# Transition

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Category: Entertainment

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### Slide1:

Transition https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran:

Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran The development of a revised standard to succeed FORTRAN 77 would be repeatedly delayed as the standardization process struggled to keep up with rapid changes in computing and programming practice. In the meantime, as the "Standard FORTRAN" for nearly fifteen years, FORTRAN 77 would become the historically most important dialect. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran:

Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran An important practical extension to FORTRAN 77 was the release of MIL-STD-1753 in 1978. This specification, developed by the U.S. Department of Defense, standardized a number of features implemented by most FORTRAN 77 compilers but not included in the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard. These features would eventually be incorporated into the standard. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran:

Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran Bit manipulation intrinsic functions, based on similar functions included in Industrial Real-Time Fortran (ANSI/ISA S61.1 (1976)) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran:

Fortran Transition to ANSI Standard Fortran The IEEE 1003.9 POSIX Standard, released in 1991, provided a simple means for FORTRAN 77 programmers to issue POSIX system calls. Over 100 calls were defined in the document — allowing access to POSIX-compatible process control, signal handling, file system control, device control, procedure pointing, and stream I/O in a portable manner. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### BlackBerry Ltd Platform transition:

BlackBerry Ltd Platform transition This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on . See 's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts The United Kingdom made the transition to digital television between 2008 and 2012, with the exception of Barrow-in-Furness, which made the switch over in 2007. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts As a result, almost two million households could no longer watch television because they were not prepared for the transition https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts In broadcasting, whatever happens in the United States also influences southern Canada and northern Mexico because those areas are covered by television stations in the U.S. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts In Japan, the switch to digital occurred on the 24th of July, 2011 (with the exception of Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi prefectures, where conversion was delayed one year due to complications from the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami). In Canada, it is scheduled to happen 31 August 2011. China is scheduled to switch in 2015. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts Brazil switched to digital television on 2 December 2007 in its major cities, and now it is estimated that it will take about seven years for complete conversion over all of Brazil. Australia will turn off analog television in steps, network by network, between 2010 and 2013, region by region. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts In Malaysia, the Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission (MCMC) advertised for tender bids to be submitted in the third quarter of 2009 for the 470 through 742 MHz UHF allocation, to enable Malaysia's broadcast system to move into DTV https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts:

Analog television Transition to digital broadcasts Users may then encode and transmit their television programs on this channel's digital data stream. The winner will be announced at the end of 2012 or early 2013. A condition of the award is that digital transmission must start as soon as possible, and analog switch-off is proposed for 2015 or later, which means that analog television may continue for longer than originally planned. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding In January 2000, AOL and Time Warner announced plans to merge, forming AOL Time Warner, Inc https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding In 2004, along with the launch of AOL 9.0 Optimized, AOL also made available the option of personalized greetings which would enable the user to hear his or her name while accessing basic functions and mail alerts, or while logging in or out. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding In 2005, AOL broadcast the Live 8 concert live over the Internet, and thousands of users downloaded clips of the concert over the following months https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding On April 3, 2006, AOL announced that it was retiring the full name "America Online"; the official name of the service became "AOL", and the full name of the Time Warner subdivision became "AOL, LLC". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding On June 8, 2006, AOL offered a new program called AOL Active Security Monitor, a diagnostic tool that checked the local PC's security status, and recommended additional security software from AOL or Download.com https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding On August 2006, AOL announced that they would give away email accounts and software previously available only to its paying customers provided the customer accessed AOL or AOL.com through a non-AOL-owned access method (otherwise known as "third party transit", "bring your own access", or "BYOA") https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding AOL Video featured professional content and allowed users to upload videos as well. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding AOL Local, comprising its CityGuide, Yellow Pages and Local Search services to help users find local information like restaurants, local events, and directory listings. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding:

AOL 2000s: transition and rebranding AOL My eAddress, a custom domain name for email addresses. These email accounts could be accessed in a manner similar to other AOL and AIM email accounts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### History of video games - Transition to 3D and CDs :

History of video games - Transition to 3D and CDs The fifth generation is most noted for the rise of fully 3D computer graphics|3D games https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### History of video game consoles (eighth generation) - Transition:

History of video game consoles (eighth generation) - Transition The transition is also unusual in that the prior generation's best-selling unit, the Wii, is the first to be replaced in the eighth generation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology:

Transition methodology Transition Methodology is the process of migrating knowledge, systems, and operating capabilities between an outsourcing environment to an in-house staff. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology:

Transition methodology Transition management starts with the preparation of the outsourced/offshore site to commence client operations through documenting the processes, training process executives to execute the processes, designing, procuring and deploying technology and bandwidth to access client systems as required and finally fulfill the Service_Level_Agreement|SLA and contact parameters. The overall success of the outsourcing engagement is very much dependent on the effectiveness of the transition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology:

Transition methodology At an organizational level an outsourcing project would involve the tangible changes in structure, processes, technology, culture that the organization would go through to go from the current state to the desired future state. At the individual level, it would involve the process individuals to the new way of working. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology - Transition Approach:

Transition methodology - Transition Approach Transition Methodology typical employs a four-to-five phased approach, with each phase consisting of one or more tasks producing at least one deliverable and completion criteria that must be met in order to progress to the next phase. The milestones and deliverables produced by these tasks provide an ongoing quality review process that checks that the final product will meet expectations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology - Transition Approach:

Transition methodology - Transition Approach # Solution Design/Planning https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology - Transition Approach:

Transition methodology - Transition Approach # Service Assumption https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology - Transition Approach:

Transition methodology - Transition Approach # Steady State Turnover/Implementation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transition methodology - Transition Approach:

Transition methodology - Transition Approach The transition team executes a formal hand-off to the steady state Project_management_office|PMO and confirms that the service operations are stable and measure and report service performance. Ideally, the transition team remains engaged through the actualization period when service has stabilized. Once in the steady state, optimization efforts should commence to improve and adjust to changing business drivers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### History of video game consoles (fifth generation) - Transition to 3D:

History of video game consoles (fifth generation) - Transition to 3D The 32-bit/64-bit computing|64-bit era is most noted for the rise of fully 3D games https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Starvin' Marvin in Space|Marklar, which ran on Intel x86 processors. The idea behind Marklar was to keep Mac OS X running on an alternative platform should Apple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform. These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as the The Wall Street Journal and CNET, announced that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition Apple had supported the 68K emulator for 11 years, but stopped supporting it during the transition to Intel CPUs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition PowerPC-only software is supported with Rosetta, though applications may have to be rewritten to run properly on the newer OS X for Intel https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition Support for the PowerPC platform was dropped after Mac OS X 10.5. Such cross-platform capability already existed in Mac OS X's lineage; OpenStep was ported to many architectures, including x86, and Darwin included support for both PowerPC and x86. Apple stated that Mac OS X would not run on Intel-based personal computers aside from its own, but a hacked version of the OS compatible with conventional x86 hardware was developed by the OSx86 community. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition On June 8, 2009, Apple announced at its Worldwide Developers Conference that Mac OS X Snow Leopard|Snow Leopard (version 10.6) would drop support for PowerPC processors and be Intel-only. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition However, Rosetta is still available in Snow Leopard; it is not installed by default, but it is available on the installation DVD as an installable add-on and is installed automatically via the Internet when first attempting to run a PowerPC-based application. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition:

Mac OS X - Apple–Intel transition On all versions from (and including) Lion, Rosetta is no longer available. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

Google Voice - Google transition Google Voice was launched on March 11, 2009, based on GrandCentral, with new features, including voicemail transcriptions and SMS managing. Google transitioned former GrandCentral accounts to Google Voice and announced that the service would start accepting new members within weeks of the announcement. On June 25, 2009, NBC's Today (NBC program)|Today Show stated that Google Voice would be available nationwide on that day. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

Google Voice - Google transition Google confirmed this in a Twitter message stating: Google Voice on NBC Today Show. Invites to people on reservations list starting to go out today. The expansion was at first limited to users queuedWalker, Craig. (2009-06-25) . Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved on December 7, 2010. on the invitation list.https://services.google.com/fb/forms/googlevoiceinvite/ Users with paid-in balances also received a limited number of invitation opportunities. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict The Transitional and Frameset versions allow for presentational markup, which is omitted in the Strict version https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict The Transitional version allows the following parts of the vocabulary, which are not included in the Strict version: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** Inline elements and plain text are allowed directly in: body, blockquote, form, noscript and noframes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** underline (u)(Deprecated. can confuse a visitor with a hyperlink.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** font (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** basefont (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict * 'Presentation related attributes' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** background (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and bgcolor (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attributes for body (required element according to the W3C.) element. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** align (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attribute on div, form, paragraph (p) and heading (h1...h6) elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** align (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), noshade (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), size (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and width (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attributes on hr element https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** align (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), border, vspace and hspace attributes on img and object (caution: the object element is only supported in Internet Explorer (from the major browsers)) elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** align (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and bgcolor (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) on table element https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** nowrap (Obsolete), bgcolor (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), width, height on td and th elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** bgcolor (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attribute on tr element https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** clear (Obsolete) attribute on br element https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** compact attribute on dl, dir and menu elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** type (Deprecated. use CSS instead.), compact (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) and start (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) attributes on ol and ul elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** type and value attributes on li element https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** width attribute on pre element https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** menu (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) list (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** dir (Deprecated. use CSS instead.) list (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** isindex (Deprecated.) (element requires server-side support and is typically added to documents server-side, form and input elements can be used as a substitute) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** applet (Deprecated. use the object element instead.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict * 'The language (Obsolete) attribute on script element' (redundant with the type attribute). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict ** target (Deprecated in the map, link and form elements.) attribute on a, client-side image-map (map), link, form and base elements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### HTML - Transitional versus strict:

HTML - Transitional versus strict The Frameset version includes everything in the Transitional version, as well as the frameset element (used instead of body) and the frame element. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002):

Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002) Disney Channel initially continued to offer free preview events for pay television providers that continued to carry it as a premium service but discontinued them altogether within three years of the rebrand (Disney Channel would not complete its transition to a basic cable service until around 2004).[http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-19233004.html Disney move to basic keys system campaigns], Multichannel News (via HighBeam Research), February 17, 1997 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002):

Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002) The channel would eventually split itself into three programming blocks: amongst which were Playhouse Disney (comprising shows aimed at preschoolers) and Vault Disney (featuring classic Disney programs such as Zorro (1957 TV series)|Zorro,[http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-22405127.html Television News Notes], The Record (Bergen County)|The Record (via HighBeam Research), September 9, 1997 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002):

Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002) Original programming on Disney Channel began to ramp up during this period starting with the sitcom Flash Forward, and would increase in the following years with shows like The Famous Jett Jackson and So Weird, into the early 2000s (decade)|2000s with Lizzie McGuire – whose star Hilary Duff became the first lead actor or actress in one of the channel's series to cross over into music through a record deal with co-owned Hollywood Records – and Even Stevens – which helped launch the career of its star Shia LaBeouf. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002):

Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002) In 1999, Disney Channel began mandating that cable operators who continued to carry it as a premium service must move the channel to a basic cable tier or stop carrying it altogether, stipulating that it would not renew carriage agreements with providers (such as Time Warner Cable and Comcast, the last major cable providers to carry the channel as a pay service) that chose to continue carrying the network as a premium channel.[http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-55734389.html Disney Serves Notice], Multichannel News (via HighBeam Research), August 30, 1999 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002):

Disney Channel - Transition to basic cable (1997–2002) By 2001, Disney Channel was available to approximately 70 million cable and satellite subscribers, largely consisting of those who already received the channel through basic cable, as well as what remained of its pay subscriber base.[http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-72739914.html Disney Channel Springs Into April With 70 million Subscribers; Network's Transition From Premium to Basic Service Nears Completion], Business Wire (via HighBeam Research), April 4, 2001 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Kazaa - Transitional period :

Kazaa - Transitional period Kazaa's legal issues ended after a settlement of \$100 million in reparations to the recording industry. Kazaa, including the domain name, was then sold off to Brilliant Digital Entertainment, Inc. Kazaa then operated as a monthly music subscription service allowing users to download unlimited songs, before finally ending the service. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Kazaa - Transitional period :

Kazaa - Transitional period Some users still use the old network on the unauthorized versions of Kazaa, either Kazaa Lite or Kazaa Resurrection, which is still a self-sustaining network where thousands of users still share unrestricted content. This fact was previously stated by Kazaa when they claimed their FastTrack network was not centralized (like the old Napster), but instead a link between millions of computers around the world. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Kazaa - Transitional period :

Kazaa - Transitional period However, in the wake of the bad publicity and lawsuits, the number of users on Kazaa Lite has dropped dramatically. They have gone from several millions of users at a given time to mere thousands. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Kazaa - Transitional period :

Kazaa - Transitional period Without further recourse, and until the lawsuit was settled, the RIAA actively sued thousands of people across the USA for sharing copyrighted music across the network. College campus networks were also a focus of the RIAA's many lawsuits. Many of these cases are still in the process of being settled or are headed for trial. Although the lawsuits were mainly in the United States, other countries also began to follow suit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### The Inspiration Network - Transition:

The Inspiration Network - Transition After the Bakkers' departure in the late 1980s, the PTL call letters had been dropped and the network renamed simply The Inspirational Network in an effort to make it more marketable to cable systems and distance it from PTL and the Bakkers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### The Inspiration Network - Transition:

The Inspiration Network - Transition In October 2010, the network announced a major rebranding with an added emphasis on family programming https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### The Inspiration Network - Transition:

The Inspiration Network - Transition In addition to being broadcast throughout the world on most major cable and satellite providers, INSP is broadcast on Dish Network Channel 259 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### European Parliament - Transitional arrangements:

European Parliament - Transitional arrangements This amendment brought in transitional provisions to allow the 18 additional MEPs created under the Lisbon Treaty to be elected or appointed before the 2014 election https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Macintosh computer - Transition to Intel:

Macintosh computer - Transition to Intel At Apple Worldwide Developers Conference|WWDC 2005, Steve Jobs announced this transition, revealing that Mac OS X was always developed to run on both the Intel and PowerPC architectures https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Macintosh computer - Transition to Intel:

Macintosh computer - Transition to Intel Starting in 2006, Apple's industrial design shifted to favor aluminum, which was used in the construction of the first MacBook Pro https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Macintosh computer - Transition to Intel:

Macintosh computer - Transition to Intel On February 24, 2011, Apple became the first company to bring to market a computer that utilized Intel's new Thunderbolt (interface)|Thunderbolt (codename Light Peak) I/O interface. Using the same physical interface as a Mini DisplayPort, and backwards compatible with that standard, Thunderbolt boasts two-way transfer speeds of 10Gbit/s. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phishing - Transition from AOL to financial institutions:

Phishing - Transition from AOL to financial institutions The capture of AOL account information may have led phishers to misuse credit card information, and to the realization that attacks against online payment systems were feasible https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Deforestation - Forest transition theory:

Deforestation - Forest transition theory The forest area change may follow a pattern suggested by the forest transition (FT) theory,Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E.F. 2011. Global Forest Transition: Prospects for an End to Deforestation. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36: 343-371 whereby at early stages in its development a country is characterized by high forest cover and low deforestation rates (HFLD countries). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Deforestation - Forest transition theory:

Deforestation - Forest transition theory A country may reach very low levels of forest cover before it stabilizes, or it might through good policies be able to “bridge” the forest transition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Deforestation - Forest transition theory:

Deforestation - Forest transition theory FT depicts a broad trend, and an extrapolation of historical rates therefore tends to underestimate future BAU deforestation for counties at the early stages in the transition (HFLD), while it tends to overestimate BAU deforestation for countries at the later stages (LFHD and LFLD). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Deforestation - Forest transition theory:

Deforestation - Forest transition theory Countries with high forest cover can be expected to be at early stages of the FT. GDP per capita captures the stage in a country’s economic development, which is linked to the pattern of natural resource use, including forests. The choice of forest cover and GDP per capita also fits well with the two key scenarios in the FT: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Deforestation - Forest transition theory:

Deforestation - Forest transition theory (i) a forest scarcity path, where forest scarcity triggers forces (for example, higher prices of forest products) that lead to forest cover stabilization; and https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Deforestation - Forest transition theory:

Deforestation - Forest transition theory (ii) an economic development path, where new and better off-farm employment opportunities associated with economic growth (= increasing GDP per capita) reduce profitability of frontier agriculture and slows deforestation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Natural resource economics - Transitioning: perpetual resources to paleoresources:

Natural resource economics - Transitioning: perpetual resources to paleoresources Perpetual resources can transition to being a paleoresource https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Natural resource economics - Transitioning: perpetual resources to paleoresources:

Natural resource economics - Transitioning: perpetual resources to paleoresources Pennsylvania anthracite is another material where the trend towards obsolescence and becoming a paleoresource can be shown statistically https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Natural resource economics - Transitioning: perpetual resources to paleoresources:

Natural resource economics - Transitioning: perpetual resources to paleoresources Since anthracite resources are so far into the perpetual resource range and demand for anthracite has dropped so far, is it possible to see how anthracite might become a paleoresource? Probably by customers continuing to disappear (i.e https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Colloidal crystal - Phase transitions :

Colloidal crystal - Phase transitions Equilibrium phase transitions (e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Titanium alloys - Transition temperature:

Titanium alloys - Transition temperature (Id est|i.e., alpha stabilizers) while others lower the transition temperature (i.e., beta stabilizers) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature:

Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature (c) Completely ductile fracture https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature:

Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature A similar phenomenon, the glass transition temperature, occurs with glasses and polymers, although the mechanism is different in these amorphous materials. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature:

Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature In some materials this transition is sharper than others. For example, the transition is generally sharper in materials with a body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice than those with a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice. DBTT can also be influenced by external factors such as neutron radiation, which leads to an increase in internal lattice defects and a corresponding decrease in ductility and increase in DBTT. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature:

Ductility - Ductile–brittle transition temperature If experiments are performed at a higher strain rate, more dislocation shielding is required to prevent brittle fracture and the transition temperature is raised. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Liquid - Phase transitions:

Liquid - Phase transitions At a temperature below the boiling point, any matter in liquid form will evaporate until the condensation of gas above reach an equilibrium https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Liquid - Phase transitions:

Liquid - Phase transitions For the opposite transition from solid to liquid, see melting. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition:

Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition The Energy transition is the shift by several countries to sustainable economies by means of renewable energy, Efficient energy use|energy efficiency and sustainable development. The final goal is the abolishment of coal and other non-renewable energy sources. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition:

Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition Renewable energy encompasses Wind power|wind, biomass (such as landfill gas and sewage gas), hydropower, solar power (thermal and photovoltaic), Geothermal electricity|geothermal, and Marine energy|ocean power. These renewable sources are to serve as an alternative to fossil fuels (Petroleum|oil, coal, natural gas) and nuclear fuel (uranium). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition:

Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition Piecemeal measures often have only limited potential, so a timely implementation for the energy transition requires multiple approaches in parallel https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition:

Nuclear power phase-out - Energy transition After such a transitional period, with a continuing increase in renewable energy production these are expected to make up most, if not all, of the world's energy production in 50 years according to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, dramatically reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing * General developmental stages leading from proto-writing to true writing: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing **Picture writing system: glyphs directly represent objects and ideas or objective and ideational situations. In connection with this the following substages may be distinguished: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing **# The pictographic (pictography): glyphs represent directly an object or an objective situation such as (A) chronological, (B) notices, (C) communications, (D) totems, titles, and names, (E) religious, (F) customs, (G) historical, and (H) biographical; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing **# The ideographic (ideography): glyphs represent directly an idea or an ideational situation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing **Transitional system: glyphs refer not only to the object or idea which it represents but to its name as well. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing **Phonetic system: glyphs refer to sounds or spoken symbols irrespective of their meanings. This resolves itself into the following substages: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing :

Outline of prehistoric technology - Transition from proto-writing to true writing **# The alphabetic: glyph represent an elementary sound. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sol-gel - Phase transition :

Sol-gel - Phase transition Tanaka, et al., emphasize that the discrete and reversible volume transitions which occur in partially hydrolyzed acrylimide gels can be interpreted in terms of a phase transition of the system consisting of the charged polymer network, hydrogen (counter)ions and liquid matrix. The phase transition is a manifestation of competition among the three forces which contribute to the osmotic pressure in the gel: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sol-gel - Phase transition :

Sol-gel - Phase transition # The negative pressure due to polymer-polymer affinity https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sol-gel - Phase transition :

Sol-gel - Phase transition # The rubber-like Elasticity (physics)|elasticity of the polymer network https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sol-gel - Phase transition :

Sol-gel - Phase transition The volume change at the transition point is either discrete (as in a first-order Ehrenfest transition) or continuous (second order Ehrenfest analogy), depending on the degree of ionization of the gel and on the solvent composition.Tanaka, T., Phys https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Atomic layer deposition - Transition-metal nitrides:

Atomic layer deposition - Transition-metal nitrides Transition-metal nitrides, such as Titanium nitride|TiN and TaN find potential use both as Barrier metal|metal barriers and as metal gate|gate metals https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Liquid crystals - Fredericks transition:

Liquid crystals - Fredericks transition The occurrence of such a change from an aligned to a deformed state is called a Fredericks transition and can also be produced by the application of a magnetic field of sufficient strength. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Liquid crystals - Fredericks transition:

Liquid crystals - Fredericks transition The Fredericks transition is fundamental to the operation of many liquid crystal displays because the director orientation (and thus the properties) can be controlled easily by the application of a field. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Enzymes - Transition state stabilization:

Enzymes - Transition state stabilization It seems that the most effective way for reaching large stabilization is the use of electrostatic effects, in particular, when having a relatively fixed polar environment that is oriented toward the charge distribution of the transition state https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Orbital hybridisation - Non-inclusion of p orbitals in transition metal complexes :

Orbital hybridisation - Non-inclusion of p orbitals in transition metal complexes Similarly, p orbitals have long been thought to be utilized by transition metal centers in bonding with ligands, hence the 18-electron rule|18-electron description; however, recent molecular orbital calculations have found that such p orbital participation in bonding is insignificant, even though the contribution of the p-function to the molecular wavefunction is calculated to be somewhat larger than that of the d-function in main group compounds. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phospholipid bilayer - Phases and phase transitions:

Phospholipid bilayer - Phases and phase transitions All lipids have a characteristic temperature at which they transition (melt) from the gel to liquid phase https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phospholipid bilayer - Phases and phase transitions:

Phospholipid bilayer - Phases and phase transitions Transition temperature can also be affected by the degree of unsaturation of the lipid tails https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phospholipid bilayer - Phases and phase transitions:

Phospholipid bilayer - Phases and phase transitions Most natural membranes are a complex mixture of different lipid molecules https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Grantha script - Transitional Grantha :

Grantha script - Transitional Grantha The Tulu-Malayalam script is called Transitional Grantha. Currently two varieties are used: Brahmanic, or square, and Jain, or round. The Tulu-Malayalam script is a variety of Grantha dating from the 8th or 9th century AD. The modern Tamil script is also derived from Grantha. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Grantha script - Transitional Grantha :

Grantha script - Transitional Grantha This type of Grantha was used by Cholas approximately from 650 CE to 950 CE. Inscription of later Pallavas and Pandiyan Nedunchezhiyan are also examples for this variety of Grantha Script. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glossary of patent law terms - Transitional phrase:

Glossary of patent law terms - Transitional phrase In United States patent law, a phrase that links the preamble of a patent claim to the specific elements set forth in the claim which define what the invention itself actually is. The transitional phrase acts as a limitation on the claim, indicating whether a similar device, method, or composition infringes the patent if it contains more or fewer elements than the claim in the patent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Human - Transition to civilization:

Human - Transition to civilization Until c.10,000 years ago, humans lived as hunter-gatherers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Human - Transition to civilization:

Human - Transition to civilization About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt's Nile Valley and the Indus Valley Civilization|Indus Valley https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Human - Transition to civilization:

Human - Transition to civilization The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Human - Transition to civilization:

Human - Transition to civilization With the advent of the Information Age at the end of the 20th century, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalization|globalized and interconnected. As of 2010, almost 2billion humans are able to communicate with each other via the Internet, and 3.3 billion by mobile phone subscriptions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Human - Transition to civilization:

Human - Transition to civilization Although interconnection between humans has encouraged the growth of science, art, discussion, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes and the development and use of weapons of mass destruction. Human civilization has led to Environmental degradation|environmental destruction and pollution significantly contributing to the ongoing mass extinction of other forms of life called the holocene extinction event,* which may be further accelerated by global warming in the future. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Cryoprotectants - Glass transition temperature:

Cryoprotectants - Glass transition temperature Some cryoprotectants function by lowering the glass transition temperature of a solution or of a material https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### El Niño-Southern Oscillation - Transitional phases:

El Niño-Southern Oscillation - Transitional phases Transitional phases at the onset or departure of El Niño or La Niña can also be important factors on global weather by affecting teleconnections. Significant episodes, known as Trans-Niño, are measured by the [http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/catalog/climind/TNI_N34/ Trans-Niño index (TNI)]. Examples of affected short-time climate in North America include precipitation in the Northwest US and intense tornado activity in the contiguous US. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### El Niño-Southern Oscillation - Transitional phases:

El Niño-Southern Oscillation - Transitional phases During strong El Niño episodes, a secondary peak in sea surface temperature across the far eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean sometimes follows the initial peak. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transdifferentiation - Transition from mouse to human cells:

Transdifferentiation - Transition from mouse to human cells Generally transdifferentiation that occurs in mouse cells does not translate in effectiveness or speediness in human cells. Pang et al. found that while transcription factors ASCL1|Ascl1, Brn2 and Myt1l turned mouse cells into mature neurons, the same set of factors only turned human cells into immature neurons. However, the addition of NeuroD1 was able to increase efficiency and help cells reach maturity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature:

Glass transition temperature The 'glass–liquid transition' (or 'glass transition' for short) is the reversible transition in amorphous solid|amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials) from a hard and relatively brittle state into a molten or rubber-like state. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature:

Glass transition temperature International Organization for Standardization|ISO 11357-2: Plastics – Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) – Part 2: Determination of glass transition temperature (1999). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature:

Glass transition temperature An amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition is called a glass. Supercooling a viscous liquid into the glass state is called vitrification, from the Latin language|Latin vitreum, glass via French language|French vitrifier. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature:

Glass transition temperature However, the question of whether some phase transition underlies the glass transition is a matter of continuing research. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature:

Glass transition temperature The 'glass-transition temperature' Tg is always lower than the melting point|melting temperature, Tm, of the crystalline state of the material, if one exists. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Introduction:

Glass transition temperature - Introduction In many materials that normally undergo a freezing transition, rapid cooling will avoid this phase transition and instead result in a glass transition at some lower temperature https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Introduction:

Glass transition temperature - Introduction Below the transition temperature range, the glassy structure does not relax in accordance with the cooling rate used https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Introduction:

Glass transition temperature - Introduction Moynihan, C. et al. in The Glass Transition and the Nature of the Glassy State, Eds. M. Goldstein and R. Simha, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. 279 (1976) ISBN 0890720533 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Introduction:

Glass transition temperature - Introduction The configuration of the glass in this temperature range changes slowly with time towards the equilibrium structure https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Introduction:

Glass transition temperature - Introduction However, there is a longstanding debate whether there is an underlying second-order phase transition in the hypothetical limit of infinitely long relaxation times. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg:

Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg Refer to the figure on the right plotting the heat capacity as a function of temperature. In this context, Tg is the temperature corresponding to point A on the curve. The linear sections below and above Tg are colored green. Tg is the temperature at the intersection of the red regression lines.[http://www.glassproperties.com/tg/ Tg measurement of glasses]. Glassproperties.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-29. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg:

Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg As evidenced experimentally, this value is close to the Annealing (glass)|annealing point of many glasses.[http://old.iupac.org/goldbook/G02641.pdf glass-transition temperature], IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 66, 583 (1984) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg:

Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg In contrast to viscosity, the thermal expansion, heat capacity, shear modulus, and many other properties of inorganic glasses show a relatively sudden change at the glass transition temperature. Any such step or kink can be used to define Tg. To make this definition reproducible, the cooling or heating rate must be specified. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg:

Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg The most frequently used definition of Tg uses the energy release on heating in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, see figure). Typically, the sample is first cooled with 10 K/min and then heated with that same speed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg:

Glass transition temperature - Transition temperature Tg Yet another definition of Tg uses the kink in Dilatometer|dilatometry (a.k.a thermal expansion). Here, heating rates of 3–5 K/min are common. Summarized below are Tg values characteristic of certain classes of materials. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Polymers:

Glass transition temperature - Polymers Nylon-6 Nylon has a glass transition temperature of 47 °C.[http://www.polymerprocessing.com/polymers/PA6.html nylon-6 information and properties]. Polymerprocessing.com (2001-04-15). Retrieved on 2012-06-29. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Polymers:

Glass transition temperature - Polymers Whereas polyethene has a glass transition range of −130 to −80 °C[http://www.polyesterconverters.com/pcl_apps/stage1/stage2/applications_and_enduses/polyethene.htm PCL | Applications and End Uses | Polythene]. Polyesterconverters.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-29. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Polymers:

Glass transition temperature - Polymers It must be kept in mind that the above are only mean values, as the glass transition temperature depends on the cooling rate, molecular weight distribution and could be influenced by additives. Note also that for a semi-crystalline material, such as polyethene that is 60–80% crystalline at room temperature, the quoted glass transition refers to what happens to the amorphous part of the material upon cooling. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox:

Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox As a liquid is supercooled, the difference in entropy between the liquid and solid phase decreases. By extrapolating the heat capacity of the supercooled liquid below its glass transition temperature, it is possible to calculate the temperature at which the difference in entropies becomes zero. This temperature has been named the 'Kauzmann temperature'. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox:

Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox If a liquid could be supercooled below its Kauzmann temperature, and it did indeed display a lower entropy than the crystal phase, the consequences would be paradoxical. This 'Kauzmann paradox' has been the subject of much debate and many publications since it was first put forward by Walter Kauzmann in 1948. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox:

Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox One resolution of the Kauzmann paradox is to say that there must be a phase transition before the entropy of the liquid decreases. In this scenario, the transition temperature is known as the calorimetric ideal glass transition temperature T0c. In this view, the glass transition is not merely a Chemical kinetics|kinetic effect, i.e. merely the result of fast cooling of a melt, but there is an underlying thermodynamic basis for glass formation. The glass transition temperature: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox:

Glass transition temperature - Kauzmann's paradox It could also be that a first order phase transition to another liquid state occurs before the Kauzmann temperature with the heat capacity of this new state being less than that obtained by extrapolation from higher temperature https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2:

Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2 Silica (the chemical compound SiO2) has a number of distinct crystalline forms in addition to the quartz structure https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2:

Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2 The transition temperature Tg in silicates is related to the energy required to break and re-form covalent bonds in an amorphous (or random network) lattice of covalent bonds https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2:

Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2 Tg is directly proportional to bond strength, e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2:

Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2 In Viscoelasticity|viscoelastic materials, the presence of liquid-like behavior depends on the properties of and so varies with rate of applied load, i.e., how quickly a force is applied. The silicone toy 'Silly Putty' behaves quite differently depending on the time rate of applying a force: pull slowly and it flows, acting as a heavily viscous liquid; hit it with a hammer and it shatters, acting as a glass. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2:

Glass transition temperature - Silica, SiO2 On cooling, rubber undergoes a liquid-glass transition, which has also been called a rubber-glass transition. For example, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster was caused by rubber O-rings that were being used well below their glass transition temperature on an unusually cold Florida morning, and thus could not flex adequately to form proper seals between sections of the two Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster|solid-fuel rocket boosters. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification Molecular motion in condensed matter can be represented by a Fourier series whose physical interpretation consists of a superposition principle|superposition of longitudinal wave|longitudinal and transverse wave|transverse waves of atomic displacement with varying directions and wavelengths https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification Thus, thermal motion in liquids can be decomposed into elementary Longitudinal wave|longitudinal vibrations (or acoustic phonons) while transverse wave|transverse vibrations (or shear waves) were originally described only in elasticity (physics)|elastic solids exhibiting the highly ordered crystalline state of matter https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification This revision follows directly from the continuous characteristic of the structural transition from the liquid state into the solid one when this transition is not accompanied by crystallization—ergo the supercooled viscous liquid https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification Bartenev, G. M., Structure and Mechanical Properties of Inorganic Glasses (Wolters – Noordhoof, 1970) ISBN 9001054501 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification The thermal phonon mean free paths or relaxation lengths of a number of glass formers have been plotted versus the glass transition temperature, indicating a linear relationship between the two https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification It has often been suggested that heat conduction|heat transport in dielectric solids occurs through elastic vibrations of the lattice, and that this transport is limited by elastic scattering of acoustic phonons by lattice defects (e.g. randomly spaced vacancies).Rosenburg, H. M., Low Temperature Solid State Physics (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1963) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification These predictions were confirmed by experiments on commercial glasses and glass Ceramic engineering|ceramics, where mean free paths were apparently limited by internal boundary scattering to length scales of 10–100 micrometers. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification :

Glass transition temperature - Mechanics of vitrification The relationship between these transverse waves and the mechanism of vitrification has been described by several authors who proposed that the onset of correlations between such phonons results in an orientational ordering or freezing of local shear stresses in glass-forming liquids, thus yielding the glass transition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure :

Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure The influence of thermal phonons and their interaction with electronic structure is a topic that was appropriately introduced in a discussion of the Electrical resistance|resistance of liquid metals https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure :

Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure The formation of a non-crystalline form of a gold-silicon alloy by the method of splat quenching from the melt led to further considerations of the influence of electronic structure on glass forming ability, based on the properties of the metallic bond. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure :

Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure Other work indicates that the Electron mobility|mobility of localized electrons is enhanced by the presence of dynamic phonon modes. One claim against such a model is that if chemical bonds are important, the nearly free electron models should not be applicable. However, if the model includes the buildup of a charge distribution between all pairs of atoms just like a chemical bond (e.g., silicon, when a band is just filled with electrons) then it should apply to solids. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure :

Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure Thus, if the electrical conductivity is low, the mean free path of the electrons is very short https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure :

Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure It has also been argued that glass formation in metallic systems is related to the softness of the interaction potential between unlike atoms. Some authors, emphasizing the strong similarities between the local structure of the glass and the corresponding crystal, suggest that chemical bonding helps to stabilize the amorphous structure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure :

Glass transition temperature - Electronic structure Other authors have suggested that the electronic structure yields its influence on glass formation through the directional properties of bonds https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Spirou et Fantasio - A long transition:

Spirou et Fantasio - A long transition Fournier authored nine books in the series, which saw Spirou evolve into a more modern character. Where Franquin's stories tended to be politically neutral (in his later works, notably Idées noires, he would champion pacifist and environmental views), Fournier's stint on Spirou addressed such hot topics (for the 1970s) as Nuclear power|nuclear energy (L'Ankou), drug-funded dictatorships (Kodo le tyran) and François Duvalier|Duvalier-style repression (Tora Torapa). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Spirou et Fantasio - A long transition:

Spirou et Fantasio - A long transition Fournier introduced some new characters such as Ororéa, a beautiful girl reporter with whom Fantasio was madly in love with (in contrast with his loathing for Seccotine); Itoh Kata, a Japanese magician (fantasy)|magician; and an occult SPECTRE-like criminal organisation known as The Triangle. None of these were reused by later artists until some thirty years later when Itoh Kata appeared in Morvan and Munuera's Spirou et Fantasio à Tokyo. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Spirou et Fantasio - A long transition:

Spirou et Fantasio - A long transition However, at the end of the 1970s Fournier's pace began to slow down and the publisher, Dupuis, sought new authors to replace him https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Heatsetting - Glass transition temperature - and deformation point of artificial fiber :

Heatsetting - Glass transition temperature - and deformation point of artificial fiber This is also an explanation for the fact that wool mixed with synthetic fibers is more difficult to set than pure wool. Setting synthetic fibers is only possible beyond a temperature range of 85 to 95 °C. In contrast, pure wool can set very well at these temperatures. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft Terrafugia expects initial deliveries of the Transition light sport aircraft in 2015 or 2016 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft The Transition Proof-of-Concept's maiden flight on 5 March 2009 lasted 37 seconds and covered of the runway at the Plattsburgh International Airport. The test pilot then conducted 6 additional takeoffs and landings. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft On June 29, 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also granted exemptions allowing the Transition to use a polycarbonate windshield, to use tires suited for highway and aircraft use but not typically certified for multi-purpose vehicle use, to not include an electronic stability control system that could inadvertently cut engine power during flight, and finally, to use regular instead of advanced airbag deployment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft After undergoing drive tests and high-speed taxi tests, the production prototype completed its first flight on March 23, 2012 at Plattsburgh, New York. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft The production prototype then made its auto show debut at the 2012 New York International Auto Show in April, 2012. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft In June, 2012, Terrafugia announced that the Transition had completed the first of six phases of flight testing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft:

Terrafugia - Transition roadable aircraft By July, the second phase of testing was underway, expanding the performance envelope in the sky and continuing drive testing on the ground. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hysteresis - Liquid–solid-phase transitions:

Hysteresis - Liquid–solid-phase transitions Hysteresis manifests itself in state transitions when melting point|melting temperature and freezing temperature do not agree. For example, agar melts at 85 Celsius|°C and solidifies from 32 to 40 °C. This is to say that once agar is melted at 85 °C, it retains a liquid state until cooled to 40 °C. Therefore, from the temperatures of 40 to 85 °C, agar can be either solid or liquid, depending on which state it was before. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Krypton (comics) - Krypton in transition:

Krypton (comics) - Krypton in transition Over the course of the 1940s and 1950s, various alterations and additions to the makeup of Krypton were made in the comics https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Krypton (comics) - Krypton in transition:

Krypton (comics) - Krypton in transition Thus, it was explained by the early 1950s that Kryptonians were powerless on their own planet and would gain superpowers only within a lower gravity environment https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization The transition from normal state of brain activity to epileptic seizures was not formulated theoretically until 2008, when a theoretical path from a baseline state to large-scale self-sustained oscillations, which spread out uniformly from the point of stimulus, has been mapped for the first time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization A realistic state of baseline physiological activity has been defined, using the following 'two-component definition': https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization '(1)' A time-independent component represented by subthreshold excitatory activity E and superthreshold inhibitory activity I. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization '(2)' A time-varying component which may include singlepulse waves, multipulse waves, or periodic waves caused by spontaneous neuronal activity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization This baseline state represents activity of the brain in the state of relaxation, in which neurons receive some level of spontaneous, weak stimulation by small, naturally present concentrations of neurohormonal substances https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization =u-v+ \int_\omega(x-x',y-y')f(u-\theta)\,dxdy + \zeta(x,y,t), https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization =\epsilon (\beta u-v). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization The variable v governs the recovery of excitation u; \epsilonref name=Pinto and G. B. Ermentrout-2001/ref name=Pinto and G. B. Ermentrout-2001/ref name=Folias_Bressloff_1ref name=Folias_Bressloff_2ref name=Kilpatrick_Bressloffref name=Laing_Troyref name=Spiral-wave paperref name=Wilson-Natureref name=Pinto and G. B. Ermentrout-2001/ref name=Folias_Bressloff_1/ref name=Folias_Bressloff_2/ref name=Epilepsy Book/ref name=Epilepsy Book/ref name=Towle-Milton Book/ref name=Towle-Milton Book/ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization:

Hypersynchronization of electrophysiological activity in epilepsy - Transition into hypersynchronization To summarize, mathematical modeling and theoretical analysis of large-scale electrophysiological activity provide tools for predicting the spread and migration of hypersynchronous brain activity, which can be useful for diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with epilepsy. It might be also useful for predicting migration and spread of electrical activity over large regions of the brain that occur during deep sleep (Delta wave), cognitive activity and in other functional settings. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### 31-bit - Transition:

31-bit - Transition Fortunately, most of this was invisible to programmers using high-level languages like COBOL or FORTRAN, and IBM aided the transition with dual mode hardware for a period of time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### 31-bit - Transition:

31-bit - Transition Certain machine instructions in this 31-bit addressing mode alter the addressing mode bit as a possibly intentional side effect https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization:

Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization In 1959 Ernst Freese coined the terms transitions or transversions to categorize different types of point mutations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization:

Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization * 'Transitions': replacement of a purine base with another purine or replacement of a pyrimidine with another pyrimidine https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization:

Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization * 'Transversions': replacement of a purine with a pyrimidine or vice versa. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization:

Point mutations - Transition/Transversion categorization There is a systematic difference in mutation rates for transition (genetics)|transitions (Alpha) and transversions (Beta). Transition mutations are about an order of magnitude more common than transversions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Presidency of Barack Obama - Transition period:

Presidency of Barack Obama - Transition period During the transition period, Obama announced his nominations for his United States Cabinet|Cabinet and Executive Office of the President of the United States|administration https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Presidency of Barack Obama - Transition period:

Presidency of Barack Obama - Transition period Cabinet nominations included former Democratic Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008|Democratic primary opponents Hillary Rodham Clinton for United States Secretary of State|Secretary of State and Bill Richardson for United States Secretary of Commerce|Secretary of Commerce (although the latter withdrew on January 4, 2009) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Presidency of Barack Obama - Transition period:

Presidency of Barack Obama - Transition period The website also allowed individuals to share stories and visions with each other and the transition team in what was called the Citizen's Briefing Book, which was given to Obama shortly after his inauguration https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Condensed matter physics - Phase transition:

Condensed matter physics - Phase transition The study of phase transitions in strongly correlated systems is an active area of research. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

Adolescence - Transitions into adulthood In some countries, such as the United States, adolescence can last nearly a decade, but in others, the transition—often in the form of a ceremony—can last for only a few days.Steinberg, L https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

Adolescence - Transitions into adulthood This illuminates the extent to which adolescence is, at least in part, a social construction; it takes shape differently depending on the cultural context, and may be enforced more by cultural practices or transitions than by universal chemical or biological physical changes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Education in the Republic of Ireland - Transition Year (Idirbhliain):

Education in the Republic of Ireland - Transition Year (Idirbhliain) *Transition Year (Idirbhliain) (age 15–17)– optional in some schools, compulsory in others— Otherwise not available.)[http://ty.slss.ie/ Transition Year Support Service] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Education in Kenya - Transition rates and Overall Performance:

Education in Kenya - Transition rates and Overall Performance Out of all children in Kenya about 85 percent attend primary school https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Enterprise planning systems - Transition plan :

Enterprise planning systems - Transition plan Enterprise transition plans will generally refer to change management-related actions in the case of mergers or in the implementation of an enterprise-wide project. The transition plan will cover the elimination of redundant functions in the case of a merger or the incorporation of new processes into business operations in the case of a technology project. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### ITIL - Service transition:

ITIL - Service transition # Service asset and configuration management https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### ITIL - Service transition:

ITIL - Service transition # Change management (ITSM)|Change evaluation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region The 'solar transition region' is a region of the Sun's atmosphere, between the chromosphere and corona. It is visible from outer space|space using telescopes that can sense ultraviolet. It is important because it is the site of several unrelated but important transitions in the physics of the solar atmosphere: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region * Below, gravity dominates the shape of most features, so that the Sun may be described in terms of layers and horizontal features (like sunspots); above, dynamic forces dominate the shape of most features, so that the transition region itself is not a well-defined layer at a particular altitude. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region * Below, most of the helium is not fully ionized, so that it radiates energy very effectively; above, it is fully ionized. This has a profound effect on the equilibrium temperature (see below). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region * Below, the material is opaque to the particular colors associated with spectral lines, so that most spectral lines formed below the transition region are absorption lines in infrared, visible light, and near ultraviolet, while most lines formed at or above the transition region are emission lines in the ultraviolet|far ultraviolet (FUV) and X-rays. This makes radiative transfer of energy within the transition region very complicated. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region * Below, pressure|gas pressure and fluid dynamics dominate the motion and shape of structures; above, magnetism|magnetic forces dominate the motion and shape of structures, giving rise to different simplifications of magnetohydrodynamics. The transition region itself is not well studied in part because of the computational cost, uniqueness, and complexity of Navier-Stokes combined with electrodynamics. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region Helium ionization is important because it is a critical part of the formation of the corona: when solar material is cool enough that the helium within it is only partially ionized (i.e. retains one of its two electrons), the material cools by radiation very effectively via both black body radiation and direct coupling to the helium Lyman series|Lyman continuum. This condition holds at the top of the chromosphere, where the equilibrium temperature is a few tens of thousands of kelvins. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region The transition region consists of material at or around this temperature catastrophe. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Solar transition region:

Solar transition region The transition region is visible in far-ultraviolet (FUV) images from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer|TRACE spacecraft, as a faint nimbus above the dark (in FUV) surface of the Sun and the corona. The nimbus also surrounds FUV-dark features such as solar prominences, which consist of condensed material that is suspended at coronal altitudes by the magnetic field. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design By the turn of the 20th century, amateur advisors and publications were increasingly challenging the monopoly that the large retail companies had on interior design https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design :One of my strongest convictions, and one of the first canons of good taste, is that our houses, like the fish’s shell and the bird’s nest, ought to represent our individual taste and habits. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design The move towards decoration as a separate artistic profession unrelated to the manufacturers and retailers, received an impetus with the 1899 formation of the Institute of British Decorators; with John Dibblee Crace as its president it represented almost 200 decorators around the country https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design By 1900, the situation was described by The Illustrated Carpenter and Builder: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design :Until recently when a man wanted to furnish he would visit all the dealers and select piece by piece of furniture ....Today he sends for a dealer in art furnishings and fittings who surveys all the rooms in the house and he brings his artistic mind to bear on the subject.The Illustrated Carpenter and Builder , December 7 (1900): Suppl. 2 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design In America, Candace Wheeler was one of the first woman interior designers and helped encourage a new style of American design https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design Elsie De Wolfe was one of the first female interior designers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Interior design - Transition to professional interior design:

Interior design - Transition to professional interior design In England, Syrie Maugham became a legendary interior designer credited with designing the first all-white room https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Steady state economy - Policies for the transition:

Steady state economy - Policies for the transition Achieving a steady state economy requires adherence to four basic rules or system principles: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Steady state economy - Policies for the transition:

Steady state economy - Policies for the transition (1) Maintain the health of ecosystems and the life-support services they provide. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Steady state economy - Policies for the transition:

Steady state economy - Policies for the transition (2) Extract renewable resources like fish and timber at a rate no faster than they can be regenerated. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Steady state economy - Policies for the transition:

Steady state economy - Policies for the transition (3) Consume non-renewable resources like fossil fuels and minerals at a rate no faster than they can be replaced by the discovery of renewable substitutes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Steady state economy - Policies for the transition:

Steady state economy - Policies for the transition Policies for sticking to these rules are varied https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition Energiewende (German for Energy transition) designates a significant change in energy policy: The term encompasses a reorientation of policy from demand to supply and a shift from centralized to distributed generation (for example, producing heat and power in very small cogeneration units), which should replace overproduction and avoidable energy consumption with energy-saving measures and increased efficiency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition The key policy document outlining the Energiewende was published by the German government in September 2010, some six months before the w:Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster|Fukushima nuclear accident. Legislative support was passed in 2011. Important aspects include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition * greenhouse gas reductions: 80–95% reduction by 2050 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition The policy has been embraced by the German federal government and has resulted in a huge expansion of renewables, particularly wind power. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition Germany's share of renewables has increased from around 5% in 1999 to 22.9% in 2012, reaching close to the OECD average of 18% usage of renewables. Producers have been guaranteed a fixed feed-in tariff for 20 years, guaranteeing a fixed income. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition Nuclear power plants were closed, and the existing 9 plants will close earlier than planned for, in 2022. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition In May 2013, the International Energy Agency commended Germany for its commitment to developing a comprehensive energy transition strategy, ambitious renewable energy goals and plans to increase efficient energy use and supported this approach. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition Nevertheless, the scale of Germany’s energy policy ambitions, coupled with the large size and energy intensity of its economy, and its central location in Europe’s energy system, mean that further policy measures need to be developed if the country’s ambitious energy transition, or Energiewende, is to maintain a workable balance between sustainability, affordability and competitiveness. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition To date, German consumers have absorbed the costs of the Energiewende, but the IEA says that the debate over the social and economic impacts of the new approach has become more prominent as the share of renewable energy has continued to grow alongside rising electricity prices. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition The transition to a low-carbon energy sector requires public acceptance, and, therefore, retail electricity prices must remain at an affordable level. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition Presently, German electricity prices are among the highest in Europe, despite relatively low wholesale prices. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition:

Renewable energy in Germany - Energy transition At the same time, the IEA said that the new energy policy is based on long-term investment decisions, and a strong policy consensus in Germany in favour of large-scale renewable energy commercialisation exists. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Space Shuttle program - Assets and transition plan:

Space Shuttle program - Assets and transition plan NASA's transition plan had the program operating through 2010 with a transition and retirement phase lasting through 2015 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - DTT around the world and digital television transition:

Digital terrestrial - DTT around the world and digital television transition : 'Main articles:' List of digital television deployments by country, Digital television transition (aka Analog Switchoff (ASO) or Digital Switchover (DSO)) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country:

Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country The broadcasting of digital terrestrial transmissions has led to many countries planning to phase out existing analogue broadcasts. This table shows the launches of DTT and the closing down of analogue television in several countries. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country:

Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country *Official launch: The official launch date of digital terrestrial television in the country, not the start for trial broadcasts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country:

Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country *Start of closedown: The date for the first major closedown of analogue transmitters. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country:

Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country *End of closedown: The date when analogue television is definitely closed down. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country:

Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country *Interactive: System used for interactive services, such as Multimedia Home Platform|MHP and MHEG-5. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country:

Digital terrestrial - Analogue to digital transition by country *Compression: Video compression standard used. Most systems use MPEG-2, but the more efficient H.264/MPEG-4 AVC has become increasingly popular among networks launching later on. Some countries use both MPEG-2 and H.264, for example France which uses MPEG-2 for standard definition free content but MPEG-4 for HD broadcasts and pay services. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Backhaul (telecommunications) - Transition from wireless to wired backhaul :

Backhaul (telecommunications) - Transition from wireless to wired backhaul Wireless backhaul is easy to deploy, and allows moving points of presence, however, these wireless connections are slower, occupy spectrum that could be used by user devices (especially as 5.8GHz devices proliferate), require more truck rolls (typically three times as many) as wired backhaul, are limited in bandwidth. They are often viewed as an initial or temporary measure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IEEE 802.11r-2008 - Fast BSS Transition:

IEEE 802.11r-2008 - Fast BSS Transition IEEE 802.11r specifies fast Basic Service Set (BSS) transitions between access points by redefining the security key negotiation protocol, allowing both the negotiation and requests for wireless resources (similar to Resource Reservation Protocol|RSVP but defined in 802.11e) to occur in parallel. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IEEE 802.11r-2008 - Fast BSS Transition:

IEEE 802.11r-2008 - Fast BSS Transition The key negotiation protocol in 802.11i specifies that, for 802.1X-based authentication, the client is required to renegotiate its key with the RADIUS or other authentication server supporting Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) on every handoff, a time consuming process https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms:

IPv6 transition mechanisms 'IPv6 transition mechanisms' are technologies that facilitate the IPv6 deployment|transitioning of the Internet from its initial (and current) IPv4 infrastructure to the successor addressing and routing system of IPv6|Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6). As IPv4 and IPv6 networks are not directly interoperable, these technologies are designed to permit hosts on either network to participate in networking with the other network. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms:

IPv6 transition mechanisms To meet its technical criteria, IPv6 must have a straightforward transition plan from the current IPv4.RFC 1726 - IPng Technical Criteria The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) conducts working groups and discussions through the IETF Internet Drafts and Requests for Comments processes to develop these transition technologies towards that goal. Some basic IPv6 transition mechanisms are defined in RFC 4213. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Stateless IP/ICMP Translation:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Stateless IP/ICMP Translation 'Stateless IP/ICMP Translation' ('SIIT') translates between the packet header formats in IPv6 and IPv4 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Stateless IP/ICMP Translation:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Stateless IP/ICMP Translation The algorithm can be used in a solution that allows IPv6 hosts, that do not have a permanently assigned IPv4 address, to communicate with IPv4-only hosts. Address assignment and routing details are not addressed by the specification. SIIT can be viewed as a special case of stateless network address translation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Stateless IP/ICMP Translation:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Stateless IP/ICMP Translation The specification is a product of the NGTRANS IETF working group, and was initially drafted in February 2000 as RFC 2765 by E. Nordmark of Sun Microsystems. RFC 2765 was obsoleted by RFC 6145 in 2011.RFC 6145 IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm The address format part of RFC 2765 is defined in RFC 6052.RFC 6052 - IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators The framework of IPv4/IPv6 translation is defined in RFC 6144.RFC 6144 - Framework for IPv4/IPv6 Translation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Tunnel broker:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Tunnel broker A Tunnel broker combines several IPv6 Transition Mechanisms and enables users to actively use them. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Tunnel broker:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Tunnel broker The primary transition mechanism provided by a tunnel broker is IPv6 in IPv4 tunneling, usually with the help of 6in4, Tunnel Setup Protocol|TSP or AYIYA tunnels. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Tunnel broker:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Tunnel broker The first tunnel brokers were demonstrated in February 1999.RFC:3053 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 6rd:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 6rd 6rd is a mechanism to facilitate rapid deployment of the IPv6 service across IPv4 infrastructures of Internet service providers (Internet service provider|ISPs). It uses stateless address mappings between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, and transmits IPv6 packets across automatic tunnels that follow the same optimized routes between customer nodes as IPv4 packets. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 6rd:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 6rd It has been used for the first large deployment of an IPv6 service with native addresses at the end of 2007 (RFC 5569 RFC 5569 IPv6 Rapid Deployment on IPv4 Infrastructures (6rd)). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 6rd:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 6rd The standard-track specification of the protocol is in RFC 5969.RFC 5969 IPv6 Rapid Deployment on IPv4 Infrastructures (6rd) -- Protocol Specification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Transport Relay Translation:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Transport Relay Translation RFC 3142 defines the 'Transport Relay Translation' ('TRT') method. This is the most common form of NAT-PT/NAPT-PT but relies on DNS translation between AAAA and A records known as DNS-ALG as defined in RFC 2694. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - NAT64:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - NAT64 'NAT64' is a mechanism to allow IPv6 hosts to communicate with IPv4 servers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64 'DNS64' describes a DNS server that when asked for a domain's AAAA records, but only finds A records, synthesizes the AAAA records from the A records https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64 There are two noticeable issues with this transition mechanism: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64 *It only works for cases where DNS is used to find the remote host address, if IPv4 literals are used the DNS64 server will never be involved. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - DNS64 *Because the DNS64 server needs to return records not specified by the domain owner, DNSSEC validation against the DNSSEC#Deployment at the DNS root|root will fail in cases where the DNS server doing the translation is not the domain owner's server. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 464XLAT:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 464XLAT 464XLAT (RFC 6877) allows clients on IPv6-only networks to access IPv4-only Internet services, such as Skype. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 464XLAT:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 464XLAT The client uses a SIIT translator (see above) to convert IPv4 packets (e.g https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 464XLAT:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 464XLAT There is a CLAT implementation for Android, [https://android.googlesource.com/platform/external/android-clat/ Android CLAT]. T-Mobile USA provides NAT64 with T-Mobile's IPv6-only service. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite):

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) Because of IPv4 address exhaustion, 'Dual-Stack Lite' (RFC 6333) was designed to let an Internet service provider omit the deployment of any IPv4 address to the customer's Customer-premises equipment (CPE). Instead, only global IPv6 addresses are provided. (Regular Dual-Stack deploys global addresses for both IPv4 and IPv6.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite):

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) The CPE distributes Private network|private IPv4 addresses for the LAN clients, the same as a Network address translation|NAT device https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Draft proposals:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Draft proposals These mechanisms are still being discussed or have been abandoned by the IETF. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - 4rd:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - 4rd 4rd is a mechanism to facilitate residual deployment of the IPv4 service across IPv6 networks. Like 6rd, it uses stateless address mappings between IPv6 and IPv4. It supports an extension of IPv4 address based on transport-layer ports. This is similar to Address plus Port|A+P, but with each customer having a port set of up to 4 port ranges, and with port sets algorithmically derived from customer IPv6 prefixes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - MAP:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - MAP Mapping of Address and Port (MAP) is a Cisco IPv6 transition proposal which combines A+P port address translation with tunneling of the IPv4 packets over an ISP provider's internal IPv6 network. . MAP has standards-track Internet Draft status. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - NAT-PT:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - NAT-PT Network Address Translation/Protocol Translation (or simply 'NAT-PT') is defined in RFC 2766 but due to numerous problems, it has been obsoleted by RFC 4966 and deprecated to historic status. It is typically used in conjunction with a Domain Name System|DNS application-level gateway (DNS-ALG) implementation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - NAPT-PT:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - NAPT-PT While almost identical to NAT-PT, Network Address Port Translation + Protocol Translation which is also described in RFC 2766 adds translation of the ports as well as the address. This is done primarily to avoid two hosts on one side of the mechanism from using the same exposed port on the other side of the mechanism, which could cause application instability and/or security flaws. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *stone (software), port translator for Windows Unix-based systems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *[http://github.com/NICMx/NAT64 Jool], an implementation for Linux of RFC6146 (stateful NAT64), developed by Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education|Monterrey Institute of Technology (ITESM) and NIC Mexico https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *[http://www.litech.org/tayga TAYGA], a stateless NAT64 implementation for Linux https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *[http://tomicki.net/naptd.php naptd], user-level NAT-PT https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *[https://www.isc.org/software/aftr Address Family Transition Router], a DS-Lite implementation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *[http://v6s.6test.edu.cn/ IVI] ([http://www.ivi2.org/ second page]) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations:

IPv6 transition mechanisms - Implementations *Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway, a reverse proxy and VPN solution that implements DNS64 and NAT64 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IMS Associates, Inc. - Transition:

IMS Associates, Inc. - Transition In 1976, as IMS had completed its transition from a consultancy firm into a manufacturing firm, the name of the company was changed to IMSAI Manufacturing Corporation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration - Transition mechanisms:

IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration - Transition mechanisms Many of these transition mechanisms use tunneling to encapsulate IPv6 traffic within IPv4 networks. This is an imperfect solution, which may increase latency (engineering)#Communication latency|latency and cause problems with Path MTU Discovery. Tunneling protocols are a temporary solution for networks that do not support native dual-stack, where both IPv6 and IPv4 run independently. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Passive margin - Nature of transitional crust:

Passive margin - Nature of transitional crust Transitional crust, separating true oceanic and continental crusts, is the foundation of any passive margin. This forms during the rifting stage and consists of two endmembers: Volcanic and Non-Volcanic. This classification scheme only applies to rifted and transtensional margin; transitional crust of sheared margins is very poorly known. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Passive margin - Simple transitional crust:

Passive margin - Simple transitional crust Passive margins of this type show a simple progression through the transitional crust, from normal continental to normal oceanic crusts. The passive margin offshore Texas is a good example. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Passive margin - Complex transitional crust:

Passive margin - Complex transitional crust This type of transitional crust is characterized by abandoned rifts and continental blocks, such as the Blake Plateau, Grand Banks, or Bahama Islands offshore eastern Florida. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions:

Phase transitions A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions:

Phase transitions During a phase transition of a given medium certain properties of the medium change, often discontinuously, as a result of some external condition, such as temperature, pressure, and others. For example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume. The measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions:

Phase transitions Phase transitions are common in nature and used in many technologies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions:

Phase transitions The term is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, Plasma (physics)|plasma. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition Examples of phase transitions include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition *The transitions between the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a single component, due to the effects of temperature and/or pressure: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition :* (see also vapor pressure and phase diagram) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * A eutectic transformation, in which a two component single phase liquid is cooled and transforms into two solid phases. The same process, but beginning with a solid instead of a liquid is called a eutectoid transformation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * A peritectic transformation, in which a two component single phase solid is heated and transforms into a solid phase and a liquid phase. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * Transition to a mesophase between solid and liquid, such as one of the liquid crystal phases. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The transition between the ferromagnetism|ferromagnetic and paramagnetism|paramagnetic phases of magnetic materials at the Curie point. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The transition between differently ordered, ANNNI model|commensurate or commensurability (mathematics)|incommensurate, magnetic structures, such as in cerium antimonide. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The martensitic transformation which occurs as one of the many phase transformations in carbon steel and stands as a model for displacive phase transformations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * Changes in the crystallographic structure such as between ferrite (iron)|ferrite and austenite of iron. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * Order-disorder transitions such as in alpha-titanium aluminides. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The dependence of the adsorption geometry on coverage and temperature, such as for hydrogen on iron (110). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The emergence of superconductivity in certain metals and ceramics when cooled below a critical temperature. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The transition between different molecular structures (Polymorphism (materials science)|polymorphs, allotropy|allotropes or polyamorphism|polyamorphs), especially of solids, such as between an amorphous solid|amorphous structure and a crystal structure, between two different crystal structures, or between two amorphous structures. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * Quantum condensation of bosonic fluids (Bose-Einstein condensate|Bose-Einstein condensation). The superfluidity|superfluid transition in liquid helium is an example of this. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition * The Symmetry breaking|breaking of symmetries in the laws of physics during the early history of the universe as its temperature cooled. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition Phase transitions occur when the thermodynamic free energy of a system is analytic function|non-analytic for some choice of thermodynamic variables (cf. phase (matter)|phases). This condition generally stems from the interactions of a large number of particles in a system, and does not appear in systems that are too small. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition At the phase transition point (for instance, boiling point) the two phases of a substance, liquid and vapor, have identical free energies and therefore are equally likely to exist. Below the boiling point, the liquid is the more stable state of the two, whereas above the gaseous form is preferred. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Types of phase transition:

Phase transitions - Types of phase transition It is sometimes possible to change the state of a system diabatically (as opposed to adiabatic invariant|adiabatically) in such a way that it can be brought past a phase transition point without undergoing a phase transition. The resulting state is metastable, i.e., less stable than the phase to which the transition would have occurred, but not unstable either. This occurs in superheating, supercooling, and supersaturation, for example. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Ehrenfest classification:

Phase transitions - Ehrenfest classification Under the Ehrenfest classification scheme, there could in principle be third, fourth, and higher-order phase transitions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Ehrenfest classification:

Phase transitions - Ehrenfest classification Though useful, Ehrenfest's classification has been found to be an inaccurate method of classifying phase transitions, for it does not take into account the case where a derivative of Thermodynamic free energy|free energy diverges (which is only possible in the thermodynamic limit). For instance, in the ferromagnetic transition, the heat capacity diverges to infinity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Modern classifications:

Phase transitions - Modern classifications Imry and Wortis showed that quenched disorder can broaden a first-order transition in that the transformation is completed over a finite range of temperatures, but phenomena like supercooling and superheating survive and hysteresis is observed on thermal cycling.Y https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Modern classifications:

Phase transitions - Modern classifications Lev Landau gave a Phenomenology (science)|phenomenological Landau theory|theory of second order phase transitions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Modern classifications:

Phase transitions - Modern classifications Apart from isolated, simple phase transitions, there exist transition lines as well as multicritical points, when varying external parameters like the magnetic field, composition,... https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Modern classifications:

Phase transitions - Modern classifications They are continuous but break no #Symmetry|symmetries. The most famous example is the Kosterlitz–Thouless transition in the two-dimensional XY model. Many quantum phase transitions, e.g., in two-dimensional electron gases, belong to this class. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Modern classifications:

Phase transitions - Modern classifications No direct experimental evidence supports the existence of these transitions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Phase Coexistence:

Phase transitions - Phase Coexistence http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2013.10.016 If the first-order freezing transition occurs over a range of temperatures, and Tg falls within this range, then there is an interesting possibility that the transition is arrested when it is partial and incomplete https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Phase Coexistence:

Phase transitions - Phase Coexistence Phase coexistence across first order magnetic transitions will then enable the resolution of outstanding issues in understanding glasses. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical points:

Phase transitions - Critical points In any system containing liquid and gaseous phases, there exists a special combination of pressure and temperature, known as the critical point (physics)|critical point, at which the transition between liquid and gas becomes a second-order transition https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Order parameters:

Phase transitions - Order parameters An order parameter is a measure of the degree of order across the boundaries in a phase transition system; it normally ranges between zero in one phase (usually above the critical point) and nonzero in the other. At the critical point, the order parameter susceptibility will usually diverge. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Order parameters:

Phase transitions - Order parameters An example of an order parameter is the net magnetization in a ferromagnetic system undergoing a phase transition. For liquid/gas transitions, the order parameter is the difference of the densities. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Order parameters:

Phase transitions - Order parameters In such phases, the order parameter may take the form of a complex number, a vector, or even a tensor, the magnitude of which goes to zero at the phase transition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Order parameters:

Phase transitions - Order parameters There also exist Dualism|dual descriptions of phase transitions in terms of disorder parameters. These indicate the presence of line-like excitations such as Quantum vortex|vortex- or Topological defect|defect lines. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Relevance in cosmology:

Phase transitions - Relevance in cosmology This transition is important to understanding the asymmetry between the amount of matter and antimatter in the present-day universe (see Baryogenesis|electroweak baryogenesis.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Relevance in cosmology:

Phase transitions - Relevance in cosmology Progressive phase transitions in an expanding universe are implicated in the development of order in the universe, as is illustrated by the work of Eric ChaissonChaisson, “Cosmic Evolution”, Harvard, 2001 and David Layzer.David Layzer, Cosmogenesis, The Development of Order in the Universe, Oxford Univ. Press, 1991 See also Relational order theories. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes Continuous phase transitions are easier to study than first-order transitions due to the absence of latent heat, and they have been discovered to have many interesting properties. The phenomena associated with continuous phase transitions are called critical phenomena, due to their association with critical points. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes We vary the temperature T of the system while keeping all the other thermodynamic variables fixed, and find that the transition occurs at some critical temperature Tc https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes Such a behaviour has the heat capacity of amorphous materials near the glass transition temperature where the universal critical exponent α = 0.59 M.I. Ojovan, W.E. Lee. Topologically disordered systems at the glass transition. J. Phys.: Condensed Matter, 18, 11507-11520 (2006). http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1958/ A similar behavior, but with the exponent \nu instead of \alpha, applies for the correlation length. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes The exponent \nu is positive. This is different with \alpha. Its actual value depends on the type of phase transition we are considering. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes For -1 lt; α lt; 0, the heat capacity has a kink at the transition temperature. This is the behavior of liquid helium at the lambda transition from a normal state to the superfluid state, for which experiments have found α = -0.013±0.003. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes At least one experiment was performed in the zero-gravity conditions of an orbiting satellite to minimize pressure differences in the sample. This experimental value of α agrees with theoretical predictions based on variational perturbation theory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes For 0 lt; α lt; 1, the heat capacity diverges at the transition temperature (though, since α lt; 1, the enthalpy stays finite). An example of such behavior is the 3-dimensional ferromagnetic phase transition. In the three-dimensional Ising model for uniaxial magnets, detailed theoretical studies have yielded the exponent α ∼ +0.110. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes Some model systems do not obey a power-law behavior. For example, mean field theory predicts a finite discontinuity of the heat capacity at the transition temperature, and the two-dimensional Ising model has a logarithmic divergence. However, these systems are limiting cases and an exception to the rule. Real phase transitions exhibit power-law behavior. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes Several other critical exponents - β, γ, δ, ν, and η - are defined, examining the power law behavior of a measurable physical quantity near the phase transition. Exponents are related by scaling relations such as \beta=\gamma/(\delta-1), \nu=\gamma/(2-\eta). It can be shown that there are only two independent exponents, e.g. \nu and \eta. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes:

Phase transitions - Critical exponents and universality classes Universality is a prediction of the renormalization group theory of phase transitions, which states that the thermodynamic properties of a system near a phase transition depend only on a small number of features, such as dimensionality and symmetry, and are insensitive to the underlying microscopic properties of the system https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Critical slowing down and other phenomena:

Phase transitions - Critical slowing down and other phenomena The large static universality classes of a continuous phase transition split into smaller dynamic universality classes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Percolation theory:

Phase transitions - Percolation theory Another phenomenon which shows phase transitions and critical exponents is percolation theory|percolation. The simplest example is perhaps percolation in a two dimensional square lattice. Sites are randomly occupied with probability p. For small values of p the occupied sites form only small clusters. At a certain threshold pc a giant cluster is formed and we have a second order phase transition. The behavior of P∞ near pc is, P∞~(p-pc)β, where β is a critical exponent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Phase transitions - Phase transitions in biological systems:

Phase transitions - Phase transitions in biological systems Phase transitions play many important roles in biological systems. Examples include the lipid bilayer formation, the coil-globule transition in the process of protein folding and DNA melting, liquid crystal-like transitions in the process of DNA condensation, and cooperative ligand binding to DNA and proteins with the character of phase transition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English The Norman conquest of England in 1066 resulted in only limited culture shock https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English Consider these pairs of Modern English words. The first of each pair is derived from Old English and the second is of Anglo-Norman origin: pig/pork, chicken/poultry, calf/veal, cow/beef, wood/forest, sheep/Lamb (food)|mutton, house/mansion, wikt:worthy|worthy/honourable, boldness|bold/wikt:courageous|courageous, wikt:freedom|freedom/liberty.Scott, Walter. Ivanhoe; chapter 1 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English The role of Anglo-Norman as the language of government and law can be seen in the abundance of Modern English words for the mechanisms of government that derive from Anglo-Norman: court, judge, jury, appeal, parliament https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English This period of trilingual activity developed much of the flexible triplicate synonymy of modern English. For instance, English has three words meaning roughly of or relating to a king: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English Likewise, Norman – and, later, French – influences led to some interesting word pairs in English, such as the following, which both mean someone who defends: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English * Guardian from French (Both warden and guardian are derived from Germanic.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Middle English - Transition from Old English:

Middle English - Transition from Old English The end of Anglo-Saxon rule did not of course change the language immediately https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Matt the Knife - Transition into the magical arts:

Matt the Knife - Transition into the magical arts Sometime around 2000 he began to adapt his talents from that of a criminal to the skills of a conjurer and slowly transitioned out of an illegal lifestyle over the next couple of years. Since then his magic has taken him on to perform in 17 countries across 4 continents (including television shows in the United States, China, Italy, Canada, the United Kingdom and several others). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Ron Dellums - Transition and citizen task forces:

Ron Dellums - Transition and citizen task forces Mayor-Elect Dellums' transition to office involved 800 Oaklanders who joined 41 task forces to make recommendations on issues ranging from public safety to education and affordable housing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Ron Dellums - Transition and citizen task forces:

Ron Dellums - Transition and citizen task forces Many of these recommendations helped to shape the policy agenda of the Dellums administration https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### American Broadcasting Company - 1960s: Transition to color:

American Broadcasting Company - 1960s: Transition to color During the 1960s, ABC continued on the same path that it began to take in the mid-1950s, consolidating the network to gain loyalty from the public https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Somalia - Transitional Federal Institutions:

Somalia - Transitional Federal Institutions The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended. It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC) adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Somalia - Transitional Federal Institutions:

Somalia - Transitional Federal Institutions The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the Executive (government)|executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the Legislature|legislative branch. The government was headed by the President of Somalia, to whom the Cabinet (government)|cabinet reported through the Prime Minister of Somalia|Prime Minister. However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions In electronic absorption, the frequency of the incoming light wave is at or near the energy levels of the electrons within the atoms which compose the substance. In this case, the electrons will absorb the energy of the light wave and increase their energy state, often moving outward from the Atomic nucleus|nucleus of the atom into an outer shell or Atomic orbital|orbital. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions The atoms that bind together to make the molecules of any particular substance contain a number of electrons (given by the atomic number Z in the periodic chart). Recall that all light waves are electromagnetic in origin. Thus they are affected strongly when coming into contact with negatively charged electrons in matter. When photons (individual packets of light energy) come in contact with the valence electrons of atom, one of several things can and will occur: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions *An electron absorbs all of the energy of the photon and re-emits it with different color. This gives rise to luminescence, fluorescence and phosphorescence. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions *An electron absorbs the energy of the photon and sends it back out the way it came in. This results in reflection or scattering. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions *An electron cannot absorb the energy of the photon and the photon continues on its path. This results in transmission (provided no other absorption mechanisms are active). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions *An electron selectively absorbs a portion of the photon, and the remaining frequencies are transmitted in the form of spectral color. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions Most of the time, it is a combination of the above that happens to the light that hits an object. The electrons in different materials vary in the range of energy that they can absorb. Most glasses, for example, block ultraviolet (UV) light. What happens is the electrons in the glass absorb the energy of the photons in the UV range while ignoring the weaker energy of photons in the visible light spectrum. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions:

Transparency (optics) - UV-Vis: Electronic transitions Thus, when a material is illuminated, individual photons of light can make the valence electrons of an atom transition to a higher electronic energy level https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions:

Technological transitions A technological system includes technical and non-technical aspects, and it a major shift in the socio-technical configurations (involving at least one new technology) is when a technological transition occurs.Fleck, J., 1993 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Origins:

Technological transitions - Origins Technological transitions and system innovations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Long wave theory:

Technological transitions - Long wave theory The Russian economist KondratievKondratiev, N., 1925 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Long wave theory:

Technological transitions - Long wave theory * The Industrial Revolution (1770–1830) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Long wave theory:

Technological transitions - Long wave theory * Oil, Mass Production and the Consumer Society (1930–1980) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Long wave theory:

Technological transitions - Long wave theory Freeman and Perez proposed that each cycle consists of pervasive technologies, their production and economic structures that support them. Termed ‘techno-economic paradigms’, they suggest that the shift from one paradigm to another is the result of emergent new technologies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Long wave theory:

Technological transitions - Long wave theory Following the Financial crisis of 2007–2008|recent economic crisis, authors such as Moody and NogradyMoody, J.B., and Nogrady, B., 2011. The Sixth Wave: How to Succeed in a Resource-Limited World. New York: Random House have suggested that a new cycle is emerging from the old, centred on the use of sustainable technologies in a resource depleted world. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Technological paradigms, trajectories and regimes:

Technological transitions - Technological paradigms, trajectories and regimes Thomas KuhnKuhn, T., 1962 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions In analysing (historic) cases of technological transitions researchers from the systems in transition branch of transitions research have used a multi-level perspective (MLP) as a heuristic model to understand changes in socio-technical systems. (Rip, A. and R. Kemp., 1998. Technological change. In S. Rayner and E. Malone https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions This approach considers a transition to be multi-dimensional as technology is only one aspect https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions Radical innovations occur at the niche level https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions The socio-technical regime, as defined by Geels, includes a web of inter-linking actors across different social groups and communities following a set of rules https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions Exogenous to the previous levels is the socio-technical landscape. A broad range of factors are contained here, such as economic pressures, cultural values, social trends, wars and environmental issues. Change occurs at an even slower rate than at the regime level. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Multi-level perspective on technological transitions Rethinking the multi-level perspective of technological transitions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Case study:

Technological transitions - Case study 435-448 While early research focused on historical transitions, a second strand of research was more focused on transitions to sustainable technologies in key sectors such as transport, energy and housing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Case study:

Technological transitions - Case study Geels presented three historical transitions on system innovation relating to modes of transportation. The technological transition from sailing ships to steamships in the UK will be summarised and shown in the context of a wider system innovation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Case study:

Technological transitions - Case study The changes go beyond a technological transition as it involved new ship management and fleet management practices, new supporting infrastructures and new functionalities. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Transition paths:

Technological transitions - Transition paths The nature of transitions varies and the differing qualities result in multiple pathways occurring. Geels and Scot Geels, F.W. and Schot, J.W., 2007, 'Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways , Research Policy, 36 (3), pp.399-417 defined five transition paths: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Transition paths:

Technological transitions - Transition paths * Reproduction: Ongoing change occurring in the regime level. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Transition paths:

Technological transitions - Transition paths * Transformation: A socio-technical regime that changes without the emergence of a monopolising technology. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Transition paths:

Technological transitions - Transition paths * Technological substitution: An incumbent technology is replaced by a radical innovation resulting in a new socio-technical regime. (E.g. the automobile replacing the horse as the primary means of land transport). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Transition paths:

Technological transitions - Transition paths * Re-configuration: When multiple, interlinked technologies are replaced by a similarly linked alternative set. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions Six characteristics of technological transitions have been identified.,Geels, F., Monaghan, A., Eames, M. and Steward, F. , 2008. The feasibility of systems thinking in sustainable consumption and production policy: a report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London: DEFRA. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions Transitions are co-evolutionary and multi-dimensional https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions Technological developments occur intertwined with societal needs, wants and uses. A technology is adopted and diffused based on this interplay between innovation and societal requirements. Co-evolution has different aspects. As well as the co-evolution of technology and society, aspects between science, technology, users and culture have been considered. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions Multi-actors are involved https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions Scientific and engineering communities are central to the development of a technology, but a wide range of actors are involved in a transition. This can include organisations, policy-makers, government, NGOs, special interest groups and others. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions As shown in the MLP transitions occur through the interplay of processes at different levels. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions Complete system-change takes time and can be decades in the making. Case studies show them to be between 40 and 90 years. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions For a true transition to occur the technology has to be a radical innovation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions:

Technological transitions - Characteristics of technological transitions The rate of change will vary over time. For example, the pace of change may be slow at the gestation period (at the niche level) but much more rapid when a breakthrough is occurring. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Diffusion: transition phases:

Technological transitions - Diffusion: transition phases A full transition involves an overhaul of existing rules and change of beliefs which takes time, typically spanning at least a generation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Diffusion: transition phases:

Technological transitions - Diffusion: transition phases Geels proposed a similar four phased approach which draws on the multi-level perspective (MLP) developed by Dutch scholars https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity:

Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity A number of possible circumstances can act as windows of opportunity for the diffusion of new technologies: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity:

Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity * Problems external to the system. Such ‘problems’ are often determined by pressure groups and require wider societal or political backing. An example is environmental concerns. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity:

Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity * Changing user preferences. Opportunities are presented if existing technologies cannot meet user needs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity:

Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity * Complimentary technology. The availability of which may enable a breakthrough https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity:

Technological transitions - Windows of opportunity Alongside external influences, internal drivers catalyse diffusion. These include economic factors such as the price performance ration. Socio-technical perspectives focus on the links between disparate social and technological elements. Following the breakthrough, the final phases see the new technology supersede the old. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Societal relevance:

Technological transitions - Societal relevance Incremental change has provided some improvements but a more radical transition is required to achieve a more sustainable future https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Societal relevance:

Technological transitions - Societal relevance Developed from the work on technological transitions is the field of transition management. Within this is an attempt to shape the direction of change complex socio-technical systems to more sustainable patterns. Whereas work on technological transitions is largely based on historic processes, proponents of transition management seek to actively steer transitions in progress. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Technological transitions - Criticisms:

Technological transitions - Criticisms The perception of time casts doubt on whether a transition has occurred https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition Perimenopause is the menopause transition years. According to the North American Menopause Society, this transition can last for four to eight years. The Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research describes it as a six to ten year phase ending 12 months after the last menstrual period. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition During perimenopause, estrogen levels average about 20-30% higher than during premenopause, often with wide fluctuations in levels https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition Even though the process, or the course, of perimenopause or menopause can be difficult to predict, the age of onset is somewhat predictable: women will often, but not always, start these transitions (perimenopause and menopause) about the same time as their mother. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition During the perimenopause years, many women undergo noticeable and clinically observable physical changes resulting from hormonal fluctuations. The best-known of these is the hot flash or hot flush, a sudden temporary increase in body temperature. The flash sensation occurs as the body temperature soars upward, reaching a peak very rapidly. The hot sensation is not the initial temperature rise; rather, it is a reaction to the slowness of the body's return to a more normal temperature range. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition Hot flashes can raise the body temperature by many degrees quickly, causing the sufferer to feel weak and break out in heavy sweating https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition Other common effects encountered during the perimenopausal period include mood changes, insomnia, Fatigue (medical)|fatigue, and memory problems. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition Menopause may bring about a sense of loss related to the end of fertility. In addition this change often occurs when other stressors may be present: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition * The birth of grandchildren, which places people of middle age into a new category of older people (especially in cultures where being older is a state that is looked down on) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition:

Menopause - Perimenopause aka the menopause transition Recent research shows that melatonin supplementation in perimenopausal women can improve thyroid function and gonadotropin levels, as well as restoring fertility and menstruation and preventing depression associated with the menopause. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Coordination complex - Color of transition metal complexes:

Coordination complex - Color of transition metal complexes 1989 New York, Dover Publications For simple compounds with high symmetry, the d–d transitions can be assigned using Tanabe–Sugano diagrams https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Mechanical metamaterials - Metamaterials with negative longitudinal and volume compressibility transitions :

Mechanical metamaterials - Metamaterials with negative longitudinal and volume compressibility transitions When subjected to isotropic stresses, these metamaterials also exhibit negative volumetric compressibility transitions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition):

Sublimation (phase transition) 'Sublimation' is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase. Sublimation is an endothermic phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram. The reverse process of sublimation is desublimation, or Deposition (phase transition)|deposition. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition):

Sublimation (phase transition) In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition):

Sublimation (phase transition) Sublimation requires additional energy and is an endothermic change. The enthalpy of sublimation (also called heat of sublimation) can be calculated as the enthalpy of fusion plus the enthalpy of vaporization. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Carbon dioxide:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Carbon dioxide Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) sublimates readily at atmospheric pressure at −78.5 °C (194.65 K, ), whereas liquid CO2 can be obtained at pressures and temperatures above the triple point (5.2 atm, −56.4 °C). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Water:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Water Snow and ice sublimate, although more slowly, below the melting point temperature.[http://www.appstate.edu/~perrylb/Research/Snow/Snow_Density/Faasnacht_2004.pdf S https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Other compounds:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Other compounds Iodine produces fumes on gentle heating. It is possible to obtain liquid iodine at atmospheric pressure by controlling the temperature at just above the melting point of iodine. In forensic science, iodine vapor can reveal latent fingerprints on paper. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Other compounds:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Other compounds Naphthalene, a common ingredient in mothballs, also sublimates easily. Arsenic can also sublimate at high temperatures. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Other compounds:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Other compounds Various substances appear to sublimate because of undergoing chemical reactions or decomposition; for example, ammonium chloride when heated decomposes into hydrogen chloride and ammonia. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Sublimation purification:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Sublimation purification Volume 1 Transition-Metal Compounds; Academic Press: New York, 1965 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage Here, the word sublimation is used to describe an exchange of bodies and spirits similar to laboratory phase transition between solids and gases https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage And Sublimations we make for three causes, https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage The first cause is to make the body spiritual. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage And become fixed with it and consubstantial. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage The third cause is that from its filthy original. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage It may be cleansed, and its saltiness sulphurious https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage:

Sublimation (phase transition) - Historical usage May be diminished in it, which is infectious.George Ripley. Compound of Alchemy. 1591. Retrieved from http://www.levity.com/alchemy/ripgat8.html https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Chalcogenide - Transition metal chalcogenides:

Chalcogenide - Transition metal chalcogenides Ta2S), which exhibit extensive metal-metal bonding,Timothy Hughbanks Exploring the metal-rich chemistry of the early transition elements Journal of Alloys and Compounds 1995, vol https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Chalcogenide - Transition metal chalcogenides:

Chalcogenide - Transition metal chalcogenides For the purpose of classifying these materials, the chalcogenide is often viewed as a dianion, i.e., sulfide|S2-, selenide|Se2-, and Telluride (chemistry)|Te2-. In fact, transition metal chalcogenides are highly covalent, not ionic, as indicated by their semiconducting properties. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Curie temperature - Ising model of phase transitions:

Curie temperature - Ising model of phase transitions The Ising model is mathematically based and can analyse the critical points of phase transitions in ferromagnetic order due to spins of electrons having magnitudes of either +/- ½. The spins interact with their neighbouring dipole electrons in the structure and here the Ising model can predict their behaviour with each other. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Curie temperature - Ising model of phase transitions:

Curie temperature - Ising model of phase transitions This model is important for solving and understanding the concepts of phase transitions and hence solving the Curie Temperature. As a result many different dependencies that effect the Curie Temperature can be analysed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Curie temperature - Ising model of phase transitions:

Curie temperature - Ising model of phase transitions For example the surface and bulk properties depend on the alignment and magnitude of spins and the Ising model can determine the effects of magnetism in this system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Track transition curve:

Track transition curve In plan (i.e., viewed from above) the start of the transition of the horizontal curve is at infinite radius and at the end of the transition it has the same radius as the curve itself, thus forming a very broad spiral https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Track transition curve:

Track transition curve If such easement were not applied, the lateral acceleration of a rail vehicle would change abruptly at one point – the tangent|tangent point where the straight track meets the curve – with undesirable results. With a road vehicle the driver naturally applies the steering alteration in a gradual manner and the curve is designed to permit this, using the same principle. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Track transition curve - History:

Track transition curve - History On History of rail transport|early railroads, because of the low speeds and wide-radius curves employed, the surveyors were able to ignore any form of easement, but during the 19th century, as speeds increased, the need for a track curve with gradually increasing curvature became apparent https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Track transition curve - History:

Track transition curve - History In the UK, only from 1845 when legislation and land costs began to constrain the laying out of rail routes and tighter curves were necessary, did the principles start to be applied in practice. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Track transition curve - History:

Track transition curve - History Another early publication was The Railway Transition Spiral by Arthur N https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html

### Track transition curve - History:

Track transition curve - History The equivalence of the railroad transition spiral and the clothoid seems to have been first published in 1922 by Arthur Lovat Higgins https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transition-toolkit.html