit or ones where the authorization was unsuccessful but the merchant still attempts to force the transaction through https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card Transaction steps:

Credit card Transaction steps Clearing and Settlement: The acquirer sends the batch transactions through the credit card association, which debits the issuers for payment and credits the acquirer. Essentially, the issuer pays the acquirer for the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card Transaction steps:

Credit card Transaction steps Funding: Once the acquirer has been paid, the acquirer pays the merchant. The merchant receives the amount totaling the funds in the batch minus either the "discount rate", "mid-qualified rate", or "non-qualified rate" which are tiers of fees the merchant pays the acquirer for processing the transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card Transaction steps:

Credit card Transaction steps Chargebacks: A chargeback is an event in which money in a merchant account is held due to a dispute relating to the transaction. Chargebacks are typically initiated by the cardholder. In the event of a chargeback, the issuer returns the transaction to the acquirer for resolution. The acquirer then forwards the chargeback to the merchant, who must either accept the chargeback or contest it. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership Transactional and transformational theories:

Leadership Transactional and transformational theories Eric Berne first analyzed the relations between a group and its leadership in terms of transactional analysis. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership Transactional and transformational theories:

Leadership Transactional and transformational theories Idiosyncrasy Credits, first posited by Edward Hollander (1971) is one example of a concept closely related to transactional leadership. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions:

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions (One common example is a low-performance PCI device that does not support burst transactions, and always halts a transaction after the first data phase.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions:

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions Any PCI device may initiate a transaction. First, it must request permission from a PCI bus arbiter on the motherboard. The arbiter grants permission to one of the requesting devices. The initiator begins the address phase by broadcasting a 32-bit address plus a 4-bit command code, then waits for a target to respond. All other devices examine this address and one of them responds a few cycles later. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions:

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions The transaction operates identically from that point on https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions:

Conventional PCI PCI bus transactions While the PCI bus transfers 32 bits per data phase, the initiator transmits 4 active-low byte enable signals indicating which 8-bit bytes are to be considered significant. In particular, a write must affect only the enabled bytes in the target PCI device. They are of little importance for memory reads, but I/O reads might have side effects. The PCI standard explicitly allows a data phase with no bytes enabled, which must behave as a no-op. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions:

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions When the retried transaction is seen, the buffered result is delivered. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions:

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions A device may be the target of other transactions while completing one delayed transaction; it must remember the transaction type, address, byte selects and (if a write) data value, and only complete the correct transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions:

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions If the target has a limit on the number of delayed transactions that it can record internally (simple targets may impose a limit of 1), it will force those transactions to retry without recording them. They will be dealt with when the current delayed transaction is completed. If two initiators attempt the same transaction, a delayed transaction begun by one may have its result delivered to the other; this is harmless. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions:

Conventional PCI Delayed transactions A target abandons a delayed transaction when a retry succeeds in delivering the buffered result, the bus is reset, or when 215=32768 clock cycles (approximately 1 ms) elapse without seeing a retry. The latter should never happen in normal operation, but it prevents a deadlock of the whole bus if one initiator is reset or malfunctions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Ending transactions:

Conventional PCI Ending transactions Either side may request that a burst end after the current data phase. Simple PCI devices that do not support multi-word bursts will always request this immediately. Even devices that do support bursts will have some limit on the maximum length they can support, such as the end of their addressable memory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Transaction examples:

Conventional PCI Transaction examples This is the highest-possible speed four-word write burst, terminated by the master: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Transaction examples:

Conventional PCI Transaction examples On clock edge 7, another initiator can start a different transaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Transaction examples:

Conventional PCI Transaction examples The equivalent read burst takes one more cycle, because the target must wait 1 cycle for the AD bus to turn around before it may assert TRDY#: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Transaction examples:

Conventional PCI Transaction examples On clock edge 6, the target indicates that it wants to stop (with data), but the initiator is already holding IRDY# low, so there is a fifth data phase (clock edge 7), during which no data is transferred. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions Due to the need for a turnaround cycle between different devices driving PCI bus signals, in general it is necessary to have an idle cycle between PCI bus transactions. However, in some circumstances it is permitted to skip this idle cycle, going directly from the final cycle of one transfer (IRDY# asserted, FRAME# deasserted) to the first cycle of the next (FRAME# asserted, IRDY# deasserted). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions they are by the same initiator (or there would be no time to turn around the C/BE# and FRAME# lines), https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions the first transaction was a write (so there is no need to turn around the AD bus), and https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions the initiator still has permission (from its GNT# input) to use the PCI bus. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions The target deasserts DEVSEL#, driving it high, in the cycle following the final data phase, which in the case of back-to-back transactions is the first cycle of the address phase https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions One case where this problem cannot arise is if the initiator knows somehow (presumably because the addresses share sufficient high-order bits) that the second transfer is addressed to the same target as the previous one. In that case, it may perform back-to-back transactions. All PCI targets must support this. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions It is also possible for the target keeps track of the requirements. If it never does fast DEVSEL, they are met trivially. If it does, it must wait until medium DEVSEL time unless: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions the current transaction was preceded by an idle cycle (is not back-to-back), or https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions the previous transaction was to the same target, or https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions the current transaction began with a double address cycle. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions Targets which have this capability indicate it by a special bit in a PCI configuration register, and if all targets on a bus have it, all initiators may use back-to-back transfers freely. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions:

Conventional PCI Fast back-to-back transactions A subtractive decoding bus bridge must know to expect this extra delay in the event of back-to-back cycles in order to advertise back-to-back support. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Board of directors Transactions with the company:

Board of directors Transactions with the company By definition, where a director enters into a transaction with a company, there is a conflict between the director's interest (to do well for himself out of the transaction) and his duty to the company (to ensure that the company gets as much as it can out of the transaction) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Board of directors Transactions with the company:

Board of directors Transactions with the company "A corporate body can only act by agents, and it is, of course, the duty of those agents so to act as best to promote the interests of the corporation whose affairs they are conducting https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Board of directors Transactions with the company:

Board of directors Transactions with the company However, in many jurisdictions the members of the company are permitted to ratify transactions which would otherwise fall foul of this principle. It is also largely accepted in most jurisdictions that this principle can be overridden in the company's constitution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Board of directors Transactions with the company:

Board of directors Transactions with the company In many countries, there is also a statutory duty to declare interests in relation to any transactions, and the director can be fined for failing to make disclosure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Euro Transaction costs and risks:

Euro Transaction costs and risks The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades. For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments (e.g. credit cards, debit cards and cash machine withdrawals). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Euro Transaction costs and risks:

Euro Transaction costs and risks The absence of distinct currencies also removes exchange rate risks. The risk of unanticipated exchange rate movement has always added an additional risk or uncertainty for companies or individuals that invest or trade outside their own currency zones. Companies that hedge against this risk will no longer need to shoulder this additional cost. This is particularly important for countries whose currencies had traditionally fluctuated a great deal, particularly the Mediterranean nations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Euro Transaction costs and risks:

Euro Transaction costs and risks Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past. The reduction in cross-border transaction costs will allow larger banking firms to provide a wider array of banking services that can compete across and beyond the eurozone. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Just in time (business) Transaction cost approach:

Just in time (business) Transaction cost approach JIT helps in keeping inventory to minimum in a firm. However, a firm may simply be outsourcing their input inventory to suppliers, even if those suppliers don't use Just-in-Time (Naj 1993). Newman (1994) investigated this effect and found that suppliers in Japan charged JIT customers, on average, a 5% price premium. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

ACID Distributed transactions:

ACID Distributed transactions Briefly, in the first phase, one node (the coordinator) interrogates the other nodes (the participants) and only when all reply that they are prepared does the coordinator, in the second phase, formalize the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction:

Database transaction A transaction comprises a unit of work performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, and treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions. Transactions in a database environment have two main s: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction:

Database transaction To provide reliable units of work that allow correct recovery from failures and keep a database consistent even in cases of system failure, when execution stops (completely or partially) and many operations upon a database remain uncompleted, with unclear status. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction:

Database transaction To provide isolation between programs accessing a database concurrently. If this isolation is not provided, the program's outcome are possibly erroneous. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction:

Database transaction A database transaction, by definition, must be atomic, consistent, isolated and durable. Database practitioners often refer to these properties of database transactions using the acronym ACID. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction:

Database transaction Transactions provide an "all-or-nothing" proposition, stating that each work-unit performed in a database must either complete in its entirety or have no effect whatsoever. Further, the system must isolate each transaction from other transactions, results must conform to existing constraints in the database, and transactions that complete successfully must get written to durable storage. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Purpose:

Database transaction Purpose Databases and other data stores which treat the integrity of data as paramount often include the ability to handle transactions to maintain the integrity of data. A single transaction consists of one or more independent units of work, each reading and/or writing information to a database or other data store. When this happens it is often important to ensure that all such processing leaves the database or data store in a consistent state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Purpose:

Database transaction Purpose Examples from double-entry accounting systems often illustrate the concept of transactions. In double-entry accounting every debit requires the recording of an associated credit. If one writes a check for $100 to buy groceries, a transactional double-entry accounting system must record the following two entries to cover the single transaction: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Purpose:

Database transaction Purpose Debit $100 to Groceries Expense Account https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Purpose:

Database transaction Purpose Credit $100 to Checking Account https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Purpose:

Database transaction Purpose A transactional system would make both entries pass or both entries would fail. By treating the recording of multiple entries as an atomic transactional unit of work the system maintains the integrity of the data recorded. In other words, nobody ends up with a situation in which a debit is recorded but no associated credit is recorded, or vice versa. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases A transactional database is a DBMS where write transactions on the database are able to be rolled back if they are not completed properly (e.g. due to power or connectivity loss). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases Most modern relational database management systems fall into the category of databases that support transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases In a database system a transaction might consist of one or more data-manipulation statements and queries, each reading and/or writing information in the database. Users of database systems consider consistency and integrity of data as highly important. A simple transaction is usually issued to the database system in a language like SQL wrapped in a transaction, using a pattern similar to the following: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases Execute a set of data manipulations and/or queries https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases If no errors occur then commit the transaction and end it https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases If errors occur then rollback the transaction and end it https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases In no case can a partial transaction be committed to the database since that would leave the database in an inconsistent state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases Internally, multi-user databases store and process transactions, often by using a transaction ID or XID. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional databases:

Database transaction Transactional databases There are multiple varying ways for transactions to be implemented other than the simple way documented above. Nested transactions, for example, are transactions which contain statements within them that start new transactions (i.e. sub-transactions). Multi-level transactions are similar but have a few extra properties. Another type of transaction is the compensating transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction In SQL:

Database transaction In SQL SQL is inherently transactional, and a transaction is automatically started when another ends. Some databases extend SQL and implement a START TRANSACTION statement, but while seemingly signifying the start of the transaction it merely deactivates autocommit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction In SQL:

Database transaction In SQL The result of any work done after this point will remain invisible to other database-users until the system processes a COMMIT statement. A ROLLBACK statement can also occur, which will undo any work performed since the last transaction. Both COMMIT and ROLLBACK will end the transaction, and start anew. If autocommit was disabled using START TRANSACTION, autocommit will often also be reenabled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Distributed transactions:

Database transaction Distributed transactions As with database and other transactions, if any part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction is rolled back across all affected systems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Transactional filesystems:

Database transaction Transactional filesystems The Namesys Reiser4 filesystem for Linux supports transactions, and as of Microsoft Windows Vista, the Microsoft NTFS filesystem supports distributed transactions across networks. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Further reading:

Database transaction Further reading Philip A. Bernstein, Eric Newcomer (2009): Principles of Transaction Processing, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann (Elsevier), ISBN 978-1-55860-623-4 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database transaction Further reading:

Database transaction Further reading Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001), Transactional information systems: theory, algorithms, and the practice of concurrency control and recovery, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 1-55860-508-8 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Enterprise appliance transaction module https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module:

Enterprise appliance transaction module An enterprise appliance transaction module (EATM) is a device, typically used in the manufacturing automation marketplace, for the transfer of plant floor equipment and product status to manufacturing execution systems (MES), enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and the like. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Solutions that deliver manufacturing floor integration have evolved over time. Initially they took the form of custom integrated systems, designed and delivered by System Integrators. These solutions were largely based on separate Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) products that a System Integrator acquired and integrated into the custom solution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module:

Enterprise appliance transaction module These solutions have evolved into vendor supplied product solutions that no longer require the integration of separate components. EATM products, as they are known today, are available as COTS Appliance products, fully configurable, and not needing any software development or custom integration. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality Hardware platform – embedded computer, computer appliance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality Device communications software – Support for the device protocols from which data will be extracted. Device communications software typically operates through polled or change based protocols that are vendor specific. Data to be extracted is typically organized into related items, and transferred based on a machine status such as Cycle Complete, Job Start, System Downtime Event, Operator Change, etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality Typical protocols; Rockwell Automation CIP, ControlLogix backplane, EtherNet/IP, Siemens Industrial Ethernet, Modbus TCP. There are hundreds of automation device protocols and EATM solutions are typically targeting certain market segments and will be based on automation vendor relationships. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality Enterprise communications software – Software that will enable communications to Enterprise systems. Communications at this level are typically transaction oriented and require data transactions to be sent and acknowledged to ensure the data integrity. Examples include; Relational Database Adapters, Java Message Services (JMS), Oracle Database Interfaces and proprietary interfaces to specific products. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Components required for EATM functionality Transaction application – Software that is configured to watch and collect device variables, formats them into required transactions, and transfer the results securely and reliably to the . The Transaction Application resides between the Device Communications and the Enterprise communications. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Enterprise solutions:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Enterprise solutions Manufacturing solutions fall into many categories https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Enterprise appliance transaction module Enterprise solutions:

Enterprise appliance transaction module Enterprise solutions It is the job of EATM solutions to act as a bridge between the Device Control Systems, the base level and the rest of the Manufacturing Pyramid. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Cursor (databases) Cursors in distributed transactions:

Cursor (databases) Cursors in distributed transactions Using cursors in distributed transactions (X/Open XA Environments), which are controlled using a transaction monitor, is no different than cursors in non-distributed transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Cursor (databases) Cursors in distributed transactions:

Cursor (databases) Cursors in distributed transactions One has to pay attention when using holdable cursors, however. Connections can be used by different applications. Thus, once a transaction has been ended and committed, a subsequent transaction (running in a different application) could inherit existing holdable cursors. Therefore, an application developer has to be aware of that situation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database Transactions and concurrency:

Database Transactions and concurrency Each transaction has well defined boundaries in terms of which program/code executions are included in that transaction (determined by the transaction's programmer via special transaction commands). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database Transactions and concurrency:

Database Transactions and concurrency The acronym ACID describes some ideal properties of a database transaction: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules:

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules Every database transaction obeys the following rules (by support in the database system; i.e., a database system is designed to guarantee them for the transactions it runs): https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules:

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules Atomicity - Either the effects of all or none of its operations remain ("all or nothing" semantics) when a transaction is completed (committed or aborted respectively). In other words, to the outside world a committed transaction appears (by its effects on the database) to be indivisible, atomic, and an aborted transaction does not leave effects on the database at all, as if never existed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules:

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules An aborted transaction does not change the database state it has started from, as if it never existed (atomicity above). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules:

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules Isolation - Transactions cannot interfere with each other (as an end result of their executions). Moreover, usually (depending on concurrency control method) the effects of an incomplete transaction are not even visible to another transaction. Providing isolation is the main goal of concurrency control. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules:

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules Durability - Effects of successful (committed) transactions must persist through crashes (typically by recording the transaction's effects and its commit event in a non-volatile memory). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules:

Concurrency control Database transaction and the ACID rules The concept of atomic transaction has been extended during the years to what has become Business transactions which actually implement types of Workflow and are not atomic. However also such enhanced transactions typically utilize atomic transactions as components. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments The consumer sends a payment request via an SMS text message or an USSD to a short code and a premium charge is applied to their phone bill or their online wallet. The merchant involved is informed of the payment success and can then release the paid for goods. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Since a trusted delivery address has typically not been given these goods are most frequently digital with the merchant replying using a Multimedia Messaging Service to deliver the purchased music, ringtones, wallpapers etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments A Multimedia Messaging Service can also deliver barcodes which can then be scanned for confirmation of payment by a merchant. This is used as an electronic ticket for access to cinemas and events or to collect hard goods. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Transactional payments have been popular in Asia and Europe but are now being overtaken by other mobile payment methods, such as mobile web payments (WAP), mobile payment client (Java ME, Android...) and . https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Possible reasons include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Slow speed - sending messages can be slow and it can take hours for a merchant to get receipt of payment. Consumers do not want to be kept waiting more than a few seconds. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Security - The SMS/USSD encryption ends in the radio interface, then the message is a plaintext. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments High cost - There are many high costs associated with this method of payment. The cost of setting up short codes and paying for the delivery of media via a Multimedia Messaging Service and the resulting customer support costs to account for the number of messages that get lost or are delayed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Low payout rates - operators also see high costs in running and supporting transactional payments which results in payout rates to the merchant being as low as 30%. Usually around 50% https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Low follow-on sales - once the payment message has been sent and the goods received there is little else the consumer can do. It is difficult for them to remember where something was purchased or how to buy it again. This also makes it difficult to tell a friend. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Some mobile payment services accept "premium SMS payments." Here is the typical end user payment process: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments User sends SMS with keyword and unique number to a premium short code. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments User receives a PIN (User billed via the short code on receipt of the PIN) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile payment - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments User uses PIN to access content or services. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

SQL - Transaction controls:

SQL - Transaction controls SAVE TRANSACTION (or SAVEPOINT) saves the state of the database at the current point in transaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

SQL - Transaction controls:

SQL - Transaction controls INSERT INTO tbl_1(id) VALUES(1); https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

SQL - Transaction controls:

SQL - Transaction controls COMMIT causes all data changes in a transaction to be made permanent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

SQL - Transaction controls:

SQL - Transaction controls ROLLBACK causes all data changes since the last COMMIT or ROLLBACK to be discarded, leaving the state of the data as it was prior to those changes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

SQL - Transaction controls:

SQL - Transaction controls COMMIT and ROLLBACK terminate the current transaction and release data locks. In the absence of a START TRANSACTION or similar statement, the semantics of SQL are implementation-dependent. The following example shows a classic transfer of funds transaction, where money is removed from one account and added to another. If either the removal or the addition fails, the entire transaction is rolled back. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Automated teller machine - Transactional secrecy and integrity:

Automated teller machine - Transactional secrecy and integrity The security of ATM transactions relies mostly on the integrity of the secure cryptoprocessor: the ATM often uses general commodity components that sometimes are not considered to be "trusted systems". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Automated teller machine - Transactional secrecy and integrity:

Automated teller machine - Transactional secrecy and integrity Sensitive data in ATM transactions are usually encrypted with DES, but transaction processors now usually require the use of Triple DES https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions eBay generates revenue from various fees https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions However, most sellers that operate as a full-time business do follow state tax regulations on their eBay transactions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions The company's current business strategy includes increasing international trade. eBay has already expanded to over two dozen countries including China and India. The only places where expansion failed were Taiwan and Japan, where Yahoo! had a head start, and New Zealand where TradeMe, owned by the Fairfax media group is the dominant online auction website. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions A more recent strategy involves the company increasingly leveraging the relationship between the eBay auction site and PayPal: The impact of driving buyers and sellers to use PayPal means not only does eBay turn buyers into clients (as a pure auction venue its clients used to be predominantly sellers) but for each new PayPal registration it achieves via the eBay auction site it also earns offsite revenue when the resulting PayPal account is used in non-eBay transactions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions For most listing categories, eBay sellers are permitted to offer a variety of payment systems such as Escrow.com, PayPal, Paymate, ProPay, and Moneybookers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions Escrow.com is eBay's approved escrow site. The transactions processed through Escrow.com largely are in relation to eBay Motors; they are not restricted to this type of listing however. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions eBay affiliate marketers were originally paid a percentage of the eBay seller's transaction fees, with commissions ranging from 50% to 75% of the fees paid for an item purchased https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

eBay - Profit and transactions:

eBay - Profit and transactions On April 18, 2012 eBay reported a 29% Q1 revenue increase to $3.3 billion compared to their Q1 in 2011. Net income was reported to be at $570 million for the quarter. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File system - Transactional file systems:

File system - Transactional file systems Some programs need to update multiple files "all at once". For example, a software installation may write program binaries, libraries, and configuration files. If the software installation fails, the program may be unusable. If the installation is upgrading a key system utility, such as the command shell, the entire system may be left in an unusable state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File system - Transactional file systems:

File system - Transactional file systems Transactions also provide the atomicity guarantee, that operations inside of a transaction are either all committed, or the transaction can be aborted and the system discards all of its partial results https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File system - Transactional file systems:

File system - Transactional file systems Windows, beginning with Vista, added transaction support to NTFS, in a feature called Transactional NTFS, but its use is now discouraged. There are a number of research prototypes of transactional file systems for UNIX systems, including the Valor file system, Amino, LFS, and a transactional ext3 file system on the TxOS kernel, as well as transactional file systems targeting embedded systems, such as TFFS. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File system - Transactional file systems:

File system - Transactional file systems Ensuring consistency across multiple file system operations is difficult, if not impossible, without file system transactions. File locking can be used as a concurrency control mechanism for individual files, but it typically does not protect the directory structure or file metadata. For instance, file locking cannot prevent TOCTTOU race conditions on symbolic links. File locking also cannot automatically roll back a failed operation, such as a software upgrade; this requires atomicity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File system - Transactional file systems:

File system - Transactional file systems Journaling file systems are one technique used to introduce transaction-level consistency to file system structures. Journal transactions are not exposed to programs as part of the OS API; they are only used internally to ensure consistency at the granularity of a single system call. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File system - Transactional file systems:

File system - Transactional file systems As a workaround, some database systems simply produce an archived state file containing all data up to that point, and the backup software only backs that up and does not interact directly with the active transactional databases at all https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing:

Online transaction processing An automated teller machine (ATM) for a bank is an example of a commercial transaction processing application. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing - Requirements:

Online transaction processing - Requirements Online transaction processing increasingly requires support for transactions that span a network and may include more than one company. For this reason, new online transaction processing software uses client or server processing and brokering software that allows transactions to run on different computer platforms in a network. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing - Requirements:

Online transaction processing - Requirements In large applications, efficient OLTP may depend on sophisticated transaction management software (such as CICS) and/or database optimization tactics to facilitate the processing of large numbers of concurrent updates to an OLTP-oriented database. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing - Requirements:

Online transaction processing - Requirements For even more demanding decentralized database systems, OLTP brokering programs can distribute transaction processing among multiple computers on a network. OLTP is often integrated into service-oriented architecture (SOA) and Web services. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing - Requirements:

Online transaction processing - Requirements Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) involves gathering input information, processing the information and updating existing information to reflect the gathered and processed information. As of today, most organizations use a database management system to support OLTP. OLTP is carried in a client server system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing - Benefits:

Online transaction processing - Benefits Online Transaction Processing has two key benefits: simplicity and efficiency. Reduced paper trails and the faster, more accurate forecasts for revenues and expenses are both examples of how OLTP makes things simpler for businesses. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Online transaction processing - Disadvantages:

Online transaction processing - Disadvantages Additionally, like many modern online information technology solutions, some systems require offline maintenance which further affects the cost-benefit analysis. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership styles - Transactional:

Leadership styles - Transactional The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then later described by Bernard Bass in 1981. Mainly used by management, transactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers through a system of rewards and punishments. There are two factors which form the basis for this system, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception.[unreliable source?] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership styles - Transactional:

Leadership styles - Transactional Management-by-Exception allows the leader to maintain the status quo. The leader intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels and initiates corrective action to improve performance. Management by exception helps reduce the workload of managers being that they are only called-in when workers deviate from course. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership styles - Transactional:

Leadership styles - Transactional Transactional leaders focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They are more concerned with following existing rules than with making changes to the organization. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership styles - Transactional:

Leadership styles - Transactional Increasing productivity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership styles - Transactional:

Leadership styles - Transactional Transactional leaders work better in teams where there is a lower level of emotions going into the project https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Leadership styles - Transactional:

Leadership styles - Transactional Have all of their focus on the given task. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis:

Transactional analysis Transactional analysis (TA to its adherents), is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. It is described as integrative because it has elements of psychoanalytic, humanist and cognitive approaches. TA was first developed by Canadian-born US psychiatrist Eric Berne, starting in the late 1950s. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline As a theory of personality, TA describes how people are structured psychologically. It uses what is perhaps its best known model, the ego-state (Parent-Adult-Child) model, to do this. The same model helps explain how people function and express their personality in their behavior https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline As Berne set his Psychology up, there are four life positions that a person can hold and holding a particular psychological position has profound implications for how an individual operationalizes his or her life. The positions are stated as: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline I'm OK and you are OK. This is the healthiest position about life and it means that I feel good about myself and that I feel good about others and their competence. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline I'm OK and you are not OK. In this position I feel good about myself but I see others as damaged or less than and it is usually not healthy, https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline I'm not OK and you are OK. In this position the person sees him/herself as the weak partner in relationships as the others in life are definitely better than the self. The person who holds this position will unconsciously accept abuse as OK. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline I'm not OK and you are not OK. This is the worst position to be in as it means that I believe that I am in a terrible state and the rest of the world is as bad. Consequently there is no hope for any ultimate supports. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline It is a theory of communication that can be extended to the analysis of systems and organisations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline It offers a theory for child development by explaining how our adult patterns of life originated in childhood. This explanation is based on the idea of a "Life (or Childhood) Script": the assumption that we continue to re-play childhood strategies, even when this results in pain or defeat. Thus it claims to offer a theory of psychopathology. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline In practical application, it can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of many types of psychological disorders and provides a method of therapy for individuals, couples, families and groups. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Outline:

Transactional analysis - Outline Outside the therapeutic field, it has been used in education to help teachers remain in clear communication at an appropriate level, in counselling and consultancy, in management and communications training and by other bodies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Philosophy:

Transactional analysis - Philosophy People are OK; thus each person has validity, importance, equality of respect. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Philosophy:

Transactional analysis - Philosophy Everyone (with only few exceptions, such as the severely brain-damaged) has the capacity to think. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Philosophy:

Transactional analysis - Philosophy All of the many facets of an individual have a positive value for them in some way. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Philosophy:

Transactional analysis - Philosophy All emotional difficulties are curable. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Philosophy:

Transactional analysis - Philosophy Freedom from historical maladaptations embedded in the childhood script is required in order to become free of inappropriate, inauthentic and displaced emotions which are not a fair and honest reflection of here-and-now life (such as echoes of childhood suffering, pity-me and other mind games, compulsive behavior and repetitive dysfunctional life patterns) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - History:

Transactional analysis - History A primary difference between Berne and Freud is the former's treatment of the observable transactions known as "games" https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General TA is not only post-Freudian but, according to its founder's wishes, consciously extra-Freudian. That is to say that, while it has its roots in psychoanalysis, since Berne was a psychoanalytically-trained psychiatrist, it was designed as a dissenting branch of psychoanalysis in that it put its emphasis on transactional, rather than "psycho-", analysis. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General With its focus on transactions, TA shifted the attention from internal psychological dynamics to the dynamics contained in people's interactions. Rather than believing that increasing awareness of the contents of unconsciously held ideas was the therapeutic path, TA concentrated on the content of people's interactions with each other. Changing these interactions was TA's path to solving emotional problems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General TA also differs to Freudian analysis in explaining that an individual's final emotional state is the result of inner dialogue between different parts of the psyche, as opposed to the Freudian hypothesis that imagery is the overriding determinant of inner emotional state https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General In addition, Berne believed in making a commitment to "curing" his patients rather than just understanding them. To that end he introduced one of the most important aspects of TA: the contract—an agreement entered into by both client and therapist to pursue specific changes that the client desires. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General Revising Freud's concept of the human psyche as composed of the id, ego, and super-ego, Berne postulated in addition three "ego states"—the Parent, Adult, and Child states—which were largely shaped through childhood experiences. These three are all part of Freud's ego; none represent the id or the superego. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General Unhealthy childhood experiences can lead to these being pathologically fixated in the Child and Parent ego states, bringing discomfort to an individual and/or others in a variety of forms, including many types of mental illness. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General Analyzing these transactions according to the person's individual developmental history would enable the person to "get better" https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General Berne identified a typology of common counterproductive social interactions, identifying these as "games". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General Berne presented his theories in two popular books on transactional analysis: Games People Play (1964) and What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (1975). I'm OK, You're OK (1969), written by Berne's longtime friend Thomas Anthony Harris, is probably the most popular TA book. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General By the 1970s, because of TA's non-technical and non-threatening jargon and model of the human psyche, many of its terms and concepts were adopted by eclectic therapists as part of their individual approaches to psychotherapy https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - General:

Transactional analysis - General TA's popularity in the U.S. waned in the 1970s, but it retains some popularity elsewhere in the world. The more dedicated TA purists banded together in 1964 with Berne to form a research and professional accrediting body, the International Transactional Analysis Association, or ITAA. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Development:

Transactional analysis - Development Leaving psychoanalysis half a century ago, Eric Berne presented transactional analysis to the world as a phenomenological approach supplementing Freud's philosophical construct with observable data https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Development:

Transactional analysis - Development From Berne, transactional analysts have inherited a determination to create an accessible and user-friendly system, an understanding of script or life-plan, ego states, transactions, and a theory of groups. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Fifty years later:

Transactional analysis - Fifty years later Within the overarching framework of transactional analysis, more recent transactional analysts have developed several different and overlapping theories of Transactional Analysis: cognitive, behavioral, relational, redecision, integrative, constructivist, narrative, body-work, positive psychological, personality adaptational, self-reparenting, psychodynamic, and neuroconstructivist.. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Fifty years later:

Transactional analysis - Fifty years later Some transactional analysts highlight the many things they have in common with cognitive-behavioral therapists: the use of contracts with clear goals, the attention to cognitive distortions (called "Adult decontamination" or "Child deconfusion"), the focus on the client's conscious attitudes and behaviors and the use of "strokes". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Fifty years later:

Transactional analysis - Fifty years later Some make additional contracts for more profound work involving life-plans or scripts or with unconscious processes, including those which manifest in the client-therapist relationship as transference and countertransference, and define themselves as psychodynamic or relational transactional analysts https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Key ideas:

Transactional analysis - Key ideas Structural analysis - analysis of the individual psyche https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Key ideas:

Transactional analysis - Key ideas Transactional analysis proper - analysis of interpersonal transactions based on structural analysis of the individual's involved in the transaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Key ideas:

Transactional analysis - Key ideas Game analysis - repeating sequences of transactions that lead to a predetermined outcome subconsciously agreed to by the parties involved in the game https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Key ideas:

Transactional analysis - Key ideas Script analysis - a lifeplan that may involve long term involvement in particular games in order to reach the life pay-off of the individual https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model At any given time, a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture of behaviours, thoughts and feelings. Typically, according to TA, there are three ego-states that people consistently use: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Parent ("exteropsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions. For example, a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Adult ("neopsyche"): a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that could affect its operation. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Child ("archaeopsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. For example, a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor, and crying or pouting, as they used to when scolded as a child. Conversely, a person who receives a good evaluation may respond with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. The Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Berne differentiated his Parent, Adult, and Child ego states from actual adults, parents, and children, by using capital letters when describing them. These ego-states may or may not represent the relationships that they act out. For example, in the workplace, an adult supervisor may take on the Parent role, and scold an adult employee as though they were a Child. Or a child, using their Parent ego-state, could scold their actual parent as though the parent were a Child. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Within each of these ego states are subdivisions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Berne states that there are four types of diagnosis of ego states. They are: "behavioral" diagnosis, "social" diagnosis, "historical" diagnosis, and "phenomenological" diagnosis. A complete diagnosis would include all four types. It has subsequently been demonstrated that there is a fifth type of diagnosis, namely "contextual", because the same behavior will be diagnosed differently according to the context of the behavior. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Ego-states do not correspond directly to Sigmund Freud's Ego, Superego and Id, although there are obvious parallels: Superego/Parent; Ego/Adult; Id/Child. Ego states are consistent for each person, and (argue TA practitioners) are more observable than the components of Freud's model. In other words, the ego state from which someone is communicating is evident in his or her behavior, manner and expression. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model There is no "universal" ego-state. For example, each Child ego state is unique to the childhood experiences, mentality, intellect, and family of each individual; it is not a generalized childlike state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model One ego state can become contaminated from another ego state https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Ego-state symbiosis is also possible according to Berne. In a symbiotic relationship, one participant borrows an ego state from the other participant and incorporates it into their personality. For instance, soldiers may absolve themselves of the question of the morality of their actions by deferring to their superiors. In this case, the soldier has incorporated their superior's Parent ego state into their persona (e.g. Banality of evil). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Although TA theory claims that Ego states do not correspond directly to thinking, feeling, and judging, as these processes are present in every ego state, this claim appears to be self-contradictory to the claim that the Adult is like a computer processing information, therefore not feeling unless it is contaminated by the Child https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model Berne suspected that Parent, Adult, and Child ego states might be tied to specific areas of the human brain; an idea that has not been proved. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model The three ego state model has been questioned by a TA group in Australia, who have devised a "two ego-state model" as a means of solving perceived theoretical problems: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model:

Transactional analysis - The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model "The two ego-state model says that there is a Child ego-state and a Parent ego-state, placing the Adult ego-state with the Parent ego-state https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes:

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes Transactions are the flow of communication, and more specifically the unspoken psychological flow of communication that runs in parallel. Transactions occur simultaneously at both explicit and psychological levels. Example: sweet caring voice with sarcastic intent. To read the real communication requires both surface and non-verbal reading. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes:

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes Strokes are the recognition, attention or responsiveness that one person gives another. Strokes can be positive (nicknamed "warm fuzzies") or negative ("cold pricklies"). A key idea is that people hunger for recognition, and that lacking positive strokes, will seek whatever kind they can, even if it is recognition of a negative kind. We test out as children what strategies and behaviours seem to get us strokes, of whatever kind we can get. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes:

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes People often create pressure in (or experience pressure from) others to communicate in a way that matches their style, so that a boss who talks to his staff as a controlling parent will often engender self-abasement or other childlike responses. Those employees who resist may get removed or labeled as "trouble". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes:

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes Transactions can be experienced as positive or negative depending on the nature of the strokes within them. However, a negative transaction is preferred to no transaction at all, because of a fundamental hunger for strokes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes:

Transactional analysis - Transactions and Strokes The nature of transactions is important to understanding communication. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Kinds of transactions:

Transactional analysis - Kinds of transactions Ulterior - Duplex/Angular (the most complex) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in. These are also called complementary transactions. Example 1: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions A: "Have you written the report?" (Adult to Adult) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions B: "Yes - I'm about to email it to you." (Adult to Adult) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions A: "Would you like to skip this meeting and go watch a film with me instead?" (Child to Child) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions B: "I'd love to - I don't want to work anymore, what should we go and see?" (Child to Child) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions A: "You should have your room tidy by now!" (Parent to Child) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions:

Transactional analysis - Reciprocal or Complementary transactions Communication like this can continue indefinitely. (Clearly it will stop at some stage - but this psychologically balanced exchange of strokes can continue for some time). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners address ego states other than that their partner is in. Consider the above examples jumbled up a bit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions A: "Have you written that report?" (Adult to Adult) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions This is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace. A may respond with a Parent to Child transaction. For instance: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions A: "If you don't change your attitude, you'll get fired." https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions A: "I can never trust you to do things!" (Parent to Child) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions B: "Why don't you believe anything I say?" (Child to Parent) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions:

Transactional analysis - Crossed transactions ... which can continue indefinitely. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Ulterior transactions:

Transactional analysis - Ulterior transactions Another class of transaction is the ulterior transactions, where the explicit social conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction. For instance: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Ulterior transactions:

Transactional analysis - Ulterior transactions A: "I need you to stay late at the office with me." (Adult words), body language indicates sexual intent (flirtatious Child) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Ulterior transactions:

Transactional analysis - Ulterior transactions B: "Of course." (Adult response to Adult statement), winking or grinning (Child accepts the hidden motive). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions In TA theory,"Life Position" refers to the general feeling about life (specifically, the unconscious feeling, as opposed to a conscious philosophical position) that colours every dyadic (i.e. person-to-person) transaction. Initially four such Life Positions were proposed: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions Australian TA analyst, Tony White, claimed that in order to better represent the Life Position behind disorders that were not, allegedly, as widespread and/or recognized at the time when TA was conceptualized as they are now (such as borderline personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder) the above list requires alteration. Also, two additional Life Positions are proposed: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions "I'm not-OK, You're Irrelevant" (I-U?) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions "I'm a Bit More OK Than You Are" (I++U+) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions "I'm OK, You're Irrelevant" (I+U?) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions The difference between one's own OK-ness and other's OK-ness captured by description "I'm OK, You're not-OK" is proposed to be substituted by description that more accurately captures one's own feeling (not jumping to conclusions based only on one's perceived behavior), therefore stating the difference in a new way: "I'm not-OK, but You're worse" (I-U--), instead. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions Berne further developed life position theory to included more complex three handed life positions such as: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life positions:

Transactional analysis - Life positions In children responses such as, "Let's go and play and then we'll deal with those not OK people later" may be expected from this position, whereas in adults this position may lead to gang criminality. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script:

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script Script is decisional and responsive; i.e., decided upon in childhood in response to perceptions of the world and as a means of living with and making sense of the world. It is not just thrust upon a person by external forces. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script:

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script Script is reinforced by parents (or other influential figures and experiences). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script:

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script Script is for the most part outside awareness. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script:

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script Script is how we navigate and what we look for, the rest of reality is redefined (distorted) to match our filters. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script:

Transactional analysis - Life (or Childhood) script Each culture, country and people in the world has a Mythos, that is, a legend explaining its origins, core beliefs and purpose https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Redefining and Discounting:

Transactional analysis - Redefining and Discounting Redefining means the distortion of reality when we deliberately (but unconsciously) distort things to match our preferred way of seeing the world. Thus a person whose script involves "struggling alone against a cold hard world" may redefine others' kindness, concluding that others are trying to get something by manipulation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Redefining and Discounting:

Transactional analysis - Redefining and Discounting Discounting means, to take something as, worth less than it is. Thus to give a substitute reaction which does not originate as a here-and-now Adult attempt to solve an actual problem, or to choose not to see evidence that would contradict one's script. Types of discount can also include: passivity (doing nothing), over-adaptation, agitation, incapacitation, anger and violence. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers TA identifies twelve key injunctions which people commonly build into their scripts. These are injunctions in the sense of being powerful "I can't/mustn't ..." messages that embed into a child's belief and life-script: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers Don't make it in your life (Don't Succeed) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers "You should (or deserve to) have this happen in your life, so it doesn't have to happen to me." (Magical thinking on the part of the parent(s).) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers Against these, a child is often told other things he or she must do. There is debate as to whether there are five or six of these 'drivers': https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers Thus in creating his script, a child will often attempt to juggle these, example: "It's okay for me to go on living (ignore don't exist) so long as I try hard". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers This explains why some change is inordinately difficult. To continue the above example: When a person stops trying hard and relaxes to be with his family, the injunction You don't have the right to exist which was being suppressed by their script now becomes exposed and a vivid threat. Such an individual may feel a massive psychological pressure which he himself doesn't understand, to return to trying hard, in order to feel safe and justified (in a childlike way) in existing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers Driver behaviour is also detectable at a very small scale, for instance in instinctive responses to certain situations where driver behaviour is played out over five to twenty seconds. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers:

Transactional analysis - Injunctions and Drivers Broadly speaking, scripts can fall into Tragic, Heroic or Banal (or Non-Winner) varieties, depending on their rules. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Ways of time structuring:

Transactional analysis - Ways of time structuring There are six ways of structuring time by giving and receiving strokes: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Ways of time structuring:

Transactional analysis - Ways of time structuring This is sorted in accordance with stroke strength; Intimacy and Games in general allow for the most intensive strokes. Berne actually ordered them: Withdrawal, Ritual, Activity, Pastimes, Games, Intimacy. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals A ritual is a series of transactions that are complementary (reciprocal), stereotyped and based on social programming. Rituals usually comprise a series of strokes exchanged between two parties. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals For instance, two people may have a daily two stroke ritual, where, the first time they meet each day, each one greets the other with a "Hi". Others may have a four stroke ritual, such as: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals B: Hi! How are you? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals A: Getting along. What about you? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals B: Fine. See you around. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals The next time they meet in the day, they may not exchange any strokes at all, or may just acknowledge each other's presence with a curt nod. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals Some phenomena associated with daily rituals: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals If a person exchanges fewer strokes than expected, the other person may feel that he is either preoccupied or acting high and mighty. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals If a person exchanges more strokes than expected, the other person might wonder whether he is trying to butter him up or get on good terms for some vested interests. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rituals:

Transactional analysis - Rituals If two people do not meet for a long time, a backlog of strokes gets built up, so that the next time they meet, they may exchange a large number of strokes to catch up. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Pastimes:

Transactional analysis - Pastimes A pastime is a series of transactions that is complementary (reciprocal), semi-ritualistic, and is mainly intended as a time-structuring activity. Pastimes have no covert purpose and can usually be carried out only between people on the same wavelength. They are usually shallow and harmless. Pastimes are a type of smalltalk. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Pastimes:

Transactional analysis - Pastimes Individuals often partake in similar pastimes throughout their entire life, as pastimes are generally very much linked to one's life script and the games that one often plays https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Activities (Work):

Transactional analysis - Activities (Work) Activities in this context mean the individuals work together for a common goal. This may be work, sports or something similar. In contrast to Pastimes, there is a meaningful purpose guiding the interactions, while Pastimes are just about exchanging strokes. Strokes can then be given in the context of the cooperation. Thus the strokes are generally not personal, but related to the activity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Intimacy:

Transactional analysis - Intimacy Intimacy as a way of structuring time allows one to exchange the strongest strokes without playing a Game. Intimacy differs from Games as there is no covert purpose, and differs from Activities as there is no other process going on which defines a context of cooperation. Strokes are personal, relating to the other person, and often unconditional. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Definition of game:

Transactional analysis - Definition of game A game is a series of transactions that is complementary (reciprocal), ulterior, and proceeds towards a predictable outcome https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Definition of game:

Transactional analysis - Definition of game Berne identified dozens of games, noting that, regardless of when, where or by whom they were played, each game tended towards very similar structures in how many players or roles were involved, the rules of the game, and the game's goals. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Definition of game:

Transactional analysis - Definition of game Each game has a payoff for those playing it, such as the aim of earning sympathy, satisfaction, vindication, or some other emotion that usually reinforces the life script. The antithesis of a game, that is, the way to break it, lies in discovering how to deprive the actors of their payoff. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Definition of game:

Transactional analysis - Definition of game Students of transactional analysis have discovered that people who are accustomed to a game are willing to play it even as a different "actor" from what they originally were. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game:

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game One important aspect of a game is its number of players. Games may be two handed (that is, played by two players), three handed (that is, played by three players), or many handed. Three other quantitative variables are often useful to consider for games: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game:

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game Flexibility: The ability of the players to change the currency of the game (that is, the tools they use to play it). In a flexible game, players may shift from words, to money, to parts of the body. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game:

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game Second Degree Games are games that the players would like to conceal, though they may not cause irreversible damage. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game:

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game Third Degree Games are games that could lead to drastic harm to one or more of the parties concerned. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game:

Transactional analysis - Analysis of a game Games are also studied based on their: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Contrast with rational (mathematical) games:

Transactional analysis - Contrast with rational (mathematical) games Transactional game analysis is fundamentally different from rational or mathematical game analysis in the following senses: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Contrast with rational (mathematical) games:

Transactional analysis - Contrast with rational (mathematical) games The players do not always behave rationally in transactional analysis, but behave more like real people. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Contrast with rational (mathematical) games:

Transactional analysis - Contrast with rational (mathematical) games Their motives are often ulterior. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games Here are some of the most commonly found themes of games described in Games People Play by Eric Berne: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games YDYB: Why Don't You, Yes But. Historically, the first game discovered. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games WAHM: Why does this Always Happen to Me? (setting up a self-fulfilling prophecy) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games ITHY: I'm Only Trying to Help You (becoming a neglected martyr) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games LYAHF: Let's You and Him Fight (staging a love triangle) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games NIGYYSOB / NIGYSOB: Now I've Got You, You Son Of a Bitch (escalating minor disagreements or errors into major interpersonal conflicts) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games RAPO: A woman falsely cries 'rape' or threatens to; related to Buzz Off Buster, a milder version in which a woman flirts with a man and then rejects his advances https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games Berne argued that the logic of games is wholly subjective; one person's Parent state might interact with another's Child, rather than as Adult to Adult. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games:

Transactional analysis - Some commonly found games Games can also be analysed according to the Karpman drama triangle, that is, by the roles of Persecutor, Victim and Rescuer. The 'switch' is then when one of these having allowed stable roles to become established, suddenly switches role. The Victim becomes a Persecutor, and throws the previous Persecutor into the Victim role, or the Rescuer suddenly switches to become a Persecutor ("You never appreciate me helping you!"). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But The first such game theorized was Why don't you/Yes, but in which one player (White) would pose a problem as if seeking help, and the other player(s) (Black) would offer solutions (the "Why don't you?" suggestion). This game was noticed as many patients played it in therapy and psychiatry sessions, and inspired Berne to identify other interpersonal "games". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But White would point out a flaw in every Black player's solution (the "Yes, but" response), until they all gave up in frustration. For example, if someone's life script was "to be hurt many times, and suffer and make others feel bad when I die" a game of "Why Don't You, Yes But" might proceed as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But White: Yes but, I can't afford the payments for a gym. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But White: Yes but, I don't dare walk alone in my neighborhood after dark. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But Black: Why don't you take the stairs at work instead of the elevator? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But "Why Don't You, Yes But" can proceed indefinitely, with any number of players in the Black role, until Black's imagination is exhausted, and she can think of no other solutions. At this point, White "wins" by having stumped Black. After a silent pause following Black's final suggestion, the game is often brought to a formal end by a third role, Green, who makes a comment such as, "It just goes to show how difficult it is to lose weight." https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But The secondary gain for White was that he could claim to have justified his problem as insoluble and thus avoid the hard work of internal change; and for Black, to either feel the frustrated martyr ("I was only trying to help") or a superior being, disrespected ("the patient was uncooperative"). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But:

Transactional analysis - Why Don't You/Yes But Superficially, this game can resemble Adult to Adult interaction (people seeking information or advice), but more often, according to Berne, the game is played by White's helpless Child, and Black's lecturing Parent ego states. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - "Drunk" or "Alcoholic":

Transactional analysis - "Drunk" or "Alcoholic" Another example of Berne's approach was his identification of the game of "Drunk" or "Alcoholic." As he explained it, the transactional object of the drunk, aside from the personal pleasure obtained by drinking, could be seen as being to set up a situation where the Child can be severely scolded not only by the internal parent but by any parental figures in the immediate environment who are interested enough to oblige https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - "Drunk" or "Alcoholic":

Transactional analysis - "Drunk" or "Alcoholic" There are a variety of organizations involved in playing 'Alcoholic’, some of them national or even international in scope, others local https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - "Drunk" or "Alcoholic":

Transactional analysis - "Drunk" or "Alcoholic" According to this type of analysis, with the rise of rescue organizations which publicize that alcoholism is a disease rather than a transactional game, alcoholics have been taught to play "Wooden Leg", a different game in which an organic ailment absolves White of blame. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rackets:

Transactional analysis - Rackets A racket is the dual strategy of getting "permitted feelings," while covering up feelings which we truly feel, but which we regard as being "not allowed". More technically, a racket feeling is "a familiar set of emotions, learned and enhanced during childhood, experienced in many different stress situations, and maladaptive as an adult means of problem solving". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rackets:

Transactional analysis - Rackets A racket is then a set of behaviours which originate from the childhood script rather than in here-and-now full Adult thinking, which (1) are employed as a way to manipulate the environment to match the script rather than to actually solve the problem, and (2) whose covert goal is not so much to solve the problem, as to experience these racket feelings and feel internally justified in experiencing them. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Rackets:

Transactional analysis - Rackets Examples of racket and racket feelings: "Why do I meet good guys who turn out to be so hurtful", or "He always takes advantage of my goodwill" https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - TA and popular culture:

Transactional analysis - TA and popular culture Eric Berne's ability to express the ideas of TA in common language and his popularisation of the concepts in mass-market books inspired a boom of popular TA texts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - TA and popular culture:

Transactional analysis - TA and popular culture Thomas Harris's successful popular work from the late 1960s, I'm OK, You're OK is largely based on Transactional Analysis. A fundamental divergence, however, between Harris and Berne is that Berne postulates that everyone starts life in the "I'm OK" position, whereas Harris believes that life starts out "I'm not OK, you're OK". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - TA and popular culture:

Transactional analysis - TA and popular culture New Age author James Redfield has acknowledged Harris and Berne as important influences in his best-seller The Celestine Prophecy. The protagonists in the novel survive by striving (and succeeding) in escaping from "control dramas" that resemble the games of TA. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Popular):

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Popular) (1996) (Paperback reissue ed.) New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-41003-3. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Popular):

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Popular) (1975) A Layman's Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis (Paperback); 1975, Grove Press; ISBN 0-394-17833-5 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Popular):

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Popular) (1975) What Do You Say After You Say Hello? ISBN 0-552-09806-X. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Other):

Transactional analysis - Books by Eric Berne (Other) The Structure and Dynamics of Organizations and Groups. ISBN 0-345-23481-2. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Ian Stewart, Vann Joines - TA Today: A New Introduction to Transactional Analysis. ISBN 1-870244-00-1 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors (1990) (Paperback reissue ed.) Scripts People Live: Transactional Analysis of Life Scripts. New York: Grove Press By Claude Steiner ISBN 0-394-49267-6. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Celebrate Your Self. Corkille Briggs, Dorothy. (1986). Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group. ISBN 0-385-13105-4 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Steiner, Claude, and JoAnn Dick (illustrator). The Original Warm Fuzzy Tale: A Fairytale. Sacramento: Jalmar Press, 1977. ISBN 0-915190-08-7. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Born to Win: Transactional Analysis with Gestalt Experiments By Muriel James and Dorothy Jongeward (Addison-Wesley, 1971) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Working with suicidal individuals by Tony White. (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2011) ISBN 978-1-84905-115-6 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Working with drug and alcohol users by Tony White. (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2012) ISBN 978-1-84905-294-8 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors:

Transactional analysis - Books by other authors Clarke, Susan L. Clarke's Dictionary of Transactional Analysis [Paperback 2012] ISBN 978-1450720168, ISBN 1450720161 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership:

Transactional leadership In an experimental study conducted on the relationship between leaders' moral reasoning and subordinates' perceptions of leadership behaviors in three organizational samples drawn from two countries https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders:

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders "Set goals, articulate explicit agreements regarding what the leader expects from organizational members and how they will be rewarded for their efforts and commitment, and provide constructive feedback to keep everybody on task" (Vera & Crossan, 2004, p. 224). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders:

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders Transactional leaders focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures and are more concerned with following existing rules than with making changes to the structure of the organization. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders:

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders Thus, they operate most effectively in organizations that have evolved beyond the chaotic, no-rules stage of entrepreneurial development that characterizes so many new companies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders:

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders Transactional leadership establishes and standardizes practices that will help the organization reach maturity, emphasizing setting of goals, efficiency of operation, and increase of productivity. " https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders:

Transactional leadership - Textbook Edit: Transactional Leaders Leaders using transactional leadership as a model pay attention to followers' work in order to find faults and deviations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Maslow's hierarchy of needs:

Transactional leadership - Maslow's hierarchy of needs Transactional leaders are effective in getting specific tasks completed by managing each portion individually. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Maslow's hierarchy of needs:

Transactional leadership - Maslow's hierarchy of needs Transactional leaders are concerned with processes rather than forward-thinking ideas https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Maslow's hierarchy of needs:

Transactional leadership - Maslow's hierarchy of needs With transactional leadership being applied to the lower-level needs and being more managerial in style, it is a foundation for transformational leadership which applies to higher-level needs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Qualities of transactional leadership:

Transactional leadership - Qualities of transactional leadership Transactional leaders use reward and punishments to gain compliance from their followers. They are extrinsic motivators that bring minimal compliance from followers. They accept goals, structure, and the culture of the existing organization. Transactional leaders tend to be directive and action-oriented. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Qualities of transactional leadership:

Transactional leadership - Qualities of transactional leadership Transactional leadership is primarily passive. The behaviors most associated with this type of leadership are establishing the criteria for rewarding followers and maintaining the status quo. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Qualities of transactional leadership:

Transactional leadership - Qualities of transactional leadership Within transactional leadership, there are two factors, contingent reward and management-by-exception. Contingent reward provides rewards for effort and recognizes good performance. Management-by-exception maintains the status quo, intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels, and initiates corrective action to improve performance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership:

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership Transactional leaders tend to be more passive as transformational leaders demonstrate active behaviors that include providing a sense of mission. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership:

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership Works within the organizational culture Works to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership:

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership Employees achieve objectives through rewards and punishments set by leader Employees achieve objectives through higher ideals and moral values https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership:

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership Motivates followers by appealing to their own self-interest Motivates followers by encouraging them to put group interests first https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership:

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership Management-by-exception: maintain the status quo; stress correct actions to improve performance. Individualized consideration: Each behavior is directed to each individual to express consideration and support. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership:

Transactional leadership - Transactional vs. transformational leadership Intellectual stimulation: Promote creative and innovative ideas to solve problems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Theory Y and Theory X:

Transactional leadership - Theory Y and Theory X Douglas McGregor's Theory Y and Theory X can also be compared with these two leadership styles.Theory X can be compared with Transactional Leadership where managers need to rule by fear and consequences. In this style and theory, negative behavior is punished and employees are motivated through incentives. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Theory Y and Theory X:

Transactional leadership - Theory Y and Theory X Theory Y and Transformational Leadership are found to be similar, because the theory and style supports the idea that managers work to encourage their workers. Leaders assume the best of their employees. They believe them to be trusting, respectful, and self-motivated. The leaders help to supply the followers with tool they need to excel. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Examples of transactional leadership:

Transactional leadership - Examples of transactional leadership Coaches of athletic teams provide one example of transactional leadership. These leaders motivate their followers by promoting the reward of winning the game. They instill such a high level of commitment that their followers are willing to risk pain and injury to obtain the results that the leader is asking for. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transactional leadership - Examples of transactional leadership:

Transactional leadership - Examples of transactional leadership Another example of transactional leadership is former Wisconsin state senator, Joseph McCarthy https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

PCI Express - Transaction layer:

PCI Express - Transaction layer PCI Express implements split transactions (transactions with request and response separated by time), allowing the link to carry other traffic while the target device gathers data for the response. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

PCI Express - Transaction layer:

PCI Express - Transaction layer The device at the opposite end of the link, when sending transactions to this device, counts the number of credits each TLP consumes from its account https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

PCI Express - Transaction layer:

PCI Express - Transaction layer PCIe 1.x is often quoted to support a data rate of 250 MB/s in each direction, per lane https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

PCI Express - Transaction layer:

PCI Express - Transaction layer Like other high data rate serial interconnect systems, PCIe has a protocol and processing overhead due to the additional transfer robustness (CRC and acknowledgements) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AppleTalk - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol:

AppleTalk - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol ATP was the original reliable transport-level protocol for AppleTalk, built on top of DDP. At the time it was being developed, a full, reliable connection-oriented protocol like TCP was considered to be too expensive to implement for most of the intended uses of AppleTalk. Thus, ATP was a simple request/response exchange, with no need to set up or tear down connections. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AppleTalk - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol:

AppleTalk - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol An ATP request packet could be answered by up to eight response packets. The requestor then sent an acknowledgement packet containing a bit mask indicating which of the response packets it received, so the responder could retransmit the remainder. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AppleTalk - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol:

AppleTalk - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol ATP could operate in either "at-least-once" mode or "exactly-once" mode. Exactly-once mode was essential for operations which were not idempotent; in this mode, the responder kept a copy of the response buffers in memory until successful receipt of a release packet from the requestor, or until a timeout elapsed. This way, it could respond to duplicate requests with the same transaction ID by resending the same response data, without performing the actual operation again.** https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Object-relational impedance mismatch - Transactional differences:

Object-relational impedance mismatch - Transactional differences Transactions in relational databases are dynamically bounded sets of arbitrary data manipulations, whereas the granularity of transactions in OO languages is typically individual assignments of primitive typed fields https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

IBM Information Management System - Transaction Manager:

IBM Information Management System - Transaction Manager A transaction manager interacts with an end user (connected through VTAM or TCP/IP, including 3270 and Web user interfaces) or another application, processes a business function (such as a banking account withdrawal), and maintains state throughout the process, making sure that the system records the business function correctly to a data store https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

IBM Information Management System - Transaction Manager:

IBM Information Management System - Transaction Manager The message processing region retrieves the transaction from the IMS message queue and processes it, reading and updating IMS and/or DB2 databases, assuring proper recording of the transaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Eric Berne - Transactional analysis:

Eric Berne - Transactional analysis Berne mapped interpersonal relationships to three ego-states of the individuals involved: the Parent, Adult, and Child state. He then investigated communications between individuals based on the current state of each. He called these interpersonal interactions transactions and used the label games to refer to certain patterns of transactions which popped up repeatedly in everyday life. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Eric Berne - Transactional analysis:

Eric Berne - Transactional analysis His seminar group from the 1950s developed the term transactional analysis (TA) to describe therapies based on his work. By 1964, this expanded into the International Transactional Analysis Association. While still largely ignored by the psychoanalytic community, many therapists have put his ideas in practice. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Eric Berne - Transactional analysis:

Eric Berne - Transactional analysis In the early 1960s he published both technical and popular accounts of his conclusions. His first full-length book on TA was published in 1961, titled Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy. Structures and Dynamics of Organizations and Groups (1963) examined the same analysis in a broader context than one-on-one interaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Logic programming - Transaction logic programming:

Logic programming - Transaction logic programming Transaction logic is an extension of logic programming with a logical theory of state-modifying updates. It has both a model-theoretic semantics and a procedural one. An implementation of a subset of Transaction logic is available in the Flora-2 system. Other prototypes are also available. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing:

Transaction processing In computer science, transaction processing is information processing that is divided into individual, indivisible operations, called transactions. Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it cannot remain in an intermediate state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing:

Transaction processing Since most, though not necessarily all, transaction processing today is interactive the term is often treated as synonymous with online transaction processing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Description:

Transaction processing - Description Transaction processing is designed to maintain a database Integrity (typically a database or some modern filesystems) in a known, consistent state, by ensuring that interdependent operations on the system are either all completed successfully or all canceled successfully. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Description:

Transaction processing - Description This transaction involves at least two separate operations in computer terms: debiting the savings account by $700, and crediting the checking account by $700 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Description:

Transaction processing - Description If all operations of a transaction are completed successfully, the transaction is committed by the system, and all changes to the database are made permanent; the transaction cannot be rolled back once this is done. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Description:

Transaction processing - Description Transaction processing guards against hardware and software errors that might leave a transaction partially completed. If the computer system crashes in the middle of a transaction, the transaction processing system guarantees that all operations in any uncommitted transactions are cancelled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Description:

Transaction processing - Description In our example, this means that no matter which transaction was issued first, either the transfer to a different person or the move to the checking account succeeds, while the other one fails. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Methodology:

Transaction processing - Methodology The basic principles of all transaction-processing systems are the same. However, the terminology may vary from one transaction-processing system to another, and the terms used below are not necessarily universal. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Rollback:

Transaction processing - Rollback If any part of the transaction fails before it is committed, these copies are used to restore the database to the state it was in before the transaction began. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Rollforward:

Transaction processing - Rollforward The result is a database in a consistent, known state that includes the results of all transactions committed up to the moment of failure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Deadlocks:

Transaction processing - Deadlocks Or sometimes, just one of the deadlocked transactions will be cancelled, rolled back, and automatically restarted after a short delay. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Deadlocks:

Transaction processing - Deadlocks Deadlocks can also occur between three or more transactions. The more transactions involved, the more difficult they are to detect, to the point that transaction processing systems find there is a practical limit to the deadlocks they can detect. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Compensating transaction:

Transaction processing - Compensating transaction In systems where commit and rollback mechanisms are not available or undesirable, a compensating transaction is often used to undo failed transactions and restore the system to a previous state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - ACID criteria:

Transaction processing - ACID criteria Jim Gray defined properties of a reliable transaction system in the late 1970s under the acronym ACID — atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Atomicity:

Transaction processing - Atomicity A transaction’s changes to the state are atomic: either all happen or none happen. These changes include database changes, messages, and actions on transducers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Consistency:

Transaction processing - Consistency Consistency: A transaction is a correct transformation of the state. The actions taken as a group do not violate any of the integrity constraints associated with the state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Isolation:

Transaction processing - Isolation Even though transactions execute concurrently, it appears to each transaction T, that others executed either before T or after T, but not both. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Durability:

Transaction processing - Durability Once a transaction completes successfully (commits), its changes to the state survive failures. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Benefits:

Transaction processing - Benefits It allows sharing of computer resources among many users https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Benefits:

Transaction processing - Benefits It shifts the time of job processing to when the computing resources are less busy https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Benefits:

Transaction processing - Benefits It avoids idling the computing resources without minute-by-minute human interaction and supervision https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Benefits:

Transaction processing - Benefits It is used on expensive classes of computers to help amortize the cost by keeping high rates of utilization of those expensive resources https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Implementations:

Transaction processing - Implementations Today a number of transaction processing systems are available that work at the inter-program level and which scale to large systems, including mainframes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Implementations:

Transaction processing - Implementations One well-known (and open) industry standard is the X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) (see also JTA the Java Transaction API). However, proprietary transaction-processing environments such as IBM's CICS are still very popular, although CICS has evolved to include open industry standards as well. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Implementations:

Transaction processing - Implementations The term 'Extreme Transaction Processing' (XTP) has been used to describe transaction processing systems with uncommonly challenging requirements, particularly throughput requirements (transactions per second). Such systems may be implemented via distributed or cluster style architectures. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Further reading:

Transaction processing - Further reading Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen, Transactional information systems: theory, algorithms, and the practice of concurrency control and recovery, Morgan Kaufmann, 2002, ISBN 1-55860-508-8 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Further reading:

Transaction processing - Further reading Jim Gray, Andreas Reuter, Transaction Processing — Concepts and Techniques, 1993, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 1-55860-190-2 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction processing - Further reading:

Transaction processing - Further reading Philip A. Bernstein, Eric Newcomer, Principles of Transaction Processing, 1997, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 1-55860-415-4 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule HIPAA was intended to make the health care system in the United States more efficient by standardizing health care transactions. HIPAA added a new Part C titled "Administrative Simplification" to Title XI of the Social Security Act. This is supposed to simplify health care transactions by requiring all health plans to engage in health care transactions in a standardized way. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule The HIPAA/EDI provision was scheduled to take effect from October 16, 2003 with a one-year extension for certain "small plans" https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule After July 1, 2005 most medical providers that file electronically did have to file their electronic claims using the HIPAA standards in order to be paid. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule Under HIPAA, HIPAA-covered health plans are now required to use standardized HIPAA electronic transactions. See, 42 USC § 1320d-2 and 45 CFR Part 162. Information about this can be found in the final rule for HIPAA electronic transaction standards (74 Fed. Reg. 3296, published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2009), and on the CMS website here:CMS information on HIPAA standardized electronic transactions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule Key EDI(X12) transactions used for HIPAA compliance are: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Health Care Claim Transaction set (837) is used to submit health care claim billing information, encounter information, or both, except for retail pharmacy claims (see EDI Retail Pharmacy Claim Transaction) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule For example, a state mental health agency may mandate all healthcare claims, Providers and health plans who trade professional (medical) health care claims electronically must use the 837 Health Care Claim: Professional standard to send in claims. As there are many different business applications for the Health Care claim, there can be slight derivations to cover off claims involving unique claims such as for Institutions, Professionals, Chiropractors, and Dentists etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Retail Pharmacy Claim Transaction (NCPDP Telecommunications Standard version 5.1) is used to submit retail pharmacy claims to payers by health care professionals who dispense medications, either directly or via intermediary billers and claims clearinghouses https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Health Care Claim Payment/Advice Transaction Set (835) can be used to make a payment, send an Explanation of Benefits (EOB), send an Explanation of Payments (EOP) remittance advice, or make a payment and send an EOP remittance advice only from a health insurer to a health care provider either directly or via a financial institution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Benefit Enrollment and Maintenance Set (834) can be used by employers, unions, government agencies, associations or insurance agencies to enroll members to a payer https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Payroll Deducted and other group Premium Payment for Insurance Products (820) is a transaction set which can be used to make a premium payment for insurance products. It can be used to order a financial institution to make a payment to a payee. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Health Care Eligibility/Benefit Inquiry (270) is used to inquire about the health care benefits and eligibility associated with a subscriber or dependent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Health Care Eligibility/Benefit Response (271) is used to respond to a request inquiry about the health care benefits and eligibility associated with a subscriber or dependent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Health Care Claim Status Request (276) This transaction set can be used by a provider, recipient of health care products or services or their authorized agent to request the status of a health care claim. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule This transaction set is not intended to replace the Health Care Claim Payment/Advice Transaction Set (835) and therefore, is not used for account payment posting https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule EDI Health Care Service Review Information (278) This transaction set can be used to transmit health care service information, such as subscriber, patient, demographic, diagnosis or treatment data for the purpose of request for review, certification, notification or reporting the outcome of a health care services review. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Transactions and Code Sets Rule This standard does not cover the semantic meaning of the information encoded in the transaction sets. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Brief 5010 Transactions and Code Sets Rules Update Summary:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Brief 5010 Transactions and Code Sets Rules Update Summary 2) The size of many fields {segment elements} will be expanded, causing a need for all IT providers to expand corresponding fields, element, files, GUI, paper media and databases. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Brief 5010 Transactions and Code Sets Rules Update Summary:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Brief 5010 Transactions and Code Sets Rules Update Summary 4) Many segments have been added to existing Transaction Sets allowing greater tracking and reporting of cost and patient encounters. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Brief 5010 Transactions and Code Sets Rules Update Summary:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - Brief 5010 Transactions and Code Sets Rules Update Summary 5) Capacity to use both "International Classification of Diseases" versions 9 (ICD-9) and 10 (ICD-10-CM) has been added. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management Business transaction management https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management BTM provides visibility into the flow of transactions across infrastructure tiers, including a dynamic mapping of the application topology. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management Using BTM, application support teams are able to search for transactions based on message context and content – for instance, time of arrival or message type – providing a way to isolate causes for common issues such as application exceptions, stalled transactions, and lower-level issues such as incorrect data values. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management The main benefit of BTM is its capacity to identify precisely where transactions are delayed within the IT infrastructure https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management Modern applications have become more complex, modular, distributed, interdependent and sensitive to environmental conditions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management IT infrastructure has become a complex multi-tier (see multitier architecture) environment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management:

Business transaction management The rise of service-oriented architecture in systems development. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications BTM solutions capture all of the transaction instances in the production environment and as such can be used for monitoring as well as for analysis and planning. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Some applications include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Outage avoidance and problem isolation: Identification and isolation of tier-specific performance and availability issues. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Service level management: Monitoring of SLAs and alerting of threshold breaches both at the end-user and infrastructure tier level. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Infrastructure optimization: Modification of the configuration of data center infrastructure to maximize utilization and improve performance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Capacity planning: Analysis of usage and performance trends in order to estimate future capacity requirements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Change management: Analysis of the impact of change on transaction execution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Applications:

Business transaction management - Applications Cloud management: Track the end-to-end transaction flow across both cloud (private, hybrid, public) and dedicated (on-premise, off-premise) infrastructure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Transaction discovery methods:

Business transaction management - Transaction discovery methods BTM systems track each of the hops in the transaction path using a variety of data collection methods including OS-level sockets, network packet sniffing, log parsing, agent-based middleware protocol sniffing, and others. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Relationship to application performance management:

Business transaction management - Relationship to application performance management It works alongside other IT monitoring systems including End-User Experience Monitoring, Synthetic Transaction Monitoring, Deep-Dive Monitoring and Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) solutions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Business transaction management - Relationship to virtualization and cloud computing:

Business transaction management - Relationship to virtualization and cloud computing In public and hybrid cloud architectures, BTM has the ability to profile transactions from the datacenter, to the cloud provider, and back. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Man-in-the-browser - Out-of-band transaction verification:

Man-in-the-browser - Out-of-band transaction verification The downside is that the OOB transaction verification adds to the level of the end-user's frustration with more and slower steps. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Distributed operating system - Transaction abstraction:

Distributed operating system - Transaction abstraction Transactional memory: architectural support for lock-free data structures https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Distributed operating system - Transaction abstraction:

Distributed operating system - Transaction abstraction Software transactional memory for dynamic-sized data structures https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions:

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions SIP makes use of transactions to control the exchanges between participants and deliver messages reliably. The transactions maintain an internal state and make use of timers. Client Transactions send requests and Server Transactions respond to those requests with one-or-more responses. The responses may include zero-or-more Provisional (1xx) responses and one-or-more final (2xx-6xx) responses. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions:

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions Transactions are further categorized as either Invite or Non-Invite. Invite transactions differ in that they can establish a long-running conversation, referred to as a Dialog in SIP, and so include an acknowledgment (ACK) of any non-failing final response (e.g. 200 OK). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions:

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions Because of these transactional mechanisms, SIP can make use of un-reliable transports such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions:

Session Initiation Protocol - Transactions On delivery of the ACK (2) both sides of the transaction are complete https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Litecoin - Transactions:

Litecoin - Transactions A peer-to-peer network similar to Bitcoin's handles Litecoin's transactions, balances and issuance through scrypt, the proof-of-work scheme (Litecoins are issued when a small enough hash value is found, at which point a block is created, the process of finding these hashes and creating blocks is called mining). The issuing rate forms a geometric series, and the rate halves every 4 years (every 840,000 blocks) reaching a final total of 84 million LTC. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Litecoin - Transactions:

Litecoin - Transactions Litecoins are currently traded primarily for both fiat currencies and other cryptocurrencies, mostly on online exchanges. Reversible transactions (such as those with credit cards) are not normally used to buy litecoins as Litecoin transactions are irreversible, to avoid the danger of chargebacks. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database management system - Transactions and concurrency:

Database management system - Transactions and concurrency Each transaction has well defined boundaries in terms of which program/code executions are included in that transaction (determined by the transaction's programmer via special transaction commands). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Database management system - Transactions and concurrency:

Database management system - Transactions and concurrency The acronym ACID describes some ideal properties of a database transaction: Atomicity (database systems)|Atomicity, Consistency (database systems)|Consistency, Isolation (database systems)|Isolation, and Durability (database systems)|Durability. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

ABAP - Transactions:

ABAP - Transactions Transactions can also be invoked programmatically by means of the ABAP statements CALL TRANSACTION and LEAVE TO TRANSACTION. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

ABAP - Transactions:

ABAP - Transactions Transaction for ABAP Workbench could be invoked using transaction code SE80 to work on all ABAP development related activities. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Application Response Measurement - ARM Transaction:

Application Response Measurement - ARM Transaction Additionally special metrics or context properties can be associated with a transaction measurement. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction:

Financial transaction This is known as a two-part transaction: part one is giving the money, part two is receiving the goods. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - History:

Financial transaction - History In ancient times non-financial transactions were commonly conducted through systems of credit, in which goods and services were exchanged for a promise of future recompense. Credit has certain disadvantages, including the requirement that traders or their intermediaries trust one another, or trust that authorities exist who can be relied on to enforce agreements. Debts must eventually be settled either with goods or by payment of money, a substance of agreed value such as gold and silver. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - History:

Financial transaction - History Systems of credit are evident throughout recorded history and from archeology. By contrast little evidence has been found of widespread use of pure barter, where traders meet face to face and transactions are completed in a single swap. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - History:

Financial transaction - History As fixed exchange-rate system|fixed currencies were gradually replaced by floating exchange rate|floating currencies during the 20th century, and as the recent development of computer networks made electronic money possible, financial transactions have rapidly increased in speed and complexity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Present situation:

Financial transaction - Present situation In 1997, billion dollars were exchanged per day on the foreign exchange market, roughly billion dollars annually. Jean de Maillard, Un monde sans loi : La criminalité financière en images, 1999, Éditions Stock, ISBN 2-234-04827-3, page 28. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Present situation:

Financial transaction - Present situation The world financial transactions have jumped from quadrillion dollars in 2002 to quadrillion dollars in 2008. 95% of this is speculation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Purchase:

Financial transaction - Purchase This is the most common type of financial transaction. An item or good is exchanged for money. This transaction results in a decrease in the finances of the purchaser and an increase in the benefits of the sellers. An example is a real estate transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Loan:

Financial transaction - Loan This is a slightly more complicated transaction in which the lender gives a single large amount of money to the borrower now in return for many smaller repayments of the borrower to the lender over time, usually on a fixed schedule. The smaller delayed repayments usually add up to more than the first large amount. The difference in payments is called interest. Here, money is given for not any specific reason. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Mortgage:

Financial transaction - Mortgage This is a combined loan and purchase in which a lender gives a large amount of money to a borrower for the specific purpose of purchasing a very expensive item (most often a house). As part of the transaction, the borrower usually agrees to give the item (or some other high value item) to the lender if the loan is not paid back on time. This guarantee of repayment is known as collateral (finance)|collateral. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Bank account :

Financial transaction - Bank account In return, the bank gets to use the money for other financial transactions as long as they hold it. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Credit card:

Financial transaction - Credit card This is a special combination of a purchase and a loan https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Credit card:

Financial transaction - Credit card In order to collect the money for their item, the seller must apply to the Creditcard company with a signed receipt. Sellers usually apply for many payments at regular intervals. The seller is also charged a fee of normally 1-3% of the purchase price by the Creditcard company for the privilege of accepting that brand of Creditcard for purchases. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Credit card:

Financial transaction - Credit card Thus, in a Creditcard purchase, the transfer of the item is immediate, but all payments are delayed. The Creditcard holder receives a monthly account of all transactions. The billing delay may be long enough to defer a purchase payment to the bill after the next one. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Financial transaction - Debit card:

Financial transaction - Debit card This is a special type of purchase https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process When a customer orders a product from a payment gateway-enabled merchant, the payment gateway performs a variety of tasks to process the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # A customer places order on website by pressing the 'Submit Order' or equivalent button, or perhaps enters their card details using an automatic phone answering service. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process The payment gateway may allow transaction data to be sent directly from the customer's browser to the gateway, bypassing the merchant's systems https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The merchant then forwards the transaction details to their payment gateway. This is another (Secure Sockets Layer|SSL) encrypted connection to the payment server hosted by the payment gateway. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The payment gateway forwards the transaction information to the payment processor used by the merchant's acquiring bank. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The payment processor forwards the transaction information to the card association (e.g., Visa/MasterCard/American Express). If an American Express or Discover Card was used, then the processor acts as the issuing bank and directly provides a response of approved or declined to the payment gateway. Otherwise , the card association routes the transaction to the correct card issuing bank. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process In addition to communicating the fate of the authorization request, the response code is used to define the reason why the transaction failed (such as insufficient funds, or bank link not available) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The processor forwards the authorization response to the payment gateway (see list Payment Gateway List|here) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The payment gateway receives the response, and forwards it on to the website (or whatever interface was used to process the payment) where it is interpreted as a relevant response then relayed back to the merchant and cardholder. This is known as the Authorization or Auth https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The merchant then fulfills the order and the above process is repeated but this time to Clear the authorization by consummating the transaction. Typically the Clear is initiated only after the merchant has fulfilled the transaction (e.g.: shipped the order). This results in the issuing bank 'clearing' the 'auth' (i.e.: moves auth-hold to a debit) and prepares them to settle with the merchant acquiring bank. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The merchant submits all their approved authorizations, in a batch (e.g.: end of day), to their acquiring bank for settlement via its processor. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The acquiring bank makes the batch settlement request of the Creditcard issuer. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The Creditcard issuer makes a settlement payment to the acquiring bank (e.g.: the next day) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The acquiring bank subsequently deposits the total of the approved funds into the merchant's nominated account (e.g.: the day after). This could be an account with the acquiring bank if the merchant does their banking with the same bank, or an account with another bank. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process # The entire process from authorization to settlement to funding typically takes 3 days. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process:

Payment gateway - Typical transaction process Many payment gateways also provide tools to automatically screen orders for fraud and calculate tax in real time prior to the authorization request being sent to the processor. Tools to detect fraud include geolocation, velocity pattern analysis, OFAC list lookups, 'black-list' lookups, delivery address verification, computer finger printing technology, identity morphing detection, and basic Address Verification System|AVS checks. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory According to Ronald Coase, people begin to organise their production in firms when the transaction cost of coordinating production through the market exchange, given imperfect information, is greater than within the firm. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory He notes that a firm’s interactions with the market may not be under its control (for instance because of sales taxes), but its internal allocation of resources are: “Within a firm, … market transactions are eliminated and in place of the complicated market structure with exchange transactions is substituted the entrepreneur … who directs production.” He asks why alternative methods of production (such as the Bid-offer spread|price mechanism and economic interventionism|economic planning), could not either achieve all production, so that either firms use internal prices for all their production, or one big firm runs the entire economy https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory Coase begins from the standpoint that markets could in theory carry out all production, and that what needs to be explained is the existence of the firm, with its distinguishing mark … [of] the supersession of the price mechanism. Coase identifies some reasons why firms might arise, and dismisses each as unimportant: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory # if some people prefer to work under direction and are prepared to pay for the privilege (but this is unlikely); https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory # if some people prefer to direct others and are prepared to pay for this (but generally people are paid more to direct others); https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory # if purchasers prefer goods produced by firms. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory These include discovering relevant prices (which can be reduced but not eliminated by purchasing this information through specialists), as well as the costs of negotiating and writing enforceable contracts for each transaction (which can be large if there is uncertainty) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory If a firm operated internally under the market system, many contracts would be required (for instance, even for procuring a pen or delivering a presentation) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory He notes that government measures relating to the market (sales taxes, rationing, price controls) tend to increase the size of firms, since firms internally would not be subject to such transaction costs. Thus, Coase defines the firm as the system of relationships which comes into existence when the direction of resources is dependent on the entrepreneur. We can therefore think of a firm as getting larger or smaller based on whether the entrepreneur organises more or fewer transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory (At the lower limit, the firm’s costs exceed the market’s costs, and it does not come into existence.) In practice, diminishing returns to management contribute most to raising the costs of organising a large firm, particularly in large firms with many different plants and differing internal transactions (such as a Conglomerate (company)|conglomerate), or if the relevant prices change frequently https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Transaction cost theory Coase concludes by saying that the size of the firm is dependent on the costs of using the price mechanism, and on the costs of organisation of other entrepreneurs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Reconsiderations of transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Reconsiderations of transaction cost theory According to Putterman, most economists accept distinction between intra-firm and interfirm transaction but also that the two shade into each other; the extent of a firm is not simply defined by its capital stock. Richardson for example, notes that a rigid distinction fails because of the existence of intermediate forms between firm and market such as inter-firm co-operation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Reconsiderations of transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Reconsiderations of transaction cost theory Klein (1983) asserts that “Economists now recognise that such a sharp distinction does not exist and that it is useful to consider also transactions occurring within the firm as representing market (contractual) relationships.” The costs involved in such transactions that are within a firm or even between the firms are the transaction costs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Theory of the firm - Reconsiderations of transaction cost theory:

Theory of the firm - Reconsiderations of transaction cost theory Ultimately, whether the firm constitutes a domain of bureaucratic direction that is shielded from market forces or simply “a legal fiction”, “a nexus for a set of contracting relationships among individuals” (as Michael Jensen|Jensen and William H. Meckling|Meckling put it) is “a function of the completeness of markets and the ability of market forces to penetrate intra-firm relationships”. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Carbonado (Java) - Transactions :

Carbonado (Java) - Transactions Database transaction|Transactions are created from a Repository instance, and they define a Thread-local storage|thread-local scope. Multiple persist operations are automatically grouped together, and commit must be called to complete the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Carbonado (Java) - Transactions :

Carbonado (Java) - Transactions This design approach shows how Carbonado is not like an O/R mapping framework. Such frameworks typically hide the concept of transactions entirely, often by using sessions which track changes. In Carbonado, all actions are direct. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Phishing - Transaction verification and signing:

Phishing - Transaction verification and signing Solutions have also emerged using the mobile phone[http://www.safesigner.com Using the smartphone to verify and sign online banking transactions], SafeSigner. (smartphone) as a second channel for verification and authorization of banking transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mental accounting - Mental accounting, utility, value and transaction :

Mental accounting - Mental accounting, utility, value and transaction In mental accounting theory, framing means that the way a person subjectively frames a transaction in their mind will determine the utility they receive or expect. This concept is similarly used in prospect theory, and many mental accounting theorists adopt that theory as the value function (prospect theory)|value function in their analysis. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mental accounting - Mental accounting, utility, value and transaction :

Mental accounting - Mental accounting, utility, value and transaction If the price is lower than the reference price, the transaction utility is positive. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A:

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences' is a biweekly Peer review|peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society. It publishes original research in a wide range of physical scientific disciplines. Articles can be accessed online a few months prior to the printed journal. All articles become freely accessible two years after their publication date. The current editor-in-chief is Dave Garner (University of Nottingham). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - Overview :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - Overview Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A publishes themed issues covering a specific area of the Mathematics|mathematical, Physics|physical, and engineering sciences https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - History :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - History The journal was established in March 1665 as Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. In 1887, the journal expanded to become two separate publications: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (biological sciences) and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (physical sciences). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - Impact :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - Impact According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2010 impact factor is 2.627, ranking it 6th out of 57 journals in the category Multidisciplinary Sciences. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobil - Lukoil transaction:

Mobil - Lukoil transaction In 2000, Lukoil purchased the remaining assets of Getty Oil, and began opening Lukoil stations in the US in 2003. Most of the US Lukoil locations are converted Getty stations, although some are also converted Mobil stations bought from ConocoPhillips when that company left the Northeast. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobil - Lukoil transaction:

Mobil - Lukoil transaction In Spring 2004, Lukoil purchased 779 Mobil gas stations throughout New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and in 2005 began converting them to the Lukoil brand. Most New Jersey Mobil locations were converted to Lukoil stations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences' (or 'Philosophical Transactions B') is a biweekly Peer review|peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society. The current editor-in-chief is Linda Partridge (University College London). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview Each issue covers a specific area of the biology|biological sciences. The themes fall into one of four cluster categories: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview * Environment and Evolution https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview * Neuroscience and Cognition https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - Overview Past issue titles include What next for stem cell biology?, The neurobiology of violence, The impact of population growth on tomorrow's world, and Human evolution, migration and history revealed by genetics, immunity and infection. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - History :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - History In 1887 the journal expanded to become two separate publications, one serving the physical sciences, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences, and the other focusing on the life sciences, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Electric utility - Power transactions:

Electric utility - Power transactions Authority for those transactions has been pre-approved under interconnection agreements signed by all the electric utilities physically interconnected or with coordination agreements among utilities that are not connected. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Bitcoin - Transactions :

Bitcoin - Transactions Solving the cryptographic puzzle required to append a block currently carries a reward of 25 bitcoins plus fees included in transactions in the block https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File systems - Transactional file systems:

File systems - Transactional file systems Some programs need to update multiple files all at once. For example, a software installation may write program binaries, libraries, and configuration files. If the software installation fails, the program may be unusable. If the installation is upgrading a key system utility, such as the command shell (computing)|shell, the entire system may be left in an unusable state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File systems - Transactional file systems:

File systems - Transactional file systems Transaction processing introduces the Isolation (database systems)|isolation guarantee, which states that operations within a transaction are hidden from other threads on the system until the transaction commits, and that interfering operations on the system will be properly Serialization|serialized with the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File systems - Transactional file systems:

File systems - Transactional file systems Windows, beginning with Vista, added transaction support to NTFS, in a feature called Transactional NTFS, but its use is now discouraged.http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/hh802690(v=vs.85).aspx There are a number of research prototypes of transactional file systems for UNIX systems, including the Valor file system,Spillane, Richard; Gaikwad, Sachin; Chinni, Manjunath; Zadok, Erez and Wright, Charles P.; 2009; [http://www.fsl.cs.sunysb.edu/docs/valor/valor_fast2009.pdf Enabling transactional file access via lightweight kernel extensions]; Seventh USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST 2009) Amino,Wright, Charles P.; Spillane, Richard; Sivathanu, Gopalan; Zadok, Erez; 2007; [http://www.fsl.cs.sunysb.edu/docs/amino-tos06/amino.pdf Extending ACID Semantics to the File System]; ACM Transactions on Storage LFS,Selzter, Margo I.; 1993; [http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~margo/papers/icde93/paper.pdf Transaction Support in a Log-Structured File System]; Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Data Engineering and a transactional ext3 file system on the TxOS kernel,Porter, Donald E.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Rossbach, Christopher J.; Benn, Alexander and Witchel, Emmett; 2009; [http://www.sigops.org/sosp/sosp09/papers/porter-sosp09.pdf Operating System Transactions]; In the Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '09), Big Sky, MT, October 2009. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

File systems - Transactional file systems:

File systems - Transactional file systems as well as transactional file systems targeting embedded systems, such as TFFS.Gal, Eran; Toledo, Sivan; [http://www.usenix.org/event/usenix05/tech/general/full_papers/gal/gal.pdf A Transactional Flash File System for Microcontrollers] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Performance Council:

Transaction Processing Performance Council 'Transaction Processing Performance Council' (TPC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1988 to define transaction processing and database benchmarks and to disseminate objective, verifiable TPC performance data to the industry. TPC benchmarks are used in evaluating the performance of computer systems; the results are published on the TPC web site. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference:

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference TPC holds an International Technology Conference Series on Performance Evaluation Benchmarking. This included the following events: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference:

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference * The first TPCTC was collocated with the 35th International Conference on Very Large Databases (VLDB), on August 24, 2009 in Lyon, France. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference:

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference * TPCTC 2011 was collocated with the 37th International Conference on Very Large Databases on August 29, 2011 in Seattle, Washington. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference:

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference * TPCTC 2012 was co-located with the 38th International Conference on Very Large Databases on August 27, 2012 in Istanbul|Istanbul,Turkey. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference:

Transaction Processing Performance Council - Conference * TPCTC 2013 was co-located with the 39th International Conference on Very Large Databases on August 26, 2013 in Trento|Trento, Italy. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

E-mail marketing - Transactional emails:

E-mail marketing - Transactional emails Transactional emails are usually triggered based on a customer’s action with a company. Triggered transactional messages include dropped basket messages, purchase or order confirmation emails and email receipts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

E-mail marketing - Transactional emails:

E-mail marketing - Transactional emails But, due to its high open rates (51.3% compared to 36.6% for email newsletters) transactional emails are a golden opportunity to engage customers; to introduce or extend the email relationship with customers or subscribers, to anticipate and answer questions or to cross-sell or up-sell products or services.McDonald, Loren (April 23, 2009) [http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/104687/ Transactional Emails: Make Your First Impression Count] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

E-mail marketing - Transactional emails:

E-mail marketing - Transactional emails Many email newsletter software vendors offer transactional email support, which gives companies the ability to include promotional messages within the body of transactional emails. There are also software vendors that offer specialized transactional email marketing services, which include providing targeted and personalized transactional email messages and running specific marketing campaigns (such as Referral marketing|customer referral programs). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

EBay.com - Profit and transactions:

EBay.com - Profit and transactions eBay generates revenue from various fees https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

EBay.com - Profit and transactions:

EBay.com - Profit and transactions However, most sellers that operate as a full-time business do follow state tax regulations on their eBay transactions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

EBay.com - Profit and transactions:

EBay.com - Profit and transactions The company's current business strategy includes increasing international trade https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

EBay.com - Profit and transactions:

EBay.com - Profit and transactions On April 18, 2012 eBay reported a 29% Q1 revenue increase to $3.3 billion compared to their Q1 in 2011. Net income was reported to be at $570 million for the quarter.Rao, Leena. April 18, 2012. eBay Beats; Q1 Revenue Up 29 Percent To $3.3B; Net Income Up 20 Percent. http://techcrunch.com/2012/04/18/ebay-beats-q1-revenue-up-29-percent-to-3-3b-net-income-up-20-percent/ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction:

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 'ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction' is a peer review|peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on human–computer interaction. It was established in 1994 and is published by the Association for Computing Machinery. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction - Editors-in-chief :

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction - Editors-in-chief The following persons have been editors-in-chief of the journal: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time Transaction time records the time period during which a database entry is accepted as correct. This enables queries that show the state of the database at a given time. Transaction time periods can only occur in the past or up to the current time. In a transaction time table, records are never deleted. Only new records can be inserted, and existing ones updated by setting their transaction end time to show that they are no longer current. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time To enable transaction time in the example above, two more fields are added to the Person table: Transaction-From and Transaction-To. Transaction-From is the time a transaction was made, and Transaction-To is the time that the transaction was superseded (which may be infinity if it has not yet been superseded). This makes the table into a #Bitemporal_relations|bitemporal table. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time What happens if the person's address as stored in the database is incorrect? Suppose an official accidentally entered the wrong address or date? Or, suppose the person lied about their address for some reason. Upon discovery of the error, the officials update the database to correct the information recorded. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time For example, from 1-Jun-1995 to 3-Sep-2000 John Doe moved to Beachy. But to avoid paying Beachy's exorbitant residence tax, he never reported it to the authorities. Later during a tax investigation it is discovered on 2-Feb-2001 that he was in fact in Beachy during those dates. To record this fact the existing entry about John living in Bigtown must be split into two separate records, and a new record inserted recording his residence in Beachy. The database would then appear as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time Person(John Doe, Smallville, 3-Apr-1975, 26-Aug-1994). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time Person(John Doe, Bigtown, 26-Aug-1994, 1-Jun-1995). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time Transaction time allows capturing this changing knowledge in the database, since entries are never directly modified or deleted https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time Person(John Doe, Bigtown, 26-Aug-1994, ∞, 27-Dec-1994, 2-Feb-2001 ). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Temporal database - Using Transaction time:

Temporal database - Using Transaction time The database records not only what happened in the real world, but also what was officially recorded at different times. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log:

Transaction log In the field of databases in computer science, a 'transaction log' (also 'transaction journal', 'database log', 'binary log' or 'audit trail') is a history of actions executed by a database management system to guarantee ACID properties over crash (computing)|crashes or hardware failures. Physically, a log is a computer file|file of updates done to the database, stored in stable storage. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log:

Transaction log Both are done to ensure atomicity (database systems)|atomicity and durability (computer science)|durability of transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log:

Transaction log This term is not to be confused with other, human-readable data logging#Computer data logging|logs that a database management system usually provides. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log:

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log A database log record is made up of: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log:

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log *Log Sequence Number: A unique id for a log record. With LSNs, logs can be recovered in constant time. Most logs' LSNs are assigned in monotonically increasing order, which is useful in recovery algorithms, like Algorithms for Recovery and Isolation Exploiting Semantics|ARIES. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log:

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log *Prev LSN: A link to the last log record. This implies database logs are constructed in linked list form. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log:

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log *Transaction ID number: A reference to the database transaction generating the log record. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log:

Transaction log - Anatomy of a general database log *Information about the actual changes that triggered the log record to be written. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records All log records include the general log attributes above, and also other attributes depending on their type (which is recorded in the Type attribute, as above). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records *'Update Log Record' notes an update (change) to the database. It includes this extra information: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records **Length and Offset: Length in bytes and offset of the page are usually included. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records **Before and After Images: Includes the value of the bytes of page before and after the page change. Some databases may have logs which include one or both images. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records *'Compensation Log Record' notes the rollback of a particular change to the database. Each correspond with exactly one other Update Log Record (although the corresponding update log record is not typically stored in the Compensation Log Record). It includes this extra information: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records **undoNextLSN: This field contains the LSN of the next log record that is to be undone for transaction that wrote the last Update Log. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records *'Checkpoint Record' notes that a checkpoint has been made. These are used to speed up recovery. They record information that eliminates the need to read a long way into the log's past. This varies according to checkpoint algorithm. If all dirty pages are flushed while creating the checkpoint (as in PostgreSQL), it might contain: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records **redoLSN: This is a reference to the first log record that corresponds to a dirty page. i.e. the first update that wasn't flushed at checkpoint time. This is where redo must begin on recovery. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records **undoLSN: This is a reference to the oldest log record of the oldest in-progress transaction. This is the oldest log record needed to undo all in-progress transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Types of database log records:

Transaction log - Types of database log records *'Completion Record' notes that all work has been done for this particular transaction. (It has been fully committed or aborted) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Tables:

Transaction log - Tables These tables are maintained in memory, and can be efficiently reconstructed (if not exactly, to an equivalent state) from the log and the database: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Tables:

Transaction log - Tables *'Transaction Table': The table contains one entry for each active transaction. This includes Transaction ID and lastLSN, where lastLSN describes the LSN of the most recent log record for the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Tables:

Transaction log - Tables *'Dirty Page Table': The table contains one entry for each dirty page that hasn't been written to disk. The entry contains recLSN, where recLSN is the LSN of the first log record that caused the page to be dirty. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction log - Tables:

Transaction log - Tables *'Transaction Log': A DBMS uses a transaction log to keep track of all transactions that updates the database. The information stored in this log is used by DBMS for a recovery requirement triggered by 'Roll Back' statement. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Personal identifier - Transactional financial account numbers:

Personal identifier - Transactional financial account numbers *Credit/debit card account number https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Personal identifier - Transactional financial account numbers:

Personal identifier - Transactional financial account numbers *Personal identification number (PIN) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Information Management System - Transaction Manager :

Information Management System - Transaction Manager A transaction manager interacts with an end user (connected through VTAM or TCP/IP, including IBM 3270|3270 and WWW|Web user interfaces) or another application, processes a business function (such as a banking account withdrawal), and maintains state throughout the process, making sure that the system records the business function correctly to a data store https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Application Performance Management - Business Transaction (Primary):

Application Performance Management - Business Transaction (Primary) For a deeper understanding see Business Transaction Management. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility:

Transaction Processing Facility 'TPF' is an International Business Machines|IBM real-time Operating System for IBM mainframe|mainframe computers descended from the IBM System/360 family, including zSeries and ZSeries|System z9. The name is an initialism for 'Transaction Processing Facility'. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility:

Transaction Processing Facility The world's largest TPF-based systems are easily capable of processing tens of thousands of transactions per second https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility:

Transaction Processing Facility While there are other industrial-strength transaction processing systems, notably IBM's own CICS and Information Management System|IMS, TPF's raison d'être is extreme volume, large numbers of concurrent users and very fast response times, for example VISA (Creditcard)|VISA Creditcard transaction processing during the peak holiday shopping season. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility:

Transaction Processing Facility The TPF passenger reservation application Programmed Airline Reservations System|PARS, or its international version IPARS, is used by many airlines. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility:

Transaction Processing Facility A close cousin of TPF, the transaction monitor ALCS transaction monitor|ALCS, was developed by IBM to integrate TPF services into the more common mainframe Operating System MVS, now z/OS. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - History:

Transaction Processing Facility - History TPF evolved from the Airlines Control Program (ACP), a free package developed in the mid-1960s by International Business Machines|IBM in association with major North American and European airlines. In 1979, IBM introduced TPF as a replacement for ACPmdash; and as a priced software product. The new name suggests its greater scope and evolution into non-airline related entities. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - History:

Transaction Processing Facility - History TPF was traditionally an IBM System/370 assembly language environment for performance reasons, and many TPF assembler applications persist. However, more recent versions of TPF encourage the use of C (programming language)|C. Another programming language called SabreTalk was born and died on TPF. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - History:

Transaction Processing Facility - History IBM announced the delivery of the current release of TPF, dubbed z/TPF V1.1, in September 2005. Most significantly, z/TPF adds 64-bit addressing and mandates use of the 64-bit GNU development tools. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - History:

Transaction Processing Facility - History The GNU Compiler Collection|GCC compiler and the DIGNUS Systems/C++ and Systems/C are the only supported compilers for z/TPF. The Dignus compilers offer reduced source code changes when moving from TPF 4.1 to z/TPF. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Users:

Transaction Processing Facility - Users Current users include Sabre (computer system)|Sabre (reservations), Amadeus (computer system)|Amadeus (reservations), VISA (credit card)|VISA Inc (authorizations),American Airlines,http://www.tpfug.org/JobCorner/jobs.htm American Express (authorizations), HP Enterprise Services|EDS SHARES (reservations), Holiday Inn (central reservations), CBOE (order routing), Singapore Airlines, KLM, Garuda Indonesia, Amtrak, Marriott International, Travelport and the NYPD (911 system) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Tightly coupled:

Transaction Processing Facility - Tightly coupled TPF is capable of running on a Multiprocessing|multiprocessor, that is, on mainframe systems in which there is more than one CPU. Within the community, the CPUs are referred to as 'Instruction Streams' or simply 'I-streams'. On a mainframe or in a logical partition (LPAR) of a mainframe with more than one I-stream, TPF is said to be running 'tightly-coupled'. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Tightly coupled:

Transaction Processing Facility - Tightly coupled Due to the reentrant (subroutine)|reentrant nature of TPF programs and the control program, this is made possible as no active piece of work modifies any program https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Tightly coupled:

Transaction Processing Facility - Tightly coupled In the TPF architecture, each I-stream shares common core, except for a 4Kb in size prefix area for each I-stream https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Loosely coupled:

Transaction Processing Facility - Loosely coupled TPF is capable of supporting multiple mainframes (of any size themselves - be it single I-stream to multiple I-stream) connecting to and operating on a common database https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Loosely coupled:

Transaction Processing Facility - Loosely coupled In order to serialize accesses between data records on a loosely coupled system, a practice known as Record locking must be used https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Processor shared records:

Transaction Processing Facility - Processor shared records Records that absolutely must be managed by a record locking process are those which are processor shared. In TPF most record accesses are done by using 'record type' and 'ordinal'. So if you had defined a record type in the TPF system of 'FRED' and gave it 100 records or ordinals, then in a processor shared scheme record type 'FRED' ordinal '5' would resolve to exactly the same file address on DASD - clearly necessitating the use of a record locking mechanism. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Processor unique records:

Transaction Processing Facility - Processor unique records A processor unique record is one that is defined such that each processor expected to be in the loosely coupled complex has a record type of 'FRED' and perhaps 100 ordinals. However, if a user on any 2 or more processors examines the file address that record type 'FRED', ordinal '5' resolves to, they will note a different physical address is used. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not:

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not TPF has no built-in graphical user interface (GUI) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not:

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not TPF also does not include a compiler/assembler, text editor, or the concept of a desktop https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not:

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not Using TPF requires an intimate knowledge of the Operations Guide since there is no shipped support for any type of online command directory that you might find on other platforms. Commands created by IBM and shipped by IBM for the running and administration of TPF are referred to as Z-messages as they are all prefixed with the letter Z. Other letters are reserved so that customers may write their own commands. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not:

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is not TPF has extremely limited capability to debug itself https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is:

Transaction Processing Facility - What TPF is TPF is highly optimized to permit messages from the supported network to either be switched out to another location, routed to an application (specific set of programs) or to permit extremely efficient accesses to database records. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Data records:

Transaction Processing Facility - Data records Historically all data on the TPF system had to fit in fixed record (and core block) sizes of 381, 1055 and 4K bytes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Data records:

Transaction Processing Facility - Data records Today, much of these limitations are removed. In fact, only because of legacy support are smaller than 4K DASD records still used. With the advances made in DASD technology, a read/write of a 4K record is just as efficient as a 1055 byte record. The same advances have increased the capacity of each device so that there is no longer a premium placed on the ability to pack data into the smallest model as possible. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Programs and residency:

Transaction Processing Facility - Programs and residency TPF also had its programs allocated as 381, 1055 and 4K bytes in size and each program consisted of a single record (aka segment) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Programs and residency:

Transaction Processing Facility - Programs and residency Before z/TPF, all assembler language programs were limited to 4K in size https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Core usage:

Transaction Processing Facility - Core usage Historically and in step with the previous, core blocks - memory - were also 381, 1055 and 4K bytes in size. Since 'ALL' memory blocks had to be of this size, most of the overhead for obtaining memory found in other systems was discarded. The programmer merely needed to decide what size block would fit the need and ask for it. TPF would maintain a list of blocks in use and simply hand the first block on the available list. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Core usage:

Transaction Processing Facility - Core usage Physical memory was carved into sections reserved for each size so a 1055 byte block always came from a section and returned there, the only overhead needed was to add its address to the physical block table's proper list. No compaction or data collection was required. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Processing Facility - Core usage:

Transaction Processing Facility - Core usage As applications got more advanced demands for more core increased and once C became available, memory chunks of indeterminate or large size were required. This gave rise to the use of heap storage and of course some memory management routines. To ease the overhead, TPF memory was broken into frames - 4K in size (and now 1Mb in size with z/TPF). If an application needed a certain number of bytes, the number of contiguous frames required to fill that need were granted. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Syl Apps, Jr - Transactions:

Syl Apps, Jr - Transactions *On June 11, 1964 the New York Rangers selected Syl Apps, Jr in the fourth-round (#21 overall) of the 1964 NHL Entry Draft#Round four|1964 NHL draft. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Syl Apps, Jr - Transactions:

Syl Apps, Jr - Transactions *On January 26, 1971 the New York Rangers traded Syl Apps, Jr and Sheldon Kannegiesser to the Pittsburgh Penguins in exchange for Glen Sather. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Syl Apps, Jr - Transactions:

Syl Apps, Jr - Transactions *On November 2, 1977 the Pittsburgh Penguins traded Syl Apps, Jr and Hartland Monahan to the Los Angeles Kings in exchange for Dave Schultz (ice hockey)|Dave Schultz, Gene Carr (ice hockey)|Gene Carr and a 1978 NHL Entry Draft#Round four|1978 fourth-round pick (#61-Shane Pearsall). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team 'Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team (Twist)' is a not-for-profit industry standards group. It does not charge anything for involvement. The main goal of Twist is to create non-proprietary XML message standards for the financial services industry. To this end it provides a message format Data validation|validation service. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team Its focus on financial transaction processing covers the aspects of https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team * Payments and collections (on invoices to suppliers and from customers) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team * Cash management (cash flow, position keeping across accounts and timing) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team * Wholesale financial market access (raising capital through stocks and bonds) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team The focus of these combined standards is to create and improve Straight Through Processing|straight through processing (STP) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team - Parties involved:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team - Parties involved The leading party in Twist is the Royal Dutch Shell Group’s corporate treasury department, giving the Twist standards more of a corporate finance perspective as opposed to a banking perspective https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team - Related standards:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team - Related standards Related XML financial services standard include FIX, FpML and SWIFT XML. Where related financial services message standards exist, such as these XML standards or classic SWIFT, then Twist aims to leverage them and interoperate with them rather than compete. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team - Related standards:

Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team - Related standards Reuters is working with Twist, as of May 2005, to tie into its FX trading service (known as the RTFX service). Their aim is to deliver real time trade confirmations directly into corporate treasurer’s STP systems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #Slow speed - sending messages can be slow and it can take hours for a merchant to get receipt of payment. Consumers do not want to be kept waiting more than a few seconds. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #Security - The SMS/USSD encryption ends in the radio interface, then the message is a plaintext. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #High cost - There are many high costs associated with this method of payment. The cost of setting up short codes and paying for the delivery of media via a Multimedia Messaging Service and the resulting customer support costs to account for the number of messages that get lost or are delayed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #Low payout rates - operators also see high costs in running and supporting transactional payments which results in payout rates to the merchant being as low as 30%. Usually around 50% https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #Low follow-on sales - once the payment message has been sent and the goods received there is little else the consumer can do. It is difficult for them to remember where something was purchased or how to buy it again. This also makes it difficult to tell a friend. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments Some mobile payment services accept premium SMS payments. Here is the typical end user payment process: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #User sends SMS with keyword and unique number to a premium short code. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #User receives a PIN (User billed via the short code on receipt of the PIN) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments:

Mobile Payments - SMS/USSD-based transactional payments #User uses PIN to access content or services. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Scalable Coherent Interface - Transactions:

Scalable Coherent Interface - Transactions SCI sends information in packets https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Virtuoso Universal Server - Transactions:

Virtuoso Universal Server - Transactions All four levels of isolation are supported: Dirty read, read committed, repeatable read and serializable. The level of isolation may be specified operation by operation within a single transaction. Virtuoso can also act as a resource manager and/or transaction coordinator under Microsoft's Distributed Transaction Coordinator (Distributed Transaction Coordinator|MS DTC) or the X/Open|XA standardization|standard. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AltaVista - Business transactions:

AltaVista - Business transactions In 1996, AltaVista became the exclusive provider of search results for Yahoo! https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AltaVista - Business transactions:

AltaVista - Business transactions In June 1999, Compaq sold a majority stake in AltaVista to CMGI, an internet investment company https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AltaVista - Business transactions:

AltaVista - Business transactions In February 2003, AltaVista was bought by Yahoo! Search Marketing#Origins of GoTo.com|Overture Services, Inc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AltaVista - Business transactions:

AltaVista - Business transactions In July 2003, Overture was taken over by Yahoo!. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

AltaVista - Business transactions:

AltaVista - Business transactions In December 2010, a Yahoo! employee leaked PowerPoint slides indicating that the search engine would be shut down as part of a consolidation at Yahoo!. In May 2011, the shutdown commenced, and all results began to be returned on a Yahoo! page. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Digital transactions :

Chargeback fraud - Digital transactions Friendly fraud thrives in the digital products market where it is much easier for fraudsters to succeed https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Digital transactions :

Chargeback fraud - Digital transactions One method of combating friendly fraud is to create a feature in the product that checks in with the merchant's database. If a chargeback is issued, the merchant can tell the product to suspend service. This tactic will also work for digital subscription services or any other online product that requires updates or logins. Unfortunately, however, the merchant will usually still be charged a fee for incurring a chargeback, so this is not a complete solution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions:

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions Another common channel for chargebacks is mail order/telephone order (MOTO) payment processing through a call center. In this case, as with the two others listed here, the main problem is that this is a card not present transaction. To help eliminate call center purchase chargebacks, call centers are working to make the purchases more like card present purchases. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions:

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions When consumers walk into a store and buy something, they typically swipe their credit cards, confirm the purchase amount, enter a secret code (or sign their name) and leave with the merchandise. This is a card is present purchase and fraudulent chargebacks in these situations are almost non-existent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions:

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions Agent-assisted automation technology is available for call centers that allows customers to enter their credit card information, including the card security code directly into the customer relationship management software without the agent ever seeing or hearing it. The agent remains on the phone, so there is no awkward transfer to an interactive voice response system. All the agent can hear is monotones. This is the card present equivalent of swiping the card. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions:

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions Before the purchase is submitted by the agent, the purchase amount is played back to the consumer along with the last four digits of the card. The consumer is asked to confirm their purchase by providing a verbal signature, which is recorded. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions:

Chargeback fraud - Call center transactions Finally, an email is sent to the consumer with the purchase information and an attached audio file of their verbal signature. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework * working with local and Distributed transaction|global transactions (local transaction does not require an application server) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework In comparison, Java Transaction API|JTA only supports nested transactions and Distributed transaction|global transactions, and requires an application server (and in some cases also deployment of applications in an application server). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework The Spring Framework ships a [ http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.1.x/javadoc-api/org/springframework/transaction/PlatformTransactionManager.html PlatformTransactionManager] for a number of transaction management strategies: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework * Transactions managed on Object-relational mapping Units of Work https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework * Transactions managed via the Java Transaction API|JTA TransactionManager and UserTransaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework * Transactions managed on other resources, like object databases https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework * Programmatically, by using Spring's [ http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.1.x/javadoc-api/org/springframework/transaction/support/TransactionTemplate.html TransactionTemplate] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework * Configuratively, by using metadata like XML or Java annotations ([ http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.1.x/javadoc-api/org/springframework/transaction/annotation/Transactional.html @Transactional], [ http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.1.x/javadoc-api/org/springframework/transaction/annotation/package-summary.html etc]) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework:

Spring Framework - Transaction management framework Together with Spring's data access framework mdash; which integrates the transaction management framework mdash; it is possible to set up a transactional system through configuration without having to rely on Java Transaction API|JTA or EJB. The transactional framework also integrates with Java Message Service|messaging and Cache (computing)|caching engines. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction:

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction While there are safeguards to this, it is still more risky than presenting in person, and indeed card issuers tend to charge a greater transaction rate for CNP, because of the greater risk. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction:

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction It is difficult for a merchant to verify that the actual cardholder is indeed authorising the purchase https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction:

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction Small transactions generally undergo less scrutiny, and are less likely to be investigated by either the card issuer or the merchant. CNP merchants must take extra precaution against fraud exposure and associated losses, and they pay higher rates for the privilege of accepting cards. Fraudsters bet on the fact that many fraud prevention features are not used for small transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction:

Credit card fraud - Card not present transaction Merchant associations have developed some prevention measures, such as single use card numbers, but these have not met with much success. Customers expect to be able to use their credit card without any hassles, and have little incentive to pursue additional security due to laws limiting customer liability in the event of fraud. Merchants can implement these prevention measures but risk losing business if the customer chooses not to use them. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process This is how the credit line will be used during each transaction: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process * Client withdraws money (“cash-out” transaction): agent account is credited in same amount. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process * Client deposits money (“cash-in” transaction): agent account is debited in same amount. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process In case the agent’s credit line had reached its limits, and the agent’s bank account does not have sufficient funds, to cover the received funds, the POS will block and can only be deblocked if the funds have been deposited in the next bank account. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process The transaction process for banking services using a bank card is simple: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process # An existing bank client presents his card at the agent and requests a specific transaction and the amount to be withdrawn, deposited, or transferred; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process # The agent selects the type of transaction on the POS device or personal computer, enters the amount, swipes the client’s card through the device, and lets the client enter his PIN; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process # A General Packet Radio Service|General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), dial up, or satellite communication connects with the bank’s server to authorize the transaction; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Banking agent - Transaction process :

Banking agent - Transaction process # Once the transaction has been authorized, the device prints the client’s receipt. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mutual fund - Shareholder transaction fees :

Mutual fund - Shareholder transaction fees Shareholders may be required to pay fees for certain transactions. For example, a fund may charge a flat fee for maintaining an individual retirement account for an investor. Some funds charge redemption fees when an investor sells fund shares shortly after buying them (usually defined as within 30, 60 or 90 days of purchase); redemption fees are computed as a percentage of the sale amount. Shareholder transaction fees are not part of the expense ratio. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Mutual fund - Securities transaction fees :

Mutual fund - Securities transaction fees A mutual fund pays expenses related to buying or selling the securities in its portfolio. These expenses may include brokerage commissions. Securities transaction fees increase the cost basis of investments purchased and reduce the proceeds from their sale. They do not flow through a fund's income statement and are not included in its expense ratio. The amount of securities transaction fees paid by a fund is normally positively correlated with its trading volume or turnover. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrence - Single transaction principle:

Concurrence - Single transaction principle Not all acts forming the basis of an actus reus are single, unconnected events. If a sequence of events is inevitably linked, it may be viewed as a single transaction. So long as the requisite mens rea is formed before the sequence begins, or during the sequence (before it ends), the accused will be liable. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrence - Single transaction principle:

Concurrence - Single transaction principle In the previous example, the victim would not have died if the first driver had not abandoned him at a dangerous point on the road https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrence - Single transaction principle:

Concurrence - Single transaction principle A different way of justifying liability in this type of situation would be to consider an omission (criminal law)|omission at the point in time that the mens rea is formed. In the first example, liability arises from the recklessness (law)|reckless omission to move the man, or willful blindness that he was in danger. In Fagan v Metropolitan Police Commissioner|Fagan, liability arises from omitting to remove the car. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrence - Single transaction principle:

Concurrence - Single transaction principle But not every factual sequence can be so conveniently recast as an omission https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrence - Single transaction principle:

Concurrence - Single transaction principle This latter example raises a separate issue which is that it is sufficient to base a conviction on the presence of mens rea at some time during the occurrence of the events comprising the single transaction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Concurrence - Single transaction principle:

Concurrence - Single transaction principle And for the sake of completeness, if A commits an offence with an actus reus and a mens rea, it will not affect liability that A subsequently repents the crime and effects restitution https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

CICS - Transactions:

CICS - Transactions A CICS transaction is a set of operations that perform a task together. Usually, the majority of transactions are relatively simple tasks such as requesting an inventory list or entering a debit or credit to an account. A primary characteristic of a transaction is that it should be atomicity (database systems)|atomic. On IBM System z servers, CICS easily supports thousands of transactions per second, making it a mainstay of enterprise computing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

CICS - Transactions:

CICS - Transactions CICS applications comprise transactions, which can be written in numerous programming languages, including COBOL, PL/I, C, C++, IBM Basic assembly language, REXX, and Java. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

CICS - Transactions:

CICS - Transactions Each CICS program is initiated using a transaction identifier https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

CICS - Transactions:

CICS - Transactions RECEIVE MAPSET('LOSMATT') MAP('LOSATT') INTO(OUR-MAP) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

CICS - Transactions:

CICS - Transactions For technical reasons, the arguments to some command parameters must be quoted and some must not be quoted, depending on what is being referenced. Most programmers will code out of a reference book until they get the hang or concept of which arguments are quoted, or they'll typically use a canned template where they have example code that they just copy and paste, then edit to change the values. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Classmates.com - Piggybacking and post-transaction marketing:

Classmates.com - Piggybacking and post-transaction marketing Classmates.com was accused of piggybacking and post-transaction marketing.[http://news.cnet.com/8301-31001_3-20000448-261.html Classmates.com tied to more dubious marketing tactics | Media Maverick - CNET News] United Online, the parent company of Classmates.com, earned $70 million from marketing practices under investigation in 2009 by the Senate Commerce Committee involving piggybacking a second credit card transaction with membership to Classmates.com involving a loyalty program. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence:

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 'IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence' (TPAMI) is a monthly Peer review|peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Computer Society https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

IEEE Smart Grid - IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid:

IEEE Smart Grid - IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid Mohammad Shahidehpour is the current Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

IEEE Smart Grid - IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy :

IEEE Smart Grid - IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy Launched in April 2010, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy is jointly published by IEEE's Industry Applications Society, Industrial Electronics Society, Instrumentation and Measurement Society, IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, Power Electronics Society, Power Energy Society, IEEE Photonics Society|Photonics Society, and the IEEE Society on Social Implications of Technology|Society on Social Implications of Technology https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques:

IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 'IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques' is a monthly Peer review|peer-reviewed scientific journal covering microwave theory, techniques, and applications at various primary, intermediate, and completed integration levels of a structured microwave system. It is published by the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society and the editor-in-chief is George E. Ponchak (NASA Glenn Research Center). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Market microstructure - Transaction cost and timing cost:

Market microstructure - Transaction cost and timing cost This factor focuses on transaction cost and timing cost and the impact of transaction cost on investment returns and execution methods. Transaction costs include order processing costs, adverse selection costs, inventory holding costs, and monopoly power. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London:

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London The 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society' (Phil https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - History :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - History Over the centuries, many important scientific discoveries have been published in the Philosophical Transactions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - History :

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - History In July 2011 programmer Greg Maxwell released through the The Pirate Bay, the nearly 19 thousand articles that had been published before 1923, and were therefore in the public domain https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Current publication:

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Current publication In 1887 the journal expanded and divided into two separate publications, one serving the Physical Sciences (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences) and the other focusing on the life sciences (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR - Transactions (Doklady) of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Earth Science Sections:

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR - Transactions (Doklady) of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Earth Science Sections This journal, published bimonthy as ISSN 0891-5571, was published by Scripta Technica in cooperation with the American Geological Institute and American Geophysical Union from 1986 to 1993.[http://siris-libraries.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?uri=full%3D3100034%7E%21460898%7E%210 SIRIS' catalog page] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit cards - Transaction steps:

Credit cards - Transaction steps * 'Authorization hold|Authorization': The cardholder presents the card as payment to the merchant and the merchant submits the transaction to the acquirer (acquiring bank). The acquirer verifies the credit card number, the transaction type and the amount with the issuer (Card-issuing bank) and reserves that amount of the cardholder's credit limit for the merchant. An authorization will generate an approval code, which the merchant stores with the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit cards - Transaction steps:

Credit cards - Transaction steps Some transactions may be submitted in the batch without prior authorizations; these are either transactions falling under the merchant's floor limit or ones where the authorization was unsuccessful but the merchant still attempts to force the transaction through https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit cards - Transaction steps:

Credit cards - Transaction steps * 'Clearing and Settlement': The acquirer sends the batch transactions through the credit card association, which debits the issuers for payment and credits the acquirer. Essentially, the issuer pays the acquirer for the transaction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit cards - Transaction steps:

Credit cards - Transaction steps * 'Funding': Once the acquirer has been paid, the acquirer pays the merchant. The merchant receives the amount totaling the funds in the batch minus either the discount rate, mid-qualified rate, or non-qualified rate which are tiers of fees the merchant pays the acquirer for processing the transactions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Credit cards - Transaction steps:

Credit cards - Transaction steps * 'Chargebacks': A chargeback is an event in which money in a merchant account is held due to a dispute relating to the transaction. Chargebacks are typically initiated by the cardholder. In the event of a chargeback, the issuer returns the transaction to the acquirer for resolution. The acquirer then forwards the chargeback to the merchant, who must either accept the chargeback or contest it. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Wireless transaction protocol:

Wireless transaction protocol 'Wireless transaction protocol' is a standard used in mobile telephony. It is a layer of the Wireless Application Protocol (Wireless Application Protocol|WAP) that is intended to bring Internet access to mobile phones. WTP provides functions to similar to TCP,except that WTP has reduced amount of information needed for each transaction. WTP saves processing and memory cost as compared to TCP. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Wireless transaction protocol:

Wireless transaction protocol It Supports 3 types of transaction : 1.Unreliable One-Way Request 2.Reliable One-Way Request 3.Unreliable Two-Way request https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope” https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * The way employees are treated by their bosses/supervisors or company https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * Lack of job security https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * Unclear expectations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * Not enough control over assignments https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * Inadequate pay or benefits https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * Uncomfortable physical conditions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * Dealing with rude customers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model * How the company treats coworkersSomaz, Wenk Heidi Tulgan, Bruce (2003). Performance Under Pressure: Managing Stress in the Workplace.Canada. HRD Press Inc.p 7-8. ISBN 0-87425-741-7 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

Stress management - Transactional model:

Stress management - Transactional model Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html

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For More Information, Visit: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transaction-toolkit.html The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com

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