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Dependency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Narcissism - Codependency (inverted narcissism or co-narcissism):

Narcissism - Codependency (inverted narcissism or co-narcissism) Codependency is a tendency to behave in overly passive or excessively caretaking ways that negatively impact one's relationships and quality of life. Narcissists are considered to be natural magnets for the codependent. Rappoport identifies codependents of narcissists as "co-narcissists". https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Debugger - Language dependency:

Debugger - Language dependency Some debuggers operate on a single specific language while others can handle multiple languages transparently. For example if the main target program is written in COBOL but calls assembly language subroutines and PL/1 subroutines, the debugger may have to dynamically switch modes to accommodate the changes in language as they occur. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Change impact analysis - Package management and dependency IA:

Change impact analysis - Package management and dependency IA Software is often delivered in packages, which contain dependencies to other software packages necessary that the one deployed runs. Following these dependencies in reverse order is a convenient way to identify the impact of changing the contents of a software package. Examples for software helpful to do this: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Change impact analysis - Package management and dependency IA:

Change impact analysis - Package management and dependency IA scripts like whatrequires for RPM, and debian package formats https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Change impact analysis - Source code and dependency IA:

Change impact analysis - Source code and dependency IA Dependencies are also declared in source code. Amongst the tools supporting to show such dependencies are: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Change impact analysis - Source code and dependency IA:

Change impact analysis - Source code and dependency IA There are as well tools applying fulltext search over source code stored in various repositories. If the source code is web-browsable, then classical search engines can be used. If the source is only available in the runtime environment, it gets more complicated and specialized tools may be of help. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Negawatt power - Reduction of national energy dependency:

Negawatt power - Reduction of national energy dependency The reduction of the amount of energy that a region emits can slowly separate a nation from a high energy consumption of oil https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Neurogenetics - Alcohol dependency:

Neurogenetics - Alcohol dependency How GABRA2 leads to alcohol dependence is still unclear, but it is thought to interact negatively with alcohol, altering the behavioral effect and resulting in dependency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Fertilizers - Fertilizer dependency :

Fertilizers - Fertilizer dependency Effectively farmers unknowingly became 100% dependent on 'bought in' water soluble, inorganic fertilizers since the sterilization of soil microflora including its mycorrhiza, reduced the availability of other natural and trace minerals within the soil https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (computer science):

Dependency (computer science) In software engineering, 'coupling' or 'dependency' is the degree to which each Module (programming)|program module relies on each one of the other modules. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (computer science):

Dependency (computer science) Coupling is usually contrasted with cohesion (computer science)|cohesion https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

International relations - Dependency:

International relations - Dependency Dependency theory is a theory most commonly associated with Marxism, stating that a set of core states exploit a set of weaker periphery states for their prosperity. Various versions of the theory suggest that this is either an inevitability (standard dependency theory), or use the theory to highlight the necessity for change (Neo-Marxist). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Slackware - Dependency resolution:

Slackware - Dependency resolution The package management system does not track or manage dependencies, instead it relies on the user to ensure that the system has all the supporting system libraries and programs required by the new package. If any of these are missing, there may be no indication until the newly installed software is used. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Slackware - Dependency resolution:

Slackware - Dependency resolution While Slackware itself does not incorporate tools to resolve dependencies for the user by automatically downloading and installing them, some community supported software tools do provide this function, similar to the way Advanced Packaging Tool|APT does for Debian and its derivatives. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) Central to the Spring Framework is its inversion of control container, which provides a consistent means of configuring and managing Java objects using Reflection (computer science)|reflection. The container is responsible for managing Object lifetime|object lifecycles of specific objects: creating these objects, calling their initialization methods, and configuring these objects by wiring them together. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) Objects created by the container are also called managed objects or beans. The container can be configured by loading XML files or detecting specific Java annotations on configuration classes. These data sources contain the bean definitions which provide the information required to create the beans. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) Dependency injection is a pattern where the container passes objects by name to other objects, via either constructor (computer science)|constructors, Property (programming)|properties, or Factory method pattern|factory methods. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) In many cases one need not use the container when using other parts of the Spring Framework, although using it will likely make an application easier to configure and customize. The Spring container provides a consistent mechanism to configure applications and integrates with almost all Java environments, from small-scale applications to large enterprise applications. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) The container can be turned into a partially compliant EJB3 container by means of the [ http://www.springsource.com/web/guest/pitchfork Pitchfork] project https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) You do not create an object, but describe how they should be created, by defining in Spring Config file. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) You do not call services and components, but tell which services and components must be called, by defining in spring configuration files. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection):

Spring Framework - Inversion of control container (dependency injection) This makes the code easy to maintain, and easier to test through IOC. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spatial analysis - Spatial dependency or auto-correlation :

Spatial analysis - Spatial dependency or auto-correlation It is also appropriate to view spatial dependency as a source of information rather than something to be corrected.De Knegt; H.J.; F https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Spatial analysis - Spatial dependency or auto-correlation :

Spatial analysis - Spatial dependency or auto-correlation Locational effects also manifest as spatial heterogeneity, or the apparent variation in a process with respect to location in geographic space. Unless a space is uniform and boundless, every location will have some degree of uniqueness relative to the other locations. This affects the spatial dependency relations and therefore the spatial process. Spatial heterogeneity means that overall parameters estimated for the entire system may not adequately describe the process at any given location. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Realm of New Zealand - Ross Dependency:

Realm of New Zealand - Ross Dependency The application of Sovereignty within the Dependency is subsequent upon the enforcement of terms found within the Antarctic Treaty. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Development theory - Dependency theory:

Development theory - Dependency theory Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connectedness to the world market.[http://www.econ.utah.edu/~vernengo/papers/princeton.pdf ] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Development theory - Dependency theory:

Development theory - Dependency theory Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap Wage labour|labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Development theory - Dependency theory:

Development theory - Dependency theory In addition to its structuralist roots, dependency theory has much overlap with Neo-Marxism and World Systems Theory, which is also reflected in the work of Immanuel Wallerstein, a famous dependency theorist https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Urban sprawl - Urban sprawl and automobile dependency:

Urban sprawl - Urban sprawl and automobile dependency Within cities, studies from across many countries (mainly in the developed world) have shown that denser urban areas with greater mixture of land use and better public transport tend to have lower car use than less dense suburban and ex-urban residential areas https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Semi-metal - Temperature dependency:

Semi-metal - Temperature dependency The insulating/semiconducting states differ from the semimetallic/metallic states in the temperature dependency of their electrical conductivity https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Class diagram - Dependency :

Class diagram - Dependency Dependency (UML)|Dependency is a weaker form of bond which indicates that one class depends on another because it uses it at some point in time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Class diagram - Dependency :

Class diagram - Dependency One class depends on another if the independent class is a parameter variable or local variable of a method of the dependent class. This is different from an association, where an attribute of the dependent class is an instance of the independent class. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Smart growth - Smart growth, urban sprawl and automobile dependency:

Smart growth - Smart growth, urban sprawl and automobile dependency Within cities studies from across many countries (mainly in the developed world) have shown that denser urban areas with greater mixture of land use and better public transport tend to have lower car use than less dense suburban and ex-urban residential areas https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Prednisone - Dependency :

Prednisone - Dependency Adrenal gland|Adrenal suppression will begin to occur if prednisone is taken for longer than seven days https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Prednisone - Dependency :

Prednisone - Dependency Glucocorticoids act to inhibit-feedback of both the hypothalamus, decreasing corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH], and corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland, decreasing the amount of adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency:

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency # commons-fileupload-1.2.1.jar (when using File Upload) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency:

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency # poi-3.1-FINAL-20080629.jar (when using Export To Excel) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency:

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency # servlet-api.jar (only during compilation) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency:

Jspx-bay - External Jar Dependency # commons-io-1.3.2.jar (when using File Upload) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Database abstraction layer - Dependency :

Database abstraction layer - Dependency A database abstraction layer provides yet another functional dependency for a software system, i.e. a given database abstraction layer, like anything else, may eventually become obsolete, outmoded or unsupported. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection:

Dependency injection 'Dependency injection' is a software design pattern that allows the removal of hard-coded Coupling (computer programming)|dependencies and makes it possible to change them, whether at run-time or compile-time.Niko Schwarz, Mircea Lungu, Oscar Nierstrasz, “ Seuss: Decoupling responsibilities from static methods for fine-grained configurability ” , Journal of Object Technology, Volume 11, no. 1 (April 2012), pp. 3:1-23, [http://dx.doi.org/10.5381/jot.2012.11.1.a3 doi:10.5381/jot.2012.11.1.a3]. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection:

Dependency injection This can be used, for example, as a simple way to load Plug-in (computing)|plugins dynamically or to choose Method stub|stubs or mock objects in test environments vs. real objects in production environments. This software design pattern injects the depended-on element (object or value, etc.) to the destination automatically by knowing the requirement of the destination. Another pattern, called dependency lookup, is a regular process and reverse process to dependency injection. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection:

Dependency injection One of its core principles is the separation of behavior from dependency resolution. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Definition:

Dependency injection - Definition * an 'injector' (sometimes referred to as a 'provider' or 'container') that creates instances of classes that implement a given dependency interface on request. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Definition:

Dependency injection - Definition The dependent object describes what software component it depends on to do its work. The injector decides what Concrete class|concrete classes satisfy the requirements of the dependent object, and provides them to the dependent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Definition:

Dependency injection - Definition In conventional software development, the dependent object decides for itself what concrete classes it will use. In the dependency injection pattern, this decision is Delegation (programming)#Language feature|delegated to the injector which can choose to substitute different concrete class implementations of a dependency contract interface at run-time rather than at compile time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Definition:

Dependency injection - Definition Being able to make this decision at run-time rather than compile time is the key advantage of dependency injection. Multiple, different implementations of a single software component can be created at run-time and passed (injected) into the same test code. The test code can then test each different software component without being aware that what has been injected is implemented differently. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Motivation:

Dependency injection - Motivation The primary purpose of the dependency injection pattern is to allow selection among multiple implementations of a given dependency interface at run time, or via configuration files, instead of at compile time. The pattern is particularly useful for providing stub test implementations of complex components when testing, but is often used for locating plugin components, or locating and initializing software services. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Motivation:

Dependency injection - Motivation Unit testing of components in large software systems is difficult, because components under test often require the presence of a substantial amount of infrastructure and setup in order to operate at all. Dependency injection simplifies the process of bringing up a working instance of an isolated component for testing. Because components declare their dependencies, a test can automatically bring up only those dependencies required to perform testing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Motivation:

Dependency injection - Motivation More importantly, injectors can be configured to swap in simplified stub implementations of sub-components when testing, the idea being that the component under test can be tested in isolation as long as the substituted sub-components implement the contract of the dependent interface sufficiently to perform the unit test in question. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Motivation:

Dependency injection - Motivation As an example, consider an automatic stock trading program that communicates with a live online trading service and stores historical analytic data in a distributed database. To test the component which recommends trades, one would ordinarily need to have a connection to the online service and an actual distributed database suitably populated with test data. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Motivation:

Dependency injection - Motivation Using dependency injection, the components that provide access to the online service and back-end databases could be replaced altogether with a test implementation of the dependency interface contracts that provide just enough behavior to perform tests on the component under tests. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Basics:

Dependency injection - Basics Without dependency injection, a consumer component that needs a particular service in order to accomplish a task must create an instance of a class that concretely implements the dependency interface. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Basics:

Dependency injection - Basics When using dependency injection, a consumer component specifies the service contract by interface, and the injector component selects an implementation on behalf of the dependent component. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Basics:

Dependency injection - Basics In its simplest implementation, code that creates a dependent object supplies dependencies to that object via constructor arguments or by setting properties on the object. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Basics:

Dependency injection - Basics The client makes a request to the dependency injection system for an implementation of a particular interface; the dependency injection system creates the object, automatically filling in dependencies as required. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Examples:

Dependency injection - Examples Using the stock trading example mentioned above, the following Java (programming language)|Java examples show how coupled (manually injected) dependencies and framework-injected dependencies are typically staged. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Examples:

Dependency injection - Examples public interface IOnlineBrokerageService https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Examples:

Dependency injection - Examples public interface IStockAnalysisService https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Examples:

Dependency injection - Examples public interface IAutomatedStockTrader https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency public class VerySimpleStockTraderImpl implements IAutomatedStockTrader https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency public VerySimpleStockTraderImpl( https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency public void executeTrades() https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency // Simplified stub implementation of IOnlineBrokerageService. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency public class StubBrokerageService implements IOnlineBrokerageService ; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency Assert.Fail(Should not buy ACME stock!); https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency public double getEstimatedValue(String stockSymbol) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency // Direct the DependencyManager to use test implementations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency StubBrokerageService.class); https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency IAutomatedStockTrader stockTrader = https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency:

Dependency injection - Highly coupled dependency (IAutomatedStockTrader) DependencyManager.create(IAutomatedStockTrader.class); https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Benefits:

Dependency injection - Benefits One benefit of using the dependency injection approach is the reduction of boilerplate code in the application objects since all work to initialize or set up dependencies is handled by a provider component. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Benefits:

Dependency injection - Benefits Another benefit is that it offers configuration flexibility because alternative implementations of a given service can be used without recompiling code. This is useful in unit testing, as it is easy to inject a Method stub|fake implementation of a service into the object being tested by changing the configuration file, or overriding component registrations at run-time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Benefits:

Dependency injection - Benefits Furthermore, dependency injection facilitates the writing of testable code. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Disadvantages:

Dependency injection - Disadvantages * Dependency injection hides the class' dependencies, causing run-time errors instead of compile-time errors when dependencies are missing or incompletely implemented. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Disadvantages:

Dependency injection - Disadvantages * The dependency injection container makes the code more difficult to maintain, because it becomes unclear when you would be introducing a breaking change. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Disadvantages:

Dependency injection - Disadvantages * If the dependency is injected at runtime, the performance of the application is reduced. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Disadvantages:

Dependency injection - Disadvantages * The benefits may not be accurately measured against the costs. i.e. an application with a highly constrained context will not realize any benefit if that is the single context, yet supporting additional unrealized contexts will have come at a cost. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Types:

Dependency injection - Types Martin Fowler identifies three ways in which an object can get a reference to an external module, according to the pattern used to provide the dependency: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Types:

Dependency injection - Types * Type 1 or interface injection, in which the exported module provides an interface that its users must implement in order to get the dependencies at runtime. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Types:

Dependency injection - Types * Type 2 or setter injection, in which the dependent module exposes a setter method that the framework uses to inject the dependency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency injection - Types:

Dependency injection - Types * Type 3 or constructor injection, in which the dependencies are provided through the class constructor. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory Second, core states do not exploit poor states—as dependency theory proposes—because capitalism is organized around an inter-regional and transnational division of labor rather than an international division of labor https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory From a largely Weberian perspective, Fernando Henrique Cardoso described the main tenets of dependency theory as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory * There is a financial and technological penetration of the periphery countries|periphery and semi-periphery countries by the developed capitalist core countries; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory * This produces an unbalanced economic structure within the peripheral societies and among them and the centers; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory * This leads to limitations upon self-sustained growth in the periphery; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory * These require modifications in the role of the state to guarantee the functioning of the economy and the political articulation of a society, which contains, within itself, foci of inarticulateness and structural imbalance.Cardoso, F https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

World-systems theory - Dependency theory:

World-systems theory - Dependency theory Dependency and world system theory propose that the poverty and backwardness of poor countries are caused by their peripheral position in the international division of labor. Since the capitalist world system evolved, the distinction between the central and the peripheral nations has grown and diverged. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Syntax - Dependency grammar:

Syntax - Dependency grammar Dependency grammar is an approach to sentence structure where syntactic units are arranged according to the dependency relation, as opposed to the constituency relation of phrase structure grammars. Dependencies are directed links between words. The (finite) verb is seen as the root of all clause structure and all the other words in the clause are either directly or indirectly dependent on this root. Some prominent dependency-based theories of syntax: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Syntax - Dependency grammar:

Syntax - Dependency grammar * Functional generative description https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Syntax - Dependency grammar:

Syntax - Dependency grammar Lucien Tesnière (1893–1954) is widely seen as the father of modern dependency-based theories of syntax and grammar https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management):

Dependency (project management) In a project network, a 'dependency' is a link amongst a project's Work breakdown structure#Terminal element|terminal elements. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management):

Dependency (project management) The A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge|A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) does not define the term 'dependency', but refers for this terms to a 'logical relationship', which in term is defined as dependency between two activities, or between an activity and a milestone. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies There are four standard types of dependencies: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* A FS B = B can't start before A is finished, or in another words Activity A must be completed before Activity B can begin. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* (Foundations dug) FS (Concrete poured) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* A FF B = B can't finish before A is finished or in another words Activity A must be complete before Activity B can finish. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* (New shift started) SF (Previous shift finished) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies Finish-to-start is considered a natural dependency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies SF is rarely used, and should generally be avoided. Microsoft recommends to use SF dependency for just-in-time scheduling. It can be easily show however, that this would only work in case Resource_leveling|resource levelling is not used, because resource levelling can delay a successor activity (an activity, which shall be finished just-in-time) in such a way, that it will finish later than the start of its logical predecessor activity, thus not fulfilling the just-in-time requirement. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* It is illogical to pour concrete before you dig the foundations of a building https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies # Resource (project management)|Resource constraints https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* It is logically possible to paint four walls in a room simultaneously but there is only one painter https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies #* I want to paint the living room before painting the dining room, although I could do it the other way round, too https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies :

Dependency (project management) - Standard types of dependencies Early critical path method|critical path-derived schedules often reflected only on causal (logical) or discretionary (preferential) dependencies because the assumption was that resources would be available or could be made available. Since at least the mid-1980s, competent project managers and schedulers have recognized that schedules must be based on resource availability. The critical chain method necessitates taking into account resource constraint-derived dependencies as well. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Leads and Lags :

Dependency (project management) - Leads and Lags A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge|PMBOK defines 'lag' as the amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Leads and Lags :

Dependency (project management) - Leads and Lags When building two walls from a novel design, one might start the second wall 2 days after the first so that the second team can learn from the first. This is an example of a lag in a Start-Start relationship. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Leads and Lags :

Dependency (project management) - Leads and Lags In accordance to A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge|PMBOK a 'lead' is the amount of time whereby a a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity For example, on a project to construct a new office building, the landscaping could be scheduled to start prior to the scheduled punch list completion. This would be shown as a finish-to-start with two-week lead. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Example:

Dependency (project management) - Example If you are building a building, you can't paint the walls before putting the water pipes into the walls. Well, maybe you can, but it is going to be expensive, because you need to tear down the wall, put the pipes, test them, then fill the holes and finally paint. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Example:

Dependency (project management) - Example It would be much faster and less expensive, to put the pipes first, put the cement to actually build the wall around the pipes, and finally paint the walls. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships :

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships Activity A and Activity B are said to have a Maximal-Type Relationship, if Activity B can start after Activity A, but with the delay of no more than X. Real life examples, which are simulated by Maximal-Type Relation: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships :

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships * Shoring of the trench has to be done not necessarily immediately after excavation, but within certain time, otherwise the trench will collapse. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships :

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships * Vaccination of baby has to be done not immediately after birth, but within certain time https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships :

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships * Renewal of the passport has to be done some time after the current one has been issued, but before it expires. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships :

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships * Invoice payment does not have to be done immediately, but within certain time after it has been issued. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships :

Dependency (project management) - Maximal-Type Relationships Maximal-type relationships are rarely implemented in the project management software, most probably because with this feature it is too easy to create contradictory dependencies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency:

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency The process of converting source code (human readable form) to executable code (computer executable form), is called compilation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency:

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency Projects can be compiled separately, meaning that one project can be converted into a library that other projects use to compile, thus each project can be compiled without having to compile the other at the same time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency:

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency Projects are said to depend on their libraries, since without their respective libraries they can't compile, while libraries can compile without the other being around. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency:

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency These dependencies are also called build dependencies, for obvious reasons. As you can imagine, circular dependencies are very bad, because it means you can't compile from scratch. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency:

Dependency (project management) - Build dependency One way to avoid this is to have a machine dedicated to compile from scratch (like Jenkins), using a build script (like Maven). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Serfdom - Dependency and the lower orders:

Serfdom - Dependency and the lower orders Serfs had a specific place in feudal society, as did English feudal barony|barons and knights: in return for protection, a serf would reside upon and work a parcel of land within the manor of his Lord of the manor|lord. There was thus a degree of reciprocity in the manorial system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Serfdom - Dependency and the lower orders:

Serfdom - Dependency and the lower orders One rationale was that a serf worked for all, while a knight or baron fought for all and a churchman prayed for all; thus everyone had a place. The serf was the worst fed and paid, but at least he had his place and, unlike slavery|slaves, had certain rights in land and property. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Serfdom - Dependency and the lower orders:

Serfdom - Dependency and the lower orders A lord of the manor could not sell his serfs as a Roman might sell his slaves. On the other hand, if he chose to dispose of a parcel of land, the serfs associated with that land stayed with it to serve their new lord, benefitting him from their long-acquired knowledge of practices suited to the land. Further, a serf could not abandon his lands without permission, nor did he possess a saleable title in them. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Mediated cross-border communication - 1970-1990: Mediated cross-border communication as media imperialism (dependency paradigm) :

Mediated cross-border communication - 1970-1990: Mediated cross-border communication as media imperialism (dependency paradigm) (1988) Communication imperialism and dependency: a conceptual clarification https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Mediated cross-border communication - 1970-1990: Mediated cross-border communication as media imperialism (dependency paradigm) :

Mediated cross-border communication - 1970-1990: Mediated cross-border communication as media imperialism (dependency paradigm) Again, UNESCO played an important role in this context that is shown by guest contributions from top representatives to major scholarly journals (e.g., Masmoudi, 1979),Masmoudi, M https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Mediated cross-border communication - 1970-1990: Mediated cross-border communication as media imperialism (dependency paradigm) :

Mediated cross-border communication - 1970-1990: Mediated cross-border communication as media imperialism (dependency paradigm) After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 and the former Soviet Union in 1991, dependency theory and the media imperialism thesis became largely abandoned from research agenda to be replaced by concepts of media globalisation and perspectives of transnational communication https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency:

Counterdependency 'Counterdependency' is the state of refusal of Attachment theory|attachment, the denial of personal need and dependency, and may extend to the Omnipotence#In_psychology|omnipotence and refusal of dialogue found in destructive narcissism, for example.[http://www.isps-us.org/koehler/binswanger.htm Brian Koehler, 'Ludwig Binswanger: Contributions to an Intersubjective Approach to Psychosis'] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Development origins:

Counterdependency - Development origins Weinhold et al, Breaking Free of the Co-Dependency Trap (2008) p https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Development origins:

Counterdependency - Development origins In similar fashion, the teenager needs to be able to establish the fact of their separate mind to their parents,Patrick Casement, Further Learning from the Patient (1990) p. 94 even if only through a sustained state of cold rejection;Mavis Klein, Okay Parenting (1991) p. 108 and again unresolved adolescent issues can lead to a mechanical counterdependence and unruly assertiveness in later life.Edward O. De Barry, Theological Reflection (2003) p. 157 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations:

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations The counterdependent personality has been described as being addicted to activity and suffering from grandiosity, as acting strong and pushing others away.Mark Atkinson, True Happiness (2011) p. 245 Out of a fear of being crowded, they avoid contact with others, something which can lead through emotional isolation to Depression (mood)|depression.William Stewart, An A-Z of Counselling, Theory and Practice (2005) p. 295 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations:

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations The counterdependent male in particular may pride himself on being 'manly' - not needing affection, support or warmth, and being tough, independent and normal insteadRobin Skynner/John Cleese, Families and how to survive them (1993) p https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations:

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations The apparently independent behavior of the counterdependent can act as a powerful lure for the Codependency|co-dependentOtto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (1946) p. 510 - though once a couple has formed the two partners - codependent/counterdependent - are sometimes found to switch roles.Weinhold, p. 10 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations:

Counterdependency - Adult manifestations In therapy, the counterdependent personality often wishes to flee treatment, as a defense against the possibility of Regression (psychology)|regression.Leonard Horwitz, Borderline Personality Disorder (1996) p. 167 and p. 133-4 By keeping the therapist at arm's length, and avoiding reference to feelings as far as possible, they may attempt to control the therapist so as to preserve their sense of independence.John Bowlby, A Secure Base (2000) p. 50-1 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Existential views:

Counterdependency - Existential views Existential therapy|Existential therapists distinguish between interdependency on the one hand, and, on the other, both dependency and an escapist form of rebellious counterdependence.Emmy van Deurzen-Smith, Existential Counselling in Practice (1997) p. 18 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Counter dependence transference:

Counterdependency - Counter dependence transference Counterdependency can present itself in a clinical situation in the form of a negative transference.John Heron, Helping the Client (2001) p. 49 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Counterdependency - Counter dependence transference:

Counterdependency - Counter dependence transference In the Personal construct theory of George Kelly (psychologist)|George Kelly, the term is used in another sense, to describe the therapist's transference of dependency onto the client: counter dependent transference.G. Kelly, The Psychology of Personal Constructs: Vol II (2003) p. 81-2 and p. 440 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependents - Harmful effects of unaddressed codependency:

Codependents - Harmful effects of unaddressed codependency People with codependency are also more likely to attract further abuse from aggressive individuals, more likely to stay in stressful jobs or relationships, less likely to seek medical attention when needed and are also less likely to get promotions and tend to earn less money than those without codependency patterns. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependents - Harmful effects of unaddressed codependency:

Codependents - Harmful effects of unaddressed codependency For some, the social insecurity caused by codependency can progress into full-blown social anxiety disorders like Specific social phobia|social phobia, avoidant personality disorder or painful shyness. Other stress-related disorders like panic disorder, Major depressive disorder|depression or PTSD may also be present. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency:

Codependency Codependency may also be characterized by denial, low self-esteem, excessive Compliance (psychology)|compliance, or self control|control patterns https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Development and scope of concept:

Codependency - Development and scope of concept Historically, the concept of codependence comes directly out of Alcoholics Anonymous, part of a dawning realization that the problem was not solely the addict, but also the family and friends who constitute a network for the alcoholic https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Development and scope of concept:

Codependency - Development and scope of concept Some would retain the stricter, narrower dictionary definition of codependency, which requires one person to be physically or psychologically addicted, such as to heroin, and the second person to be psychologically dependent on that behavior. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Patterns and characteristics:

Codependency - Patterns and characteristics Codependency describes behaviors, thoughts and feelings that go beyond normal kinds of self-sacrifice or caretaking https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Patterns and characteristics:

Codependency - Patterns and characteristics People who are codependent often take on the role of mother hen; they constantly put others' needs before their own and in doing so forget to take care of themselves. This creates a sense that they are needed; they cannot stand the thought of being alone with no one needing them. Codependent people are constantly in search of acceptance. When it comes to arguments, codependent people also tend to set themselves up as the victim. When they do stand up for themselves, they feel guilty. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Patterns and characteristics:

Codependency - Patterns and characteristics Codependency does not refer to all caring behavior or feelings, but only those that are excessive to an unhealthy degree. Indeed, from the standpoint of Attachment theory or Object relations theory, to risk becoming dependent may be for the compulsively self-reliant a psychological advance, and depending on a source outside oneself ... successful, or tolerable, dependence may be valorized accordingly. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies Many therapists maintain that finding a balance through healthy assertiveness (which leaves room for being a caring person and also engaging in healthy caring behavior) is true recovery from codependency and that becoming extremely selfish, a bullying|bully, or an otherwise conflict-addicted person is not. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies From the perspective of moving beyond victim-hood, the capacity to forgive and let go (with exception of cases of very severe abuse) could also be signs of real recovery from codependency, but the willingness to endure further abuse would not. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies * Caring for an individual with a physical addiction is not necessarily synonymous with pathology. To name the caregiver as a co-alcoholic responsible for the endurance of their partner's alcoholism for example, pathologizes caring behavior. The caregiver may only require assertiveness skills and the ability to place responsibility for the addiction on the other. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies * Not all mental health professionals agree about codependence or its standard methods of treatment. It is not listed in the DSM-IV-TR. Stan Katz Liu, in The Codependency Conspiracy: How to Break the Recovery Habit and Take Charge of Your Life, feel that codependence is over-diagnosed, and that many people who could be helped with shorter-term treatments instead become dependent on long-term self-help programs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies * Some believe that codependency is not a negative trait, and does not need to be treated, as it is more likely a healthy personality trait taken to excess. Codependency in nonclinical populations has some links with favorable characteristics of family functioning. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies * The language of, symptoms of, and treatment for codependence derive from the medical model suggesting a disease process underlies the behavior. There is no evidence that codependence is caused by a disease process, communicable or otherwise. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies * Some frequent users of the codependency concept use the word as an alternative to using the concept of dysfunctional families, without statements that classify it as a disease.[http://health.yahoo.com/relationships-resources/codependency-dysfunctional-families/healthwise--shc77.html Codependency / Dysfunctional Families] [http://web.archive.org/web/20080724053811/http://health.yahoo.com/relationships-resources/codependency-dysfunctional-families/healthwise--shc77.html Archive copy, July 24, 2008] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Codependency - Controversies:

Codependency - Controversies * Codependency was proposed for inclusion in DSM (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) and rejected because there are so many symptoms almost anyone could be diagnosed with codependency (Cermak, Diagnosing and Treating Codependency, 1986) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Parse tree - Dependency-based parse trees:

Parse tree - Dependency-based parse trees The dependency-based parse trees of dependency grammarsSee for example Ágel et al. 2003/2006. see all nodes as terminal, which means they do not acknowledge the distinction between terminal and non-terminal categories. They are simpler on average than constituency-based parse trees because they contain many fewer nodes. The dependency-based parse tree for the example sentence above is as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Parse tree - Dependency-based parse trees:

Parse tree - Dependency-based parse trees This parse tree lacks the phrasal categories (S, VP, and NP) seen in the constituency-based counterpart above. Like the constituency-based tree however, constituent (linguistics)|constituent structure is acknowledged. Any complete subtree of the tree is a constituent. Thus this dependency-based parse tree acknowledges the subject noun John and the object noun phrase the ball as constituents just like the constituency-based parse tree does. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Parse tree - Dependency-based parse trees:

Parse tree - Dependency-based parse trees The constituency vs. dependency distinction is far-reaching. Whether the additional syntactic structure associated with constituency-based parse trees is necessary or beneficial is a matter of debate. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Long-term effects of cannabis - Dependency:

Long-term effects of cannabis - Dependency Although no medication is known to be effective in combating dependency, combinations of psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational enhancement therapy have achieved some success. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Long-term effects of cannabis - Dependency:

Long-term effects of cannabis - Dependency Research has shown the overall addiction potential for cannabis to be less than for caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, cocaine or heroin, but slightly higher than that for psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Drug rehabilitation - Psychological dependency:

Drug rehabilitation - Psychological dependency Psychological dependency is addressed in many drug rehabilitation programs by attempting to teach the patient new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act - Concern about dependency :

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act - Concern about dependency The idea that the welfare-receiving poor had become too dependent upon public assistance also encouraged the act https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio:

Dependency ratio In economics, geography and demography the 'dependency ratio' is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force (the dependent part) and those typically in the labor force (the productive part). It is used to measure the pressure on productive population. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Formula:

Dependency ratio - Formula In published international statistics, the dependent part usually includes those under the age of 15 and over the age of 64.The productive part makes up the population in between, ages 15 – 64. It is normally expressed as a percentage: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Formula:

Dependency ratio - Formula As the ratio increases there may be an increased burden on the productive part of the population to maintain the child|upbringing and pensions of the economically dependent. This results in direct impacts on financial expenditures on things like social security, as well as many indirect consequences. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Formula:

Dependency ratio - Formula The (total) dependency ratio can be decomposed into the child dependency ratio and the aged dependency ratio:[http://www.apheo.ca/index.php?pid=63 Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - World Bank 2010 Age dependency ratio by country :

Dependency ratio - World Bank 2010 Age dependency ratio by country As of 2010 Japan and Europe had high aged dependency ratios compared to other parts of the world.http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.DPND.OL/countries?display=map https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Inverse :

Dependency ratio - Inverse The inverse of the dependency ratio, the 'inverse dependency ratio' can be interpreted as how many independent workers have to provide for one dependent person (pension expenditure on children) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Issues :

Dependency ratio - Issues A high dependency ratio can cause serious problems for a country if a large proportion of a government's expenditure is on health, social security education, which are most used by the youngest and the oldest in a population. The fewer people of working age, the fewer the people who can support schools, retirement pensions, disability pensions and other assistances to the youngest and oldest members of a population, often considered the most social vulnerability|vulnerable members of society. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Issues :

Dependency ratio - Issues Worries about increasing (demographic) dependency ratio should thus be taken with caution.http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2012/59/en/2/EF1259EN.pdf https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency ratio - Migrant Labor Dependency Ratio:

Dependency ratio - Migrant Labor Dependency Ratio Migrant Labor Dependency Ratio (MLDR) is used to describe the extent to which the domestic population is dependent upon migrant labor.http://rspas.anu.edu.au/~athu/Journal%20Papers/International%20labou%2006.pdf https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Marxist international relations theory - Dependency theory:

Marxist international relations theory - Dependency theory Linked in with Marxist theories is dependency theory which argues that developed countries, in their pursuit of power, penetrate developing states through political advisors, missionaries, experts and multi-national corporations (MNCs) to integrate them into the capitalist system in order to appropriate natural resources and foster dependence by developing countries on developed countries. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Caregiving - Dependency paradox:

Caregiving - Dependency paradox While these two psychological needs may initially appear to be contradictory (that is, it is not readily apparent how people may reconcile their need for social connection with their need for independence), psychological research shows that individuals who are more dependent on their intimate partners for support actually experience more autonomy, rather than less (a phenomenon that has been labelled the dependency paradox) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory:

Dependency theory 'Dependency theory' is the notion that resources flow from a periphery of poor and underdeveloped states to a core of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the world system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory:

Dependency theory Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structuralism|structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.Newschool, [http://homepage.newschool.edu/het/schools/develop.htm Economic Development], retrieved July 2009. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Basics:

Dependency theory - Basics # Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labour, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets for developed nations, without which the latter could not have the standard of living they enjoy. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Basics:

Dependency theory - Basics # Wealthy nations actively perpetuate a state of dependence by various means. This influence may be multifaceted, involving economics, propaganda model|media control, politics, banking and finance, education, culture, and sport. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Baran, Paul Sweezy, and Andre Gunder Frank.Vernengo, Technology, Finance and Dependency, op cit https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Using the Latin American Dependency Model, in his book, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa the Guyanese Marxist historian, Walter Rodney, described an Africa that had been consciously exploited by European imperialists,leading directly to the modern underdevelopment of most of the continent. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History The theory was popular in the 1960s and 1970s as a criticism of modernization theory (the stages hypothesis mentioned above), which was falling increasingly out of favor because of continued widespread poverty in much of the world. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Many dependency theorists advocate social revolution as an effective means to the reduction of economic disparities in the world system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History According to Vernengo, the Latin American Structuralist and the American Marxist schools had significant differences but agreed on some basic points: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Baran and others frequently spoke of the international division of labour – skilled workers in the center, unskilled in the periphery – when discussing key features of dependency.Vernengo, Technology, Finance and Dependency, op cit., pp 5, 6. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Baran placed surplus extraction and capital accumulation at the center of his analysis https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History More recently, Guillermo O'Donnell has argued that constraints placed on development by neoliberalism were lifted by the military coups in Latin America that came to promote development in authoritarian guise (Vernengo's words, summarising O'Donnell, 1982).G O'Donnell, El Estado Burocrático Autoritario: Triunfos, Derrotas y Crisis, Buenos Aires, Universidad de Belgrano, written 1982, published 1996, cited in Vernengo, Technology, Finance and Dependency, p 10. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History The importance of technology, multinational corporations, and State promotion of technology were emphasised by the Latin American Structuralists. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Fajnzybler has made a distinction between systemic or authentic competitiveness, which is the ability to compete based on higher productivity, and spurious competitiveness, which is based on low wages.Cited in Vernengo, p 11. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History The third-world debt crisis of the 1980s and continued stagnation in Africa and Latin America in the 1990s caused some doubt as to the feasibility or desirability of dependent development.Vernengo, p 12. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Vernengo (2004) has suggested that the sine qua non of the dependency relationship is not the difference in technological sophistication, as traditional dependency theorists believe, but rather the difference in financial strength between core and peripheral countries ndash; particularly the inability of peripheral countries to borrow in their own currency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History Former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (in office 1995-2002) wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile during the 1960s, arguing that it was an approach to studying the economic disparities between the centre and periphery https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - History :

Dependency theory - History With the economic growth of India and some East Asian economies, dependency theory has lost some of its former influence. It still influences some NGO campaigns, such as Make Poverty History and the fair trade movement. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists Many of these authors focused their attention on Latin America; the leading dependency theorist in the Islamic world is the Egyptian economist Samir Amin . https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists Later, world systems theory expanded on dependency arguments https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists Tausch (2003) traces the beginnings of World systems theory to the writings of the Austro-Hungarian socialist Karl Polanyi after the First World War. In its present form it is usually associated with the work of Immanuel Wallerstein. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists Sociologist Fernando Henrique Cardoso (later President of Brazil) summarized his version of dependency theory as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists * there is a financial and technological penetration by the developed capitalist centers of the countries of the periphery and semi-periphery; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists * this produces an unbalanced economic structure both within the peripheral societies and between them and the centers; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists * this leads to limitations on self-sustained growth in the periphery; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists * these require modifications in the role of the state to guarantee both the functioning of the economy and the political articulation of a society, which contains, within itself, foci of inarticulateness and structural imbalance.Cardoso Faletto, 1979, cited in Tausch, Sustainable Development and Turkey's Accession, about 1/6 of way through. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists Tausch (2003), based on works of Amin from 1973 to 1997, lists the following main characteristics of periphery capitalism: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists # Regression in both agriculture and small scale industry characterizes the period after the onslaught of foreign domination and colonialism https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists # Unequal international specialization of the periphery leads to the concentration of activities in export oriented agriculture and or mining. Some industrialization of the periphery is possible under the condition of low wages, which, together with rising productivity, determine that unequal exchange sets in (double factorial terms of trade 1.0; see Raffer, 1987) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists # These structures determine in the long run a rapidly growing tertiary sector with hidden unemployment and the rising importance of rent in the overall social and economic system https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists # Chronic current account balance deficits, re-exported profits of foreign investments, and deficient business cycles at the periphery that provide important markets for the centers during world economic upswings https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists # Structural imbalances in the political and social relationships, inter alia a strong 'wikt:comprador|compradore' element and the rising importance of state capitalism and an indebted state class https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists The analysis of development patterns in the 1990s and beyond is complicated by the fact that capitalism develops not smoothly, but with very strong and self-repeating ups and downs, called cycles. Relevant results are given in studies by Joshua Goldstein, Volker Bornschier, and Luigi Scandella . https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists Dependency theorists hold that short-term spurts of growth notwithstanding, long-term growth in the periphery will be imbalanced and unequal, and will tend towards high negative current account balances (Tausch 2003) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists At this stage, the role of unequal exchange in the entire relationship of dependency cannot be underestimated. Unequal exchange is given, if double factorial terms of trade of the respective country are Tausch A., [http://www.alternativesjournal.net/volume2/number1/tausch.htm Social Cohesion, Sustainable Development and Turkey's Accession to the European Union: Implications from a Global Model], Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, '2'(1) Spring 2003. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists *Yotopoulos P. and Sawada Y. (1999), [http://www-siepr.stanford.edu/Papers/pdf/99-4.pdf Free Currency Markets, Financial Crises And The Growth Debacle: Is There A Causal Relationship?], Revised November 1999, Stanford University, USA, and University of Tokyo. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists:

Dependency theory - Other dependency theorists *Yotopoulos P. and Sawada Y. (2005), [http://www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/cirje/research/dp/2005/2005cf318.pdf Exchange Rate Misalignment: A New test of Long-Run PPP Based on Cross-Country Data] (CIRJE Discussion Paper CIRJE-F-318), February 2005, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Neocolonialism - Dependency theory:

Neocolonialism - Dependency theory Proponents of Dependency Theory, such as Venezuelan historian Federico Brito Figueroa, who has investigated the socio-economic bases of neo-colonial dependency, have influenced the thinking of the former President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency:

Interdependency 'Interdependence' describes relationships in which members of the group are mutually dependent on the others. This concept differs from a dependence relationship, where some members are dependent and some are not. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency:

Interdependency In an interdependent relationship, participants may be emotionally, economically, ecologically and/or morally reliant on and responsible to each other. An interdependent relationship can arise between two or more cooperative autonomous participants (e.g. - co-op). Some people advocate Freedom (political)|freedom or independence as the ultimate good; others do the same with devotion to one's family, community, or society. Interdependence can be a common ground between these aspirations. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - History:

Interdependency - History Authors and leaders have written and spoken about interdependence throughout history, including Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Stephen Covey. Karl Marx first used the term interdependence in the Communist Manifesto (1848) in describing the universal interdependence of nations in comparison to the old local and national seclusion of independence and self-sufficiency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - History:

Interdependency - History The various classical civilizations over the ages established vast trading networks with one another. The exchange of goods and ideas occurred from the time of the early Indian Empire on the Indus River, all the way up to the Roman Empire on the Mediterranean. In some cases, this exchange was very one sided, but remain mutually beneficial despite this. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - History:

Interdependency - History Today, international interdependence is often said to be strong and to have increased https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - Measuring international interdependence:

Interdependency - Measuring international interdependence International disintegration is entirely consistent with a high degree of international interdependence. For interdependence exists when one country by unilateral action can inflict harm on (or provide benefits to) other countries. Competitive protectionism, devaluation, deflation, or pollution of the air and sea beyond national boundaries are instances. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - Measuring international interdependence:

Interdependency - Measuring international interdependence Interdependence is measured by the costs of severing the relationship (or the benefits of developing it) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - Role of interdependence in feminist philosophy:

Interdependency - Role of interdependence in feminist philosophy In the Ethics of care approach to morality, Nel Noddings emphasises the interdependence of people.*Noddings, Nel, ed. Educating Citizens for the olympics. New York: Teacher's College Press. 2005. She saw it as a hidden fact which is often unseen or not discussed in a male dominated, justice and judgment based approach to ethics. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - Role of interdependence in feminist philosophy:

Interdependency - Role of interdependence in feminist philosophy Carol Gilligan was an early proponent of the view that interdependence rather than rules underlay the basis of morality*Gilligan, Carol. In A Different Voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1982. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependency - Role of interdependence in feminist philosophy:

Interdependency - Role of interdependence in feminist philosophy *Jagger, Alison. “ Caring as a Feminist Practice of Moral Reason. ” in Virginia Held (Editor), Carol W. Oberbrunner (Editor) Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency:

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency The large dependency on this single crop, and the lack of genetic variability among the plants that made up the crop in Ireland, were two of the reasons why the emergence of Phytophthora infestans had such devastating effects in Ireland and had less severe effects in other European countries (which were European Potato Failure|also hit by the disease).[http://aboutbiodiversity.org/agbdx/eireblight.html Other European countries also hit by Phytophthora infestans] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency:

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency The potato's spread was essential to the development of the cottier (farmer)|cottier system, supporting an extremely cheap workforce, but at the cost of lower living standards. For the labourer, it was essentially a potato wage that shaped the expanding agrarian economy. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency:

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency The expansion of tillage led to an inevitable expansion of the potato acreage and an expansion of peasant farmers. By 1841, there were over half a million peasant farmers, with 1.75 million dependants. The principal beneficiary of this system was the English consumer. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency:

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency The potato was also used extensively as a fodder crop for livestock immediately prior to the famine. Approximately 33% of production, amounting to , was normally used in this way. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Serfs - Dependency and the lower orders:

Serfs - Dependency and the lower orders One rationale held that a serf worked for all while a knight or baron fought for all and a churchman prayed for all; thus everyone had a place. The serf was the worst fed and rewarded, but at least he had his place and, unlike slavery|slaves, had certain rights in land and property. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency :

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency So, while physical dependency can be a major factor in the psychology of addiction and most often becomes a primary motivator in the continuation of an addiction, the initial primary attribution of an addictive substance is usually its ability to induce pleasure, although with continued use the goal is not so much to induce pleasure as it is to relieve the anxiety caused by the absence of a given addictive substance, causing it to become used compulsively. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency :

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency Some substances induce physical dependence or physiological tolerance - but not addiction— for example many laxatives, which are not psychoactive; nasal decongestants, which can cause rebound congestion if used for more than a few days in a row; and some antidepressants, most notably venlafaxine, paroxetine and sertraline, as they have quite short Half-life|half-lives, so stopping them abruptly causes a more rapid change in the neurotransmitter balance in the brain than many other antidepressants https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency :

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency The speed with which a given individual becomes addicted to various substances varies with the substance, the frequency of use, the means of ingestion, the intensity of pleasure or euphoria, and the individual's genetic and psychological susceptibility https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency :

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency Comparison of alternative treatment techniques in bulimia: The chemical dependency approach https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency :

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency Gambling is another potentially addictive behavior with some biological overlap. Conversely gambling urges have emerged with the administration of Pramipexole|Mirapex (pramipexole), a dopamine agonist.AJ Giannini. Drugs of Abuse--Second Edition. Los Angeles, Practice Management Information Corporation, 1997. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency :

Substance use disorder - Physical dependency The obsolete term physical addiction is deprecated, because of its connotations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Psychological dependency:

Substance use disorder - Psychological dependency In the now outdated conceptualization of the problem, psychological dependency leads to psychological withdrawal symptoms (such as craving (withdrawal)|cravings, irritability, insomnia, depression (mood)|depression, anorexia (symptom)|anorexia, etc.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Psychological dependency:

Substance use disorder - Psychological dependency A person who is physically dependent, but not psychologically dependent can have their dose slowly dropped until they are no longer physically dependent. However, if that person is psychologically dependent, they are still at serious risk for relapse into abuse and subsequent physical dependence. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Substance use disorder - Psychological dependency:

Substance use disorder - Psychological dependency Psychological dependence does not have to be limited only to substances; even activities and behavioural patterns can be considered addictions, if they become uncontrollable, e.g.problem gambling, Internet addiction disorder|Internet addiction, computer addiction, sexual addiction / pornography addiction, overeating, self-injury, compulsive buying disorder|compulsive buying, or work addiction. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Anthropology of development - Dependency theory:

Anthropology of development - Dependency theory Dependency theory rejected Rostow's view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structuralism|structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy and hence unable to change the system https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Anthropology of development - Dependency theory:

Anthropology of development - Dependency theory Immanuel Wallerstein's world-systems theory was the version of Dependency theory that most North American anthropologists engaged with. His theories are similar to Dependency theory, although he placed more emphasis on the system as system, and focused on the developments of the core rather than periphery. Wallerstein also provided an historical account of the development of capitalism which had been missing from Dependency theory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency:

Great Famine (Ireland) - Potato dependency The large dependency on this single crop, and the lack of genetic variability among the potato plants in Ireland, were two of the reasons why the emergence of Phytophthora infestans had such devastating effects in Ireland and less severe European Potato Failure|effects elsewhere in Europe.[http://aboutbiodiversity.org/agbdx/eireblight.html Other European countries also hit by Phytophthora infestans] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Political economy in anthropology - World-systems theory Dependency theory:

Political economy in anthropology - World-systems theory Dependency theory Both versions of Dependency Theory were critiqued throughout the 1970s for the static historical accounts they provided. Their influence was slowly replaced by more dynamic and historically sensitive versions, such as Eric Wolf's Europe and the People Without History. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation:

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation The dependency relation was first acknowledged concretely and developed as the basis for a comprehensive theory of syntax and grammar by Lucien Tesnière in his posthumously published work Éléments de syntaxe structurale (Elements of Structural Syntax).See Tesnière (1959). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation:

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation Some prominent dependency grammars are listed here: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation:

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation ::* Functional Generative Description https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation:

Phrase structure grammar - Dependency relation Since these grammars are all based on the dependency relation, they are by definition NOT phrase structure grammars. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars While phrase structure grammars (= constituency grammars) acknowledge both finite verb|finite and non-finite verb|non-finite VPs as Constituent (linguistics)|constituents (= subtrees), dependency grammars reject the former. That is, dependency grammars acknowledge only non-finite VPs as constituents; finite VPs do not qualify as constituents in dependency grammars. For example: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars Since has finished the work contains the finite verb has, it is a finite VP, and since finished the work contains the non-finite verb finished but lacks a finite verb, it is a non-finite VP. Similar examples: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars dependency grammars challenge the validity of the initial binary division of the clause into Subject (grammar)|subject (NP) and Predicate (grammar)|predicate (VP), which means they reject the notion that the second half of this binary division, i.e https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars The constituency tree on the left shows the finite VP has finished the work as a constituent, since it corresponds to a subtree. The dependency tree on the right, in contrast, does not acknowledge a finite VP constituent, since there is no subtree there that corresponds to has finished the work. Note that the analyses agree concerning the non-finite VP finished the work; both see it as a constituent (= subtree). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars Dependency grammars point to the results of many standard constituent (linguistics)|constituency tests to back up their stance.For a discussion of the evidence for and against a finite VP constituent, see Matthews (2007:17ff.), Miller (2011:54ff.), and Osborne et al. (2011:323f.). For instance, topicalization, pseudoclefting, and answer ellipsis suggest that non-finite VP does, but finite VP does not, exist as a constituent: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars :: *What John has done is 'has finished the work'. - Pseudoclefting https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars The * indicates that the sentence is bad. These data must be compared to the results for non-finite VP: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars ::What John has done is 'finished the work'. - Pseudoclefting https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars:

Verb phrase - Verb phrases in dependency grammars The strings in bold are the ones in focus https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Endocentric - The distinction in dependency grammars:

Endocentric - The distinction in dependency grammars Dependency grammars by definition were much less capable of acknowledging the types of divisions that constituency enables https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar:

Dependency grammar Dependency structures are flatter than constituency structures in part because they lack a finite verb|finite verb phrase constituent (linguistics)|constituent, and they are thus well suited for the analysis of languages with free word order, such as Czech language|Czech, Turkish language|Turkish, and Warlpiri language|Warlpiri. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - History:

Dependency grammar - History Dependency is also concretely present in the works of Sámuel Brassai (1800-1897), a Hungarian linguist, and of Heimann Hariton Tiktin (1850-1936), a Romanian linguist.Concerning dependency in the works of Brassai, see Imrényi (2013), and concerning dependency in the works of Tiktin, see Coseriu (1980). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - History:

Dependency grammar - History Interest in dependency grammar is growing at present, international conferences on dependency linguistics being a relatively recent development ([http://depling.org Depling 2011], [http://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/project/depling13/ Depling 2013], [http://depling.org/depling2015/ Depling 2015]). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Dependency vs. constituency:

Dependency grammar - Dependency vs. constituency The result of this difference is that dependency structures are minimalThe minimality of dependency structures is emphasized, for instance, by Ninio (2006) and by Osborne et al https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Dependency vs. constituency:

Dependency grammar - Dependency vs. constituency These two trees illustrate just two possible ways to render the dependency and constituency relations (see below). This dependency tree is an ordered tree, i.e. it reflects actual word order. Many dependency trees abstract away from linear order and focus just on hierarchical order, which means they do not show actual word order. This constituency tree follows the conventions of Minimalist program|bare phrase structure (BPS), whereby the words themselves are employed as the node labels. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Dependency vs. constituency:

Dependency grammar - Dependency vs. constituency The importance of this distinction is that if one acknowledges the initial subject-predicate division in syntax as something real, then one is likely to go down the path of constituency grammar, whereas if one rejects this division, then the only alternative is to position the verb as the root of all structure, which means one has chosen the path of dependency grammar. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Dependency grammars:

Dependency grammar - Dependency grammars The derivation trees of Tree-adjoining grammar are dependency-based, although the full trees of TAG are constituency-based, so in this regard, it is not clear whether TAG should be viewed more as a dependency or constituency grammar. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Dependency grammars:

Dependency grammar - Dependency grammars There are major differences between the grammars just listed. In this regard, the dependency relation is compatible with other major tenets of theories of grammar. Thus like constituency grammars, dependency grammars can be mono- or multistratal, representational or derivational, construction- or rule-based. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Representing dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Representing dependencies There are various conventions that DGs employ to represent dependencies. The following schemata (in addition to the tree above and the trees further below) illustrate some of these conventions: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Representing dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Representing dependencies The brackets in (f) are seldom used, but are nevertheless quite capable of reflecting the dependency hierarchy; dependents appear enclosed in more brackets than their heads https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Representing dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Representing dependencies The point to these conventions is that they are just that, namely conventions. They do not influence the basic commitment to dependency as the relation that is grouping syntactic units. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Types of dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Types of dependencies During the discussion, the existence of syntactic dependencies is taken for granted and used as an orientation point for establishing the nature of the other three dependency types. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Semantic dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Semantic dependencies Semantic dependencies are understood in terms of predicate (grammar)|predicates and their Argument (linguistics)|arguments.Concerning semantic dependencies, see Melʹc̆uk (2003:192f.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Semantic dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Semantic dependencies Finally, the predicate to help in (d) takes the one argument Jim but is not directly connected to Jim in the syntactic hierarchy, which means that that semantic dependency is entirely independent of the syntactic dependencies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies Morphological dependencies obtain between words or parts of words.Concerning morphological dependencies, see Melʹc̆uk (2003:193ff.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies Thus since the choice of determiner impacts the morphological form of the adjective, there is a morphological dependency pointing from the determiner to the adjective, whereby this morphological dependency is entirely independent of the syntactic dependencies https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies The masculine subject le chien in (a) demands the masculine form of the predicative adjective blanc, whereas the feminine subject la maison demands the feminine form of this adjective. A morphological dependency that is entirely independent of the syntactic dependencies therefore points again across the syntactic hierarchy. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Morphological dependencies Morphological dependencies play an important role in typological studies. Languages are classified as mostly Head-marking language|head-marking (Sam work-s) or mostly Dependent-marking language|dependent-marking (these houses), whereby most if not all languages contain at least some minor measure of both head and dependent marking.The distinction between head- and dependent-marking was established by Nichols (1986). Nichols was using a dependency-based understanding of these distinctions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Prosodic dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Prosodic dependencies Prosodic dependencies are acknowledged in order to accommodate the behavior of clitics.Concerning prosodic dependencies and the analysis of clitics, see Groß (2011) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Prosodic dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Prosodic dependencies The hyphens and lack of projection lines indicate prosodic dependencies https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Syntactic dependencies:

Dependency grammar - Syntactic dependencies One should acknowledge in this area, however, that the basic task of identifying and discerning the presence and direction of the syntactic dependencies of dependency grammars is no easier or harder than determining the constituent groupings of constituency grammars https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities:

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities This aspect of dependency-based structures has allowed DGs, starting with Tesnière (1959), to focus on hierarchical order in a manner that is hardly possible for constituency grammars https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities:

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities Comprehensive dependency grammar accounts of topicalization, wh-movement|wh-fronting, Scrambling (linguistics)|scrambling, and extraposition are mostly absent from many established dependency-based frameworks https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities:

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities The nature of the dependency relation does not, however, prevent one from focusing on linear order. Dependency-based structures are as capable of exploring word order phenomena as constituency-based structures. The following trees illustrate this point; they represent one way of exploring discontinuities using dependency-based structures. The trees suggest the manner in which common discontinuities can be addressed. An example from German is used to illustrate a scrambling discontinuity: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities:

Dependency grammar - Linear order and discontinuities The a-trees on the left show discontinuity (linguistics)|projectivity violations (= crossing lines), and the b-trees on the right demonstrate one means of addressing these violations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions:

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions Traditionally, DGs have treated the syntactic functions (= grammatical functions, grammatical relations) as primitive. They posit an inventory of functions (e.g. subject, object, oblique, determiner, attribute, predicative, etc.). These functions can appear as labels on the dependencies in the tree structures, e.g.For discussion and examples of the labels for syntactic functions that are attached to dependency edges and arcs, see for instance Mel'cuk (1988:22, 69) and van Valin (2001:102ff.). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions:

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions The syntactic functions in this tree are shown in green: ATTR (attribute), COMP-P (complement of preposition), COMP-TO (complement of to), DET (determiner), P-ATTR (prepositional attribute), PRED (predicative), SUBJ (subject), TO-COMP (to complement). The functions chosen and abbreviations used in the tree here are merely representative of the general stance of DGs toward the syntactic functions. The actual inventory of functions and designations employed vary from DG to DG. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions:

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions As a primitive of the theory, the status of these functions is much different than in some constituency grammars https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions:

Dependency grammar - Syntactic functions Indeed, monostratal systems, be they dependency- or constituency-based, will likely reject the notion that the functions are derived from the constellation or that the constellation is derived from the functions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Operator grammar - Dependency:

Operator grammar - Dependency The fundamental mechanism of operator grammar is the dependency constraint: certain words (Operator (linguistics)|operators) require that one or more words (arguments) be present in an utterance. In the sentence John wears boots, the operator wears requires the presence of two arguments, such as John and boots. (This definition of dependency differs from other dependency grammars in which the arguments are said to depend on the operators.) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Operator grammar - Dependency:

Operator grammar - Dependency In each language the dependency relation among words gives rise to part of speech|syntactic categories in which the allowable arguments of an operator are defined in terms of their dependency requirements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Operator grammar - Dependency:

Operator grammar - Dependency The categories in operator grammar are linguistic universal|universal and are defined purely in terms of how words relate to other words, and do not rely on an external set of categories such as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, etc. The dependency properties of each word are observable through usage and therefore learnable. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Phrase structure rule - Constituency vs. dependency:

Phrase structure rule - Constituency vs. dependency The dependency relation, in contrast, is a one-to-one relation; for every word in the sentence, there is exactly one node in the syntactic structure that corresponds to that word https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Phrase structure rule - Constituency vs. dependency:

Phrase structure rule - Constituency vs. dependency The constituency tree on the left could be generated by phrase structure rules. The sentence S is broken down into smaller and smaller constituent parts. The dependency tree on the right could not, in contrast, be generated by phrase structure rules (at least not as they are commonly interpreted). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Discontinuity (linguistics) - Dependency-based projectivity:

Discontinuity (linguistics) - Dependency-based projectivity The following trees illustrate projective and non-projective structures in a dependency-based analysis of sentence structure: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Discontinuity (linguistics) - Dependency-based projectivity:

Discontinuity (linguistics) - Dependency-based projectivity Trees (c) and (e), however, are not projective due to the crossing lines; each of (c) and (e) contains a projectivity violation because a solid dependency edge crosses a dotted projection line https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Discontinuity (linguistics) - Dependency-based projectivity:

Discontinuity (linguistics) - Dependency-based projectivity Dependency grammars have explored the projectivity principle in great detail and have formalized it rigorously.See for instance Hays (1964), Gaifman (1965), Robinson (1970), Mel'čuk (1988: 35ff.) The concept is, however, a simple one. If crossing lines obtain in the tree, projectivity has been violated, meaning a discontinuity is present. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars:

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars The distinction between configurational and non-configurational languages can exist for phrase structure grammars only. Dependency grammars (DGs), since they lack a finite verb|finite VP constituent altogether, do not acknowledge the distinction. In other words, all languages are non-configurational for DGs, even English, which all phrase structure grammars take for granted as a having a finite VP constituent. The point is illustrated with the following examples: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars:

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars ::No structure 'will have a finite VP constituent'. - Finite VP in bold https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars:

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars ::No structure will 'have a finite VP constituent'. - Non-finite VP in bold https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars:

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars Phrase structure grammars almost unanimously assume that the finite VP in bold in the first sentence is a constituent. DGs, in contrast, do not see finite VPs as constituents. Both phrase structure grammars and DGs do, however, see non-finite verb|non-finite VPs as constituents. The dependency structure of the example sentence is as follows: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars:

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars What this means based upon the criterion of configurationality is that this dependency structure (like all dependency structures) is non-configurational https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars:

Non-configurational language - Controversy with dependency grammars Dependency grammars point to the results of standard constituent (linguistics)|constituency tests as evidence that finite VP does not exist as a constituentSee Osborne et al. 2011:323-324. While these tests deliver clear evidence for the existence of a non-finite VP constituent in English (and other languages), they do not do the same for finite VP. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency:

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency Agricultural biodiversity is not only the result of human activity but human life is dependent on it not just for the immediate provision of food and other natural resources based goods, but for the maintenance of areas of land and waters that will sustain production and maintain agroecosystems and the wider biological and environmental services (biosphere). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency:

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency * Sustainable production of food and other agricultural products emphasising both strengthening sustainability in production systems at all levels of intensity and improving the conservation, sustainable use and enhancement of the diversity of all genetic resources for food and agriculture, especially plant and animal genetic resources, in all types of production systems Thrupp, L https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency:

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency * Biological or life support to production emphasising conservation, sustainable use and enhancement of the biological resources that support sustainable production systems, particularly soil biota, pollinators and predators https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency:

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency * Ecological and social services provided by agro-ecosystems such as landscape and wildlife protection, soil protection and health (fertility, structure and function), water cycle and water quality, air quality, CO2 sequestration, etc. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency:

Agricultural biodiversity - Human dependency Research supporting these findings addresses multifunctional agriculture in Europe, home gardens from around the world,Galluzi, G., Eyzaguirre, P https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability:

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability In her 2004 book The Autonomy Myth: A Theory of Dependency, Fineman argues that popular ideology in the United States has become fixated on the myth that citizens are and should be autonomous. Yet the fact that dependency is unavoidable in any society and must be dealt with to sustain the polity, Fineman contends, gives the state the responsibility to support caretaking. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability:

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability Her 2008 article The Vulnerable Subject in the Yale Journal of Law and Feminism develops a theory of vulnerability in order to argue for a more responsive state and a more egalitarian society. The article forms the basis for her 2011 book, also titled The Vulnerable Subject. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability:

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability :Vulnerability is and should be understood to be universal and constant, inherent in the human condition https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability:

Martha Fineman - Work on dependency and vulnerability Developing her work on dependency, Fineman raises the question: if our bodily fragility, material needs, and the possibility of messy dependency they signify cannot be ignored in life, how can they be absent in our theories about equality, society, politics and law?' Moving beyond gender and other identity categories, Fineman uses the concept of vulnerability to 'define the very meaning of what it means to be human.' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

History of the Cayman Islands - Dependency of Jamaica:

History of the Cayman Islands - Dependency of Jamaica Upon Jamaica's independence in 1962, the Cayman Islands broke its administrative links with Jamaica and opted to become a direct dependency of the British monarchy|British Crown, with the chief official of the islands being the Administrator. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

History of the Cayman Islands - Dependency of Jamaica:

History of the Cayman Islands - Dependency of Jamaica In 1953 the first airfield in the Cayman Islands was opened as well as the George Town Public hospital. Barclays ushered in the age of formalised commerce by opening the first commercial bank. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependent networks - Dependency links :

Interdependent networks - Dependency links Links in a standard network represent connectivity, providing information about how one node can be reached from another. Dependency links represent a need for support from one node to another. This relationship is often, though not necessarily, mutual and thus the links can be directed or undirected. Crucially, a node loses its ability to function as soon as the node it is dependent on ceases to function while it may not be so severely effected by losing a node it is connected to. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Interdependent networks - Dependency links :

Interdependent networks - Dependency links In percolation theory, a node is considered active as long as it is connected to the giant component. The introduction of dependency links adds another condition: that the node that it depends on is also active. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Capital mobility - Dependency theory:

Capital mobility - Dependency theory Free trade has been accused of being a disguised form of colonialism or imperialism, particularly by proponents of economic nationalism and the school of mercantilism. In the 19th century these largely took the form of attacks on British calls for free trade, seeing these as expansion of the British Empire. Since the 1950s these attacks fall under the rubric of dependency theory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Capital mobility - Dependency theory:

Capital mobility - Dependency theory quote|Gentlemen deceive themselves. It is not free trade that they are recommending to our acceptance. It is, in effect, the British colonial system that we are invited to adopt; and, if their policy prevail, it will lead, substantially, to the recolonization of these States, under the commercial dominion of Great Britain.|Henry Clay, In Defense of the American System, Against the British Colonial System. 1832, Feb 2, 3, and 6. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Capital mobility - Dependency theory:

Capital mobility - Dependency theory Imperial powers that controlled capital flows could maintain their economic status vis-a-vis their former colonies by using this dependency to their advantage https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need:

Dependency need Even as adults, people have certain universal dependency needs that remain constant throughout the lifespan that they are not able to provide for themselves; these include: the belongingness|need to belong, need for affection, as well as the need for emotional support https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Importance :

Dependency need - Importance Dependency need is an important psychological concept, encompassing the fields of psychological, evolutionary, and ethological theory https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - History :

Dependency need - History It can be hypothesized that the concept of dependency need originated from the well-known psychologists Henry Murray and Abraham Maslow's ideas about needs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - History :

Dependency need - History The needs defined by Murray and Maslow (physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs) seem to correspond with the vital needs encompassed in the concept of dependency need. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Attachment theory's relevance :

Dependency need - Attachment theory's relevance (Larsen Buss, 2008) Therefore, conclusions can be visibly drawn linking attachment and dependency need; vital, infantile needs for mothering, love, affection, shelter, protection, security, food, and warmth (dependency need) can stem from the type of interaction between that of an infant and his or her primary caregiver https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Biological needs :

Dependency need - Biological needs Biological needs are basic survival needs, such as protection from harm, consumption of food, and regulation of body temperature; they are mechanisms used to promote and maintain proper body functioning. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Social needs :

Dependency need - Social needs Social needs are acquired psychological processes that activate emotional responses to particular need-relevant incentives https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key contributors :

Dependency need - Key contributors There have been numerous theorists who have done research in relation to dependency need. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key contributors :

Dependency need - Key contributors 'Robert Bornstein', a professor of psychology, researched certain levels of dependency needs, as well as personality disorders related to dependency needs, including dependent personality disorder (DPD) and histrionic personality disorder (HPD). Henry Murray's publication, Explorations in Personality (1938) describes differences and similarities between types of dependency needs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key contributors :

Dependency need - Key contributors As mentioned previously, Abraham Maslow was a key contributor to the establishment of a dependency need theory https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key contributors :

Dependency need - Key contributors Another key contributor to the establishment of dependency need theory was Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key contributors :

Dependency need - Key contributors Sigmund Freud came up with a five stage theory that stated human beings are born with sexual energy; this energy was thought to develop in five stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key contributors :

Dependency need - Key contributors There are differences and similarities worth noting when it comes to biological needs and social needs. Biological needs are required for survival in everyday life, whereas social needs are acquired and learned. Similarities between the two include the relevance that an individual requires both types of needs in one's life in order to live happy, healthy lives in which he or she is able to thrive and succeed; if an individual's needs are not met, he or she may become sad and/or depressed. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - What happens when dependency needs are not met :

Dependency need - What happens when dependency needs are not met In general, depression, sadness, and loneliness are likely results if dependency needs are not met no matter what age an individual is. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Key experiments :

Dependency need - Key experiments Many experiments relating the importance of dependency need have been conducted over the years; here, three influential experiments are outlined. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment :

Dependency need - Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment When this study was conducted in 1957, Harry Harlow was questioning current theories about dependency and love https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment :

Dependency need - Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment The interpretation made by Harlow about this was that the liking for the cloth surrogate mother showed the importance of affection, emotion, nurturance, and dependency in mother child relationships. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study :

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study The phenomenon of infant dependency need was first noticed in René Spitz's orphan study https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study :

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study Spitz's orphan study focused on two groups of children, starting when the children were infants, and continued all the way until they reached 12 years of age https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study :

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study Results from the experiment showed drastic differences https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study :

Dependency need - René Spitz orphan study Defined previously, dependency needs are “ The vital, originally infantile needs for mothering, love, affection, shelter, protection, security, food, and warmth ” (Segen, 1992). When those needs are not met psychological, emotional, physical and attachment problems can arise. This was shown in the Spitz orphan study. (Shepard, 2013) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Types of attachment :

Dependency need - Types of attachment “ Attachment theory states that a child's first relationship is a love relationship that will have profound, long-lasting effects on an individual's subsequent development. ” (Colin, 1991) The closeness of the child to the person providing protection and a sense of security will becomes this figure to the child https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Types of attachment :

Dependency need - Types of attachment In securely attached babies, the baby's attachment figure is an effective secure base from them. They are able to explore the world and can even handle brief separation in an environment unfamiliar to them. They are secure in the fact that they know the attachment figure will return and that there is little to no anxiety experienced. (Colin, 1991) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Types of attachment :

Dependency need - Types of attachment In anxious/avoidant attachment, the baby is anxious about the attachment figure's (typically a parent) responsiveness https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Types of attachment :

Dependency need - Types of attachment In anxious/ambivalent attachment, signs of anxiety, anger, and mixed feelings about the attachment figure are present in the baby; this is especially true after brief separations of the baby from the attachment figure, occurring in unfamiliar environments. (Colin, 1991) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Types of attachment :

Dependency need - Types of attachment In disorganized/disoriented babies, the baby does not have a consistent strategy for managing separation and reunion with his or her attachment figure. Some of the babies show to be depressed, demonstrate avoidant behavior, express anger, and/or show disturbing behaviors. Infants in this category have typically been child abuse|maltreated. (Colin, 1991) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Current research :

Dependency need - Current research The research currently being done in the last few years in relation to dependency need relates largely to attachment theory. Most studies of attachment theory focus on how attachment relates to other aspects in the individual's life; for example, how an individual's attachment style (developed early on) affects his or her display of emotions after a break-up, or how an individual's attachment style affects his or her ability to make new friends in college. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Current research :

Dependency need - Current research A study done in 2010 by Stephanie Parade, Esther Leerke, and Nayena Blankson looked at the correlation between an individual's attachment to his or her parents and how well he or she is able to make friends; this study specifically focused on college-age individuals https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Current research :

Dependency need - Current research Another current study done by Gnilka, Ashby, and Noble, looked at adult attachment styles and the psychological outcomes, like hopelessness and life satisfaction, using maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism as the mediators https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Relationship to female suicide attempts :

Dependency need - Relationship to female suicide attempts The article suggests future research on the range of dependency and the effect dependency might have on suicide https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Conclusions :

Dependency need - Conclusions Vital, originally infantile needs for mothering, love, affection, shelter, protection, security, food, and warmth, more specifically known as “ dependency needs, ” change and decrease with age and maturity. As an individual gets older, these needs usually decrease in strength and can normally be met individually, or fulfilled by relationships among partners, family members or friends. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Conclusions :

Dependency need - Conclusions No matter the way one theorizes the concept of dependency need, it is well known that all humans seem to have these basics needs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency need - Conclusions :

Dependency need - Conclusions Dependency need continues to be a concept that is of great interest to psychologists (more specifically tied into attachment theory) and is ever-present in the everyday lives of all human beings. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network:

Dependency network Kenett, Eshel Ben-Jacob and Miriam Fuast (2011), Charting the Hebrew semantic lexicon: Using association correlations, semantic cliques and dependency networks for global and local system analysis, [http://dx.crossref.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023912 PLoS ONE 6(8): e23912] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network:

Dependency network Using this concept, the dependency of one node on another node, is calculated for the entire network https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Importance:

Dependency network - Importance The partial correlation based Dependency Networks is a revolutionary new class of correlation based networks, which is capable of uncovering hidden relationships between the nodes of the network. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Importance:

Dependency network - Importance Following this work, the dependency network methodology has been applied to the study of the immune system, and semantic networks https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Overview:

Dependency network - Overview Therefore, we define the influence of node j on node i, or the dependency of node i on node j- D(i,j), to be the sum of the influence of node j on the correlations of node i with all other nodes. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Overview:

Dependency network - Overview Then we define the influence of node j on node i, or the dependency of node i on node j - D(i,j), to be the sum of the influence of node j on the distances between node i with all other nodes k. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - The node-node correlations:

Dependency network - The node-node correlations The node=node correlations can be calculated by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient|Pearson ’ s formula: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - The node-node correlations:

Dependency network - The node-node correlations Where X_i(n) and X_j(n) are the activity of nodes i and j of subject n, μ stands for average, and sigma the STD of the dynamics profiles of nodes i and j. Note that the node-node correlations (or for simplicity the node correlations) for all pairs of nodes define a symmetric correlation matrix whose (i,j) element is the correlation between nodes i and j. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Partial correlations:

Dependency network - Partial correlations Next we use the resulting node correlations to compute the partial correlations. The first order partial correlation coefficient is a statistical measure indicating how a third variable affects the correlation between two other variables. The partial correlation between nodes i and k with respect to a third node j - PC(i,k|j) is defined as: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Partial correlations:

Dependency network - Partial correlations Yet there are other methods, as the ones used here, that can properly account for the non-symmetric nature of the dependency matrix. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - The structure dependency networks:

Dependency network - The structure dependency networks The path influence and distance dependency: The relative effect of node j on the directed path DP(i\rightarrow k|j) - the shortest topological path with each segment corresponds to a distance 1, between nodes i and k is given: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - The structure dependency networks:

Dependency network - The structure dependency networks DP(i\rightarrow k|j) \equiv \frac - \frac https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Node structural dependencies:

Dependency network - Node structural dependencies Next, we define the total influence of node j on node i, or the dependency D(i,j) of node i on node j to be: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Node structural dependencies:

Dependency network - Node structural dependencies As defined, D(i,j) is a measure of the average influence of node j on the directed paths from node i to all other nodes k. The node structural dependencies define a dependency matrix D whose (i,j) element is the dependency of node i on node j, or the influence of node j on node i. It is important to note that the dependency matrix D is nonsymmetrical – D(i,j) \ne D(j,i) since the influence of node j on node i is not equal to the influence of node i on node j. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency network - Visualization of the Dependency Network :

Dependency network - Visualization of the Dependency Network The Dependency matrix is the weighted adjacency matrix, representing the fully connected network https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency relation:

Dependency relation In mathematics and computer science, a 'dependency relation' is a binary relation that is finite, symmetric relation|symmetric, and reflexive relation|reflexive; i.e. a finite tolerance relation. That is, it is a finite set of ordered pairs D, such that https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency relation:

Dependency relation In general, dependency relations are not transitive relation|transitive; thus, they generalize the notion of an equivalence relation by discarding transitivity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency relation:

Dependency relation Let \Sigma denote the alphabet (computer science)|alphabet of all the letters of D. Then the 'independency' induced by D is the binary relation I https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency relation:

Dependency relation The pairs (\Sigma, D) and (\Sigma, I), or the triple (\Sigma, D, I) (with I induced by D) are sometimes called the 'concurrent alphabet' or the 'reliance alphabet'. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency relation:

Dependency relation The pairs of letters in an independency relation induce an equivalence relation on the free monoid of all possible strings of finite length. The elements of the equivalence classes induced by the independency are called trace monoid|traces, and are studied in trace theory. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency relation - Examples:

Dependency relation - Examples Therefore, the letters b,c commute, or are independent of one another. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency:

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency Dominance and its organisation can be highy variable depending on the context or individuals involved. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency:

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency In European badgers, dominance relationships may vary with time as individuals age, gain or lose social status, or change their reproductive condition.Hewitt, S.E., Macdonald, D.W https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency:

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency Dominance hierarchies in small herds of domestic horses are generally linear hierarchies whereas in large herds the relationships are triangular.Houpt, K.A., Law, K. and Martinisi, V. (1978). Dominance hierarchies in domestic horses. Applied Animal Ethology, 4:273–83. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency:

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency Dominance hierarchies can be formed at a very early age https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency:

Dominance (ethology) - Context dependency Dominance–subordination relationships can vary markedly between breeds of the same species. Studies on Merinos and Border Leicesters revealed an almost linear hierarchy in the Merinos but a less rigid structure in the Border Leicesters when a competitive feeding situation was created. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency:

Data dependency A 'data dependency' in computer science is a situation in which a program statement (instruction) refers to the data of a preceding statement. In compiler theory, the technique used to discover data dependencies among statements (or instructions) is called dependence analysis. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Data dependencies :

Data dependency - Data dependencies Assuming statement S1 and S2, S2 depends on S1 if: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Data dependencies :

Data dependency - Data dependencies * and there is a feasible run-time execution path from S1 to S2 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Data dependencies :

Data dependency - Data dependencies * Output dependence: O(S1) ∩ O(S2), S1 → S2 and both write the same memory location. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Flow dependency :

Data dependency - Flow dependency A Flow dependency, also known as a data dependency or true dependency or read-after-write (RAW), occurs when an instruction depends on the result of a previous instruction: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Flow dependency :

Data dependency - Flow dependency Instruction 3 is truly dependent on instruction 2, as the final value of C depends on the instruction updating B. Instruction 2 is truly dependent on instruction 1, as the final value of B depends on the instruction updating A. Since instruction 3 is truly dependent upon instruction 2 and instruction 2 is truly dependent on instruction 1, instruction 3 is also truly dependent on instruction 1. Instruction level parallelism is therefore not an option in this example. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Anti-dependency :

Data dependency - Anti-dependency An anti-dependency, also known as write-after-read (WAR), occurs when an instruction requires a value that is later updated. In the following example, instruction 2 anti-depends on instruction 3 — the ordering of these instructions cannot be changed, nor can they be executed in parallel (possibly changing the instruction ordering), as this would affect the final value of A. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Anti-dependency :

Data dependency - Anti-dependency An anti-dependency is an example of a name dependency. That is, renaming of variables could remove the dependency, as in the next example: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Anti-dependency :

Data dependency - Anti-dependency A new variable, B2, has been declared as a copy of B in a new instruction, instruction N. The anti-dependency between 2 and 3 has been removed, meaning that these instructions may now be executed in parallel. However, the modification has introduced a new dependency: instruction 2 is now truly dependent on instruction N, which is truly dependent upon instruction 1. As flow dependencies, these new dependencies are impossible to safely remove. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Output dependency :

Data dependency - Output dependency An output dependency, also known as write-after-write (WAW), occurs when the ordering of instructions will affect the final output value of a variable. In the example below, there is an output dependency between instructions 3 and 1 — changing the ordering of instructions in this example will change the final value of B, thus these instructions cannot be executed in parallel. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Output dependency :

Data dependency - Output dependency As with anti-dependencies, output dependencies are name dependencies. That is, they may be removed through renaming of variables, as in the below modification of the above example: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Output dependency :

Data dependency - Output dependency A commonly used naming convention for data dependencies is the following: Read-after-Write or RAW (flow dependency), Write-after-Write or WAW (output dependency), and Write-After-Read or WAR (anti-dependency). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Control Dependency:

Data dependency - Control Dependency An instruction is control dependent on a preceding instruction if the outcome of latter determines whether former should be executed or not. In the following example, instruction S2 is control dependent on instruction S1. However, S3 is not control dependent upon S1 because S3 is always executed irrespective of outcome of S1. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - S1. if (a :

Data dependency - S1. if (a Intuitively, there is control dependence between two statements S1 and S2 if https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - S1. if (a :

Data dependency - S1. if (a A typical example is that there is control dependence between if statement's condition part and the statements in the corresponding true/false bodies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - S1. if (a :

Data dependency - S1. if (a * there exists a path P from S1 to S2 such that every statement Si ≠ S1 within P will be followed by S2 in each possible path to the end of the program and https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - S1. if (a :

Data dependency - S1. if (a * S1 will not necessarily be followed by S2, i.e. there is an execution path from S1 to the end of the program that does not go through S2. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - S1. if (a :

Data dependency - S1. if (a Expressed with the help of (post-)dominance the two conditions are equivalent to https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Implications:

Data dependency - Implications Conventional programs are written assuming the sequential execution model. Under this model, instructions execute one after the other, atomically (i.e., at any given point of time only one instruction is executed) and in the order specified by the program. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Data dependency - Implications:

Data dependency - Implications However, dependencies among statements or instructions may hinder parallelism — parallel execution of multiple instructions, either by a parallelizing compiler or by a processor exploiting instruction-level parallelism. Recklessly executing multiple instructions without considering related dependences may cause danger of getting wrong results, namely Hazard (computer architecture)|hazards. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (religion):

Dependency (religion) A 'dependency', among monasticism|monastic orders, denotes the relation of a monastic community with a newer community which it has founded elsewhere https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (religion) - Bonds:

Dependency (religion) - Bonds Monasteries of nuns can make a bond with a monastery of monks or friars, preferably within the same congregation or order, whereby the two are affiliated, and the fathers guarantee pastoral care to the nuns. In this sense, the women's house is considered a dependency on that of the men for spiritual direction. For all other matters, however, the nuns of the daughter monastery remain dependencies of the founding monastery of nuns which established them, until they become autonomous. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (religion) - Relationships of Responsibilities:

Dependency (religion) - Relationships of Responsibilities In Eastern Christianity, this relationship is called the Metochion#Dependency of a monastery|metochion. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Federalist No. 51 - Dependency and encroachment:

Federalist No. 51 - Dependency and encroachment Madison's key point is that the members of each department should be as little dependent as possible from the members of the other departments, and to stay independent, their own department must not encroach on the others https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Flags of Antarctica - Ross Dependency:

Flags of Antarctica - Ross Dependency Currently, only the New Zealand national flag serves in an official capacity in the Ross Dependency. The only other 'official' flag seen in photographs was the New Zealand Post flag to denote Scott Base's post office. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Flags of Antarctica - Ross Dependency:

Flags of Antarctica - Ross Dependency Ross Dependency (New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica) uses the Flag of New Zealand|New Zealand flag, but vexillology|vexillologist James Dignan's design concept was seen flying there at one time (when a friend of Dignan took it with him to Vanda Station in 1994). The New Zealand flag is the basis for his design, though with an 'Ice Blue' background representing the Ross Sea, and the white horizontal bar at the bottom of the flag representing the Ross Ice Shelf. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency:

Functional dependency In relational database theory, a 'functional dependency' is a 'Relational database#Constraints|constraint' between two sets of attributes in a Relation (database)|relation from a database. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency:

Functional dependency A functional dependency FD: X → Y is called trivial if Y is a subset of X. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency:

Functional dependency A simple application of functional dependencies is 'Heath ’ s theorem'; it says that a relation R over an attribute set U and satisfying a functional dependency X → Y can be safely split in two relations having the lossless-join decomposition property, namely into \pi_(R)\bowtie\pi_(R) = R where Z = U − XY are the rest of the attributes https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency:

Functional dependency A notion of logical implication is defined for functional dependencies in the following way: a set of functional dependencies \Sigma logically implies another set of dependencies \Gamma, if any relation R satisfying all dependencies from \Sigma also satisfies all dependencies from \Gamma; this is usually written \Sigma \models \Gamma https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Cars :

Functional dependency - Cars Suppose one is designing a system to track vehicles and the capacity of their engines. Each vehicle has a unique vehicle identification number (VIN). One would write 'VIN' → 'EngineCapacity' because it would be inappropriate for a vehicle's engine to have more than one capacity. (Assuming, in this case, that vehicles only have one engine.) Transversely, EngineCapacity → VIN is incorrect because there could be many vehicles with the same engine capacity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Cars :

Functional dependency - Cars This functional dependency may suggest that the attribute EngineCapacity be placed in a relation with candidate key VIN. However, that may not always be appropriate. For example, if that functional dependency occurs as a result of the transitive relation|transitive functional dependencies VIN → VehicleModel and VehicleModel → EngineCapacity then that would not result in a normalized relation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures This example illustrates the concept of functional dependency. The situation modelled https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures is that of college students visiting one or more lectures in each of which they are assigned https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures a teaching assistant (TA). Let's further assume that every student is in some semester https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures We notice that whenever two rows in this table feature the same StudentID, https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures they also necessarily have the same Semester values. This basic fact https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures can be expressed by a functional dependency: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures Other nontrivial functional dependencies can be identified, for example: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Lectures :

Functional dependency - Lectures The latter expresses the fact that the set is a superkey of the relation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies Given that X, Y, and Z are sets of attributes in a relation R, one can derive several properties of functional dependencies. Among the most important are the following, usually called Armstrong's axioms: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies * 'Reflexivity': If Y is a subset of X, then X → Y https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies * 'Augmentation': If X → Y, then XZ → YZ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies Reflexivity can be weakened to just X \rightarrow \varnothing, i.e. it is an actual axiom, where the other two are proper inference rules, more precisely giving rise to the following rules of syntactic consequence:M. Y. Vardi. [http://www.cs.rice.edu/~vardi/papers/ttcs87.pdf Fundamentals of dependency theory]. In E. Borger, editor, Trends in Theoretical https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies Computer Science, pages 171–224. Computer Science Press, Rockville, MD, 1987. ISBN 0881750840 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies These three rules are a Soundness|sound and Completeness (logic)|complete axiomatization of functional dependencies. This axiomatization is sometimes described as finite because the number of inference rules is finite, with the caveat that the axiom and rules of inference are all Schema (logic)|schemata, meaning that the X, Y and Z range over all ground terms (attribute sets). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies From these rules, we can derive these secondary rules: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies * 'Union': If X → Y and X → Z, then X → YZ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies * 'Pseudotransitivity': If X → Y and WY → Z, then WX → Z https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies The union and decomposition rules can be combined in a logical equivalence stating that https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies X → YZ, holds iff X → Y and X → Z. This is sometimes called the splitting/combining rule. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies :

Functional dependency - Properties and axiomatization of functional dependencies Another rule that is sometimes handy is: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Closure of Functional Dependency :

Functional dependency - Closure of Functional Dependency The closure is basically the full set of values that can be determined from a set of known values for a given relationship using its functional dependencies. You use Armstrong's axioms to provide a proof - i.e. Reflexivity, Augmentation, Transitivity. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Closure of Functional Dependency :

Functional dependency - Closure of Functional Dependency The closure of F in R (denoted F+) is the set of all FD ’ s in that are https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Closure of a set of attributes :

Functional dependency - Closure of a set of attributes Closure of a set of attributes X with respect to F is the set X+ of all https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Closure of a set of attributes :

Functional dependency - Closure of a set of attributes attributes that are functionally determined by X using F+. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Example :

Functional dependency - Example Imagine the following list of FD's. We are going to calculate a closure for A from this relationship. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Example :

Functional dependency - Example The closure is therefore A → ABCD. By calculating the closure of A, we have validated that A is also a good candidate key as its closure is every single data value in the relationship. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Covers :

Functional dependency - Covers 'Definition': F covers G if every FD in G can be inferred from F. F covers G if G+ sube; F+ https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Covers :

Functional dependency - Covers Every set of functional dependencies has a canonical cover. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Equivalence of two sets of FD's :

Functional dependency - Equivalence of two sets of FD's Two sets of FDs F and G over schema R are equivalent, written F equiv; G, if F+ = G+. If F equiv; G, then F is a cover for G and vice versa. In other words, equivalent sets of functional dependencies are called covers of each other. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Non-redundant Covers :

Functional dependency - Non-redundant Covers A set F of FDs is nonredundant if there is no proper subset https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Non-redundant Covers :

Functional dependency - Non-redundant Covers F' of F with F' = F. If such an F' exists, F is redundant. F is a nonredundant cover for G if F is a cover for G and F is nonredundant. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Non-redundant Covers :

Functional dependency - Non-redundant Covers An alternative characterization of nonredundancy is that F is nonredundant if there is no FD X → Y in F such that F - \models X → Y. Call an FD X → Y in F redundunt in F if F - \models X → Y https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Heath's theorem :

Functional dependency - Heath's theorem a functional dependency provides a simple way to construct a lossless-join decomposition of R in two smaller relations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Heath's theorem :

Functional dependency - Heath's theorem Heath ’ s theorem effectively says we can pull out the values of Y from the big relation R and store them into one, \pi_(R), which has no value repetitions in the row for X and is effectively a lookup table for Y keyed by X and consequently has only one place to update the Y corresponding to each X unlike the big relation R where there are potentially many copies of each X, each one with its copy of Y which need to be kept synchronized on updates https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Heath's theorem :

Functional dependency - Heath's theorem Functional dependencies however should not be confused with inclusion dependency|inclusion dependencies, which are the formalism for foreign keys; even though they are used for normalization, functional dependencies express constraints over one relation (schema), whereas inclusion dependencies express constraints between relation schemas in a database schema.Furthermore, the two notions do not even intersect in the classification of dependencies: functional dependencies are equality-generating dependencies whereas inclusion dependencies are tuple-generating dependencies https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Normal forms :

Functional dependency - Normal forms Normalization aims to free the database from update, insertion and deletion anomalies. It also ensures that when a new value is introduced into the relation, it has minimal effect on the database, and thus minimal effect on the applications using the database. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set :

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set A functional depending set S is irreducible if the set has the following three properties: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set :

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set # Each right set of a functional dependency of S contains only one attribute. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set :

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set # Each left set of a functional dependency of S is irreducible. It means that reducing any one attribute from left set will change the content of S (S will lose some information). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set :

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set # Reducing any functional dependency will change the content of S. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set :

Functional dependency - Irreducible function depending set Sets of Functional Dependencies(FD) with these properties are also called canonical or minimal. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Raúl Prebisch - Dependency theory :

Raúl Prebisch - Dependency theory During the 1960s, economists at United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean|ECLA developed an extension of Prebisch's thoughts on structuralism into dependency theory, in which economic development of the periphery is seen as a nearly impossible task. While dependency theory was the polar opposite of Prebisch and the ECLAC's original purpose, he continued to criticize the Economic growth|neo-classical economic forces that he felt were victimizing the global poor. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency:

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency insist that though LLDCs vary across the board in terms of HDI index scores, LLDCs almost uniformly straddle at the bottom of HDI rankings in terms of region, suggesting a correlated dependency relationship of development for landlocked countries with their respective regions.Faye et al https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency:

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency Other examples of landlocked dependency are the difficulties Mali faced in order to export its goods in the 1990s as nearly all its transit neighbours (Algeria, Togo, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire) were effectively engaged in civil conflict around the same timeFaye et al https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency:

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency The mineral resource rich countries of Central Asia and Mongolia offer a unique set of landlocked cases to explore for further depth, as these are nations where economic growth has grown exceptionally in recent years https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency:

Landlocked developing countries - Challenges with dependency Furthermore, Nepal is another interesting example of a landlocked country with extreme dependency on its transit neighbour though India does not hold poor relations with Nepal, nor lack relative transport infrastructure or internal stability https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Systematic Inventive Thinking - 5. Attribute Dependency :

Systematic Inventive Thinking - 5. Attribute Dependency Creating and dissolving dependencies between variables of a product. Attribute Dependency works with variables rather than components. Variables are easy to identify as those characteristics that can change within a product or component (e.g. color, size, material). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency:

Hidden dependency :Hidden dependency redirects here. For other uses, see Hidden variable (disambiguation). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency:

Hidden dependency 'Cognitive dimensions' or 'cognitive dimensions of notations' are design principles for notations, user interfaces and Programming language theory|programming language design, described by researchers Thomas R.G. Green and Marian Petre. The dimensions can be used to evaluate the usability of an existing information artifact, or as heuristics to guide the design of a new one. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency:

Hidden dependency Cognitive dimensions are designed to provide a lightweight approach to analysis of a design quality, rather than an in-depth, detailed description. They provide a common vocabulary for discussing many factors in notation, UI or programming language design. Also, cognitive dimensions help in exploring the space of possible designs through design maneuvers, changes intended to improve the design along one dimension. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - User activities :

Hidden dependency - User activities The authors identify four main user activities with interactive artifacts: incrementation [creation], transcription, modification and exploratory design. Each activity is best served by a different trade-off in the usability on each dimension. For example, a high viscosity (resistance to change) is harmful for modification and exploration activities, but less severe for the one-off tasks performed in transcription and incrementation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - Design maneuvers :

Hidden dependency - Design maneuvers A 'design maneuver' is a change made by the designer in the notation design, to alter its position within a particular dimension. Dimensions are created to be pairwise independent, so that the design can be altered in one dimension while keeping a second one constant. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - Design maneuvers :

Hidden dependency - Design maneuvers But this usually results in a trade-off between dimensions. A modification increasing the usability of the notation in one dimension (while keeping a second one constant) will typically reduce its usability in a third dimension. This reflects an assumption in the framework that there is no perfect interface and that trade-offs are a fundamental part of usability design. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - Design maneuvers :

Hidden dependency - Design maneuvers An example of a design maneuver is reducing the viscosity of a notation by adding abstraction mechanisms https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Abstraction gradient : What are the minimum and maximum Abstraction (computer science)#Levels of abstraction|levels of abstraction exposed by the notation? Can details be Encapsulation (computer science)|encapsulated? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Consistency : After part of the notation has been Learnability|learned, how much of the rest can be successfully guessed? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Diffuseness / terseness : How many Symbol (formal)|symbols or how much space does the notation require to produce a certain result or express a Meaning (semiotics)|meaning? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Error-proneness : To what extent does the notation influence the likelihood of user error|the user making a mistake? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Hard mental operations : How much hard mental processing lies at the notational level, rather than at the semantic level? Are there places where the user needs to resort to fingers or penciled annotation to keep track of what ’ s happening? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Hidden dependencies : Are Coupling (computer programming)|dependencies between entities in the notation visible or hidden? Is every dependency indicated in both directions? Does a change in one area of the notation lead to unexpected consequences? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Juxtaposability : Can different parts of the notation be compared side-by-side at the same time? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Premature commitment : Are there strong constraints on the Temporal isolation|order with which tasks must be accomplished? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions :Are there decisions that must be made before all the necessary information is available? Can those decisions be reversed or corrected later? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Progressive evaluation : How easy is it to evaluate and obtain feedback on an incomplete solution? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Role-expressiveness : How obvious is the Role (computer science)|role of each component of the notation in the solution as a whole? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Secondary notation and escape from formalism : Can the notation carry extra information Secondary notation|by means not related to syntax, such as layout, color, or other cues? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions : Are there in the notation any inherent barriers to change? How much effort is required to make a change to a program expressed in the notation? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions : This dimension can be further classified into the following types:[http://acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/shortpap/Wilde/wn_txt.html Using Cognitive Dimensions in the Classroom as a Discussion Tool for Visual Language Design] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions :* 'Knock-on viscosity' : a change in the code violates internal constraints in the program, whose resolution may violate further internal constraints. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions :* 'Repetition viscosity' : a single action within the user ’ s conceptual model requires many, repetitive device actions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions :* 'Scope viscosity' : a change in the size of the input data set requires changes to the program structure itself. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions:

Hidden dependency - List of the cognitive dimensions ; Visibility : How readily can required parts of the notation be identified, accessed and made visible? https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Hidden dependency - Other dimensions:

Hidden dependency - Other dimensions Some of these candidate dimensions include creative ambiguity (does the notation encourage interpreting several meanings of the same element?), indexing (are there elements to guide finding a specific part?), synopsis (gestalt view of the whole annotated structure) or unevenness (some creation paths are easier than others, which bias the expressed ideas in a developed artifact). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell:

Dependency hell 'Dependency hell' is a colloquial term for the frustration of some software users who have installed Software package (installation)|software packages which have Coupling (computer programming)|dependencies on specific Software versioning|versions of other software packages. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell:

Dependency hell The dependency issue arises around shared packages/libraries on which several other packages have dependencies but where they depend on different and incompatible versions of the shared packages. If the shared package/library can only be installed in a single version, the user/administrator may need to address the problem by obtaining newer/older versions of the dependent packages. This, in turn, may break other dependencies and push the problem to another set of packages, thus the term hell. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Overview :

Dependency hell - Overview Often, rather than reinventing the wheel, software is designed to take advantage of other software components that are already available, or have already been designed and implemented for use elsewhere. This could be compared to how people building a house might buy Commercial off-the-shelf|off-the-shelf components, such as bricks, windows, and doors, rather than producing everything themselves. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Overview :

Dependency hell - Overview Even for a builder, it can be a problem if a building is designed for a certain door type, and only doors with different specifications are available. However, in the software world, where components evolve rapidly and depend significantly on one another, this problem becomes more pronounced. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Overview :

Dependency hell - Overview The issue of dependency hell may be regarded as an anti-pattern, where the fault lies less with the suppliers of the products than with the framework into which they have to fit. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Problems :

Dependency hell - Problems : An application depends on many Library (computing)|libraries, requiring lengthy downloads, large amounts of disk space, and not being very portable (all libraries must be ported for the application to be ported) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Problems :

Dependency hell - Problems Other than being a hassle (to resolve all the dependencies manually), manual resolution can mask dependency cycles or conflicts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Problems :

Dependency hell - Problems Alternatively, the existing dependency, along with all software that depends on it, must be uninstalled in order to install the new dependency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Problems :

Dependency hell - Problems : If appX, version 1 depends on app2, which depends on app3, which depends on app4, which depends on the original appX, version 0, then, in systems such as RPM or dpkg, the user must install all packages simultaneously.[http://www.haiku-os.org/documents/dev/dependency_hell Dependency hell] On other platforms, however, the packaging system may not be able to resolve the circular dependency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : The most obvious (and very common) solution to this problem is to have a standardised numbering system, wherein software uses a specific number for each version (aka Software versioning|major version), and also a subnumber for each revision (aka minor version), e.g.: '10'.1, or 5.'7' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : One solution used since approx. 2000 for Windows are so called Private DLLs, copies of libraries per application in the directory of the application. This uses the Windows search path characteristic that the local path is always prioritized before the system directory with the system wide libraries. This allows easy and effective shadowing of library versions by specific application one, preventing therefore dependency hell. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions ; Side-by-side installation of multiple versions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : The version numbering solution can be improved upon by elevating the version numbering to an operating system supported feature https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : This solution is used in Windows operating systems since Windows Vista, where the Global Assembly Cache is an implementation of such a central registry with associated services and integrated with the installation system/package manager. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : Some package managers can perform smart upgrades, in which interdependent software components are upgraded at the same time, thereby resolving the major number incompatibility issue too. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions In all cases, dependency hell is still faced by the repository maintainers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : PC-BSD (an operating system based on FreeBSD) avoids dependency hell by placing packages and dependencies into self-contained directories, which avoids breakage if system libraries are upgraded or changed. PC-BSD uses its own PBI (Push Button Installer) for package management. PC-BSD Wiki page. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : Because different pieces of software have different dependencies, it is possible to get into a Virtuous circle and vicious circle|vicious circle of dependency requirements, or (possibly worse) an ever-expanding Tree structure|tree of requirements, as each new package demands several more be installed. Systems such as Debian's Advanced Packaging Tool|APT can resolve this by presenting the user with a range of solutions, and allowing the user to accept or reject the solutions, as desired. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : If application software is designed in such a way that its programmers are able to easily adapt the interface layer that deals with the OS, window manager or desktop environment to new or changing standards, then the programmers would only have to monitor notifications from the environment creators or component library designers and quickly adjust their software with updates for their users, all with minimal effort and a lack of costly and time-consuming redesign https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions : Another approach to avoiding dependency issues is to deploy applications as a software appliance. A software appliance encapsulates dependencies in a pre-integrated self-contained unit such that users no longer have to worry about resolving software dependencies. Instead the burden is shifted to developers of the software appliance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions It is coded to have all necessary components included, or is designed to keep all necessary files within its own directory, and will not create a dependency problem https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Solutions :

Dependency hell - Solutions On the other hand, if different versions of GTK+ are required by each application, then this is the correct behavior and successfully avoids dependency hell. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Platform-specific:

Dependency hell - Platform-specific On specific computing platforms, dependency hell often goes by a local specific name, generally the name of components. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Platform-specific:

Dependency hell - Platform-specific * DLL hell a form of dependency hell occurring on Microsoft Windows. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Platform-specific:

Dependency hell - Platform-specific * Extension conflict a form of dependency hell occurring on older versions of Mac OS. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Platform-specific:

Dependency hell - Platform-specific * JAR hell a form of dependency hell occurring in the Java Runtime Environment. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency hell - Platform-specific:

Dependency hell - Platform-specific * RPM hell a form of dependency hell occurring in the Red Hat distribution of Linux and other distributions that use RPM Package Manager|RPM as a package manager. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency:

Crown dependency The 'Crown dependencies' are self-governing possessions of the Crown (defined uniquely in each jurisdiction).[http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/about/moj/our-responsibilities/Background_Briefing_on_the_Crown_Dependencies2.pdf Background briefing on the Crown dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man] They are not British overseas territories|overseas territories of the United Kingdom and not considered Commonwealth Realms.[http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmjust/56/5604.htm House of Commons - Crown Dependencies - Justice Committee] , three jurisdictions held this status: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency:

Crown dependency Being independently administered jurisdictions, they are not part of the United Kingdom https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency:

Crown dependency Although the Crown dependencies are self-governing possessions of the Crown, and are not sovereign states in their own right, the power to pass legislation affecting the islands ultimately rests with their own respective legislative assemblies, with the assent of the Crown (Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council|Privy Council, or in the case of the Isle of Man in certain circumstances the Lieutenant-Governor) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency:

Crown dependency The Crown is defined differently in each Crown dependency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey * the Bailiwick of Jersey, comprising the island of Jersey and uninhabited islets such as the Minquiers and Écréhous https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey * the Bailiwick of Guernsey, comprising the islands of Guernsey, Sark, Alderney, Brecqhou, Herm, Jethou and Lihou. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey * although also within in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, Sark is separately self-governed as a Crown Dependency in its own right, and has been since 1565. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey Each Bailiwick is a Crown dependency and each is headed by a Bailiff, with a Lieutenant Governor representing the Crown in each Bailiwick https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey The Bailiwick of Guernsey comprises three separate jurisdictions: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey * Guernsey, which includes also the islands of Herm and Jethou https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey * Sark, which also includes the island of Brecqhou https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey Each jurisdiction also contains various other smaller islands. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey The parliament of Guernsey is the States of Guernsey, the parliament of Sark is called the Chief Pleas, and the parliament of Alderney is called the States of Alderney. The three parliaments together can also approve joint Bailiwick-wide legislation that applies in those parts of the Bailiwick whose parliaments approve it. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey Guernsey issues its own coins and banknotes: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey These circulate freely in both Bailiwicks alongside Pound sterling|UK coinage and Banknotes of the pound sterling|English and Scottish banknotes. They are not Pound sterling#Legal tender and regional issues|legal tender within the UK. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Guernsey Guernsey has its own separate List of international license plate codes|international vehicle registrations (GBG – Guernsey, GBA – Alderney), List of Internet TLDs|internet domain (.gg – Guernsey), and ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union (GGY – Guernsey) and then added officially by the International Organization for Standardization on 29 March 2006 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey The Bailiwick of Jersey consists of the Island of Jersey and its uninhabited dependencies. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey The parliament is the States of Jersey, the first known mention of which is in a document of 1497.Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7 The States of Jersey Law 2005 introduced the post of Chief Minister of Jersey, abolished the Bailiff's power of dissent to a resolution of the States and the Lieutenant Governor's power of veto over a resolution of the States, established that any Order in Council or Act of the United Kingdom proposed to apply to Jersey must be referred to the States so the States can express their views on it.[http://www.jerseylegalinfo.je/Law/display.aspx?url=lawsinforce%5chtm%5cLawFiles%5c2005%2fl-08-2005.htm STATES OF JERSEY LAW 2005] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey Jersey issues its own coins and banknotes: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey These circulate freely in both Bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes. They are not legal tender within the UK but are legal currency backed by deposits at the Bank of England. Bank of England notes are only legal tender in the UK within England and Wales. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey There are few political parties, as candidates generally stand for election as independents (but see List of political parties in Jersey). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwick of Jersey Jersey has its own separate List of international license plate codes|international vehicle registration (GBJ – Jersey), List of Internet TLDs|internet domain (.je – Jersey), and ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union (JEY – Jersey) and then added officially by the International Organization for Standardization on 29 March 2006. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Isle of Man:

Crown dependency - Isle of Man In the Isle of Man the British monarch is Lord of Mann, a title variously held by Norsemen|Norse, Scotland|Scottish and English kings and nobles (the English nobles in feudality to the English Crown) until it was revested into the British Crown in 1765. The title Lord is today used irrespective of the sex of the person who holds it. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the Crown:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the Crown Since 2010 the Lieutenant Governors of each Crown dependency have been recommended to the Crown by a panel in each respective Crown dependency; this replaced the previous system of the appointments being made by the Crown on the recommendation of UK ministers.[http://www.thisisjersey.com/2010/07/06/105000-%E2%80%93-the-tax-free-reward-for-being-a-royal-rep/ £105,000 – the tax-free reward for being a royal rep « This Is Jersey][http://www.thisisguernsey.com/2010/07/03/guernsey-will-choose-its-next-lt-governor/ Guernsey will choose its next Lt-Governor « This Is Guernsey] In 2005, it was decided in the Isle of Man to replace the Lieutenant Governor with a Crown Commissioner, but this decision was reversed before it was implemented. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the Crown:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the Crown All insular legislation has to receive the approval of the Queen in Council, in effect, the Privy Council of the United Kingdom|Privy Council in London, with the Privy Councillor with responsibility for the Crown dependencies also occupying a post as a UK minister.http://www.gov.je/SiteCollectionDocuments/Government%20and%20administration/R%20AttorneyGeneralTranscript%2020100329%20WM%20v1.pdf Certain types of domestic legislation in the Isle of Man, however, may be signed into law by the Lieutenant Governor, using delegated powers, without having to pass through the Privy Council https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey The Channel Islands are part of the territory annexed by the Duchy of Normandy in 933 from the Duchy of Brittany. This territory was added to the grant of land given in settlement by the King of France in 911 to the Viking raiders who had sailed up the Seine almost to the walls of Paris. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, claimed the title King of England in 1066, following the death of Edward the Confessor, and secured the claim through the Norman conquest of England. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey Subsequent marriages between Kings of England and French nobles meant that Kings of England had title to more French lands than the King of France. When the King of France asserted his feudal right of patronage, the then-King of England, King John of England|John, fearing he would be imprisoned should he attend, failed to fulfil his obligation. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey In 1204 the title and lands of the Duchy of Normandy and his other French possessions were stripped from King John of England by the King of France. The Channel Islands remained in the possession of the King of England, who ruled them as Duke of Normandy until the Treaty of Paris (1259)|Treaty of Paris in 1259. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey King Henry III of England renounced the title of Duke of Normandy by that treaty, and none of his successors ever revived it. The Channel Islands continued to be governed by the Kings of England as French fiefs, distinct from Normandy, until the Hundred Years' War, during which they were definitively separated from France. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey At no time did the Channel Islands form part of the Kingdom of England, and they remained legally separate, though under the same Crown, through the subsequent unions of Scotland and England (1707), and Ireland (1801) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey A unique constitutional position has arisen as successive monarchs have confirmed the liberties and privileges of the Bailiwicks, often referring to the so-called Constitutions of King John, a legendary document supposed to have been granted by King John in the aftermath of 1204. Governments of the Bailiwicks have generally tried to avoid testing the limits of the unwritten constitution by avoiding conflict with British governments. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey:

Crown dependency - Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey Following the restoration of Charles II of England|King Charles II, who had spent part of his exile in Jersey, the Channel Islands were given the right to set their own customs duties, referred to by the Jersey Legal French term as impôts. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Although internationally, the dependencies are recognised as “ territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible, the relationship between the Crown dependencies and the UK is one of mutual respect and support, ie, a partnership.[http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmjust/56/56we21.htm Royal Commission on the Constitution 1969-73; re-affirmed in the Framework for developing the international identity of Guernsey, signed in December 2008] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Until 2001, responsibility for the UK government's relationships with the Crown dependencies rested with the Home Office, but was then transferred first to the Lord Chancellor's Department, then to the Department for Constitutional Affairs, and finally to the Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom)|Ministry of Justice https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Each Crown dependency has responsibility for its own customs and immigration services. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Acts of the British Parliament do not usually apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, unless explicitly stated https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Westminster retains the right to legislate for the Islands against their will as a last resort, but this is also rarely exercised, and may, according to legal opinion from the Attorney-General of Jersey, have fallen into desuetude mdash; although this argument was not accepted by the Department for Constitutional Affairs https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK The States of Jersey Law 2005 established that all Acts of the United Kingdom and Orders in Council were to be referred to the States of Jersey|States, thus giving greater freedom of action to Jersey in international affairs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Matters reserved to the Crown (i.e https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK In 2007-2008, each Crown Dependency and the UK signed agreements[http://www.gov.je/SiteCollectionDocuments/Government%20and%20administration/R%20InternationalIdentityFramework%2020070502.pdf Framework for developing the international identity of Jersey], [http://www.gov.gg/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=2174p=0 Framework for developing the international identity of Guernsey], [http://www.gov.im/lib/docs/cso/iominternationalidentityframework.pdf Framework for developing the international identity of the Isle of Man] that established frameworks for the development of the international identity of each Crown Dependency https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK *the UK has no democratic accountability in and for the Crown Dependencies, which are governed by their own democratically elected assemblies; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK *the UK will not act internationally on behalf of the Crown Dependencies without prior consultation; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK *each Crown Dependency has an international identity that is different from that of the UK; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK *the UK supports the principle of each Crown Dependency further developing its international identity; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK *the UK recognises that the interests of each Crown Dependency may differ from those of the UK, and the UK will seek to represent any differing interests when acting in an international capacity; and https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK *the UK and each Crown Dependency will work together to resolve or clarify any differences that may arise between their respective interests. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK The constitutional and cultural proximity of the Islands to the UK means that there are shared institutions and organisations https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the UK Since the British Nationality Act 1981 came into effect, they have been treated as part of the United Kingdom for British nationality law purposes.http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/nationalityinstructions/nisec2gensec/Britishoverseasterritories?view=Binary However, each Crown dependency maintains local controls over housing and employment, with special rules applying to British citizens without specified connections to that Crown dependency (as well as to non-British citizens). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU Certain aspects of membership of the European Union apply to the Crown dependencies, by association of the United Kingdom's membership, governed by '[Article 299(6)(c) of the Treaty establishing the European Community' replace this reference by Article 355 (5)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU): https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU :this Treaty shall apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man only to the extent necessary to ensure the implementation of the arrangements for those islands set out in the Treaty concerning the accession of new Member States to the European Economic Community and to the European Atomic Energy Community signed on 22 January 1972.; https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU and by protocol (treaty)|Protocol 3 to the UK's Act of Accession to the Community:[http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1972/plain/ukpga_19720068_en European Communities Act 1972] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU An Act to make provision in connection with the enlargement of the European Communities to include the United Kingdom, together with (for certain purposes) the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Gibraltar. [17 October 1972] https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU Of the Four Freedoms (European Union)|Four Freedoms of the EU, the islands take part in that concerning the movement of goods, but not those concerning the movement of people, services or capital https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU Channel Islanders and Manx people are British citizens and hence European citizens.s 1 of the British Nationality Act 1981 grants citizenship to (most) people born in the 'United Kingdom' https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU:

Crown dependency - Relationship with the EU The common agricultural policy of the EU does not apply to the Crown dependencies. Their citizens do not take part in elections to the European Parliament. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency The victory gave Parliament entire control of the north, but it did not lead to the definitive solution of the political problem. In fact, on the question of Charles's place in a new Constitution, the victorious generals quarrelled, even before York had surrendered. Within three weeks of the battle, the great army was broken up. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency The Yorkshire troops proceeded to conquer the isolated Royalist posts in their county https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency On 2 July 1644, despairing of the existing military system, Cromwell made to the Committee of Both Kingdoms,the first suggestion of the New Model Army https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency It was evident that the people at large, with their respect for the law and their anxiety for their own homes, were tired of the war https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency There was this important difference, however, between Waller's idea and Cromwell's achievement that the professional soldiers of the New Model were disciplined, led, and in all things, inspired by godly officers https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency :I had rather have a plain russet-coated captain that knows what he fights for and loves what he knows than that which you call a 'gentleman' and is nothing else. I honour a gentleman that is so indeed... but seeing it was necessary the work must go on, better plain men than none. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

First English Civil War - Independency:

First English Civil War - Independency If men of honour and birth possessed the essentials of godliness, devotion, and capacity, Cromwell preferred them. As a matter of fact, only seven out of 37 of the superior officers of the original New Model were not of gentle birth. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Computer science:

Dependency - Computer science *Dependency (computer science) or coupling, a state in which one object uses a function of another object https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Computer science:

Dependency - Computer science *Dependency (UML), a relationship between two elements in the Unified Modeling Language https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Computer science:

Dependency - Computer science *Dependency relation, a type of binary relation in mathematics and computer science. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Computer science:

Dependency - Computer science *Functional dependency, a relation between database attributes allowing normalization. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Computer science:

Dependency - Computer science *Dependent type, in computer science and logic, a type that depends on a value https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Computer science:

Dependency - Computer science *Hidden dependency, a relation where a change in one area of a program produces unexpected side-effects, kind of dependency hell. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Economics:

Dependency - Economics *Dependant (British English) (Dependent - American English), a person who depends on another as a primary source of income https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Economics:

Dependency - Economics *Dependency ratio, in economics, the ratio of the economically dependent part of the economy to the productive part https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Economics:

Dependency - Economics *Dependency theory, an economic worldview that posits that resources flow from poor states to wealthy states https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Linguistics:

Dependency - Linguistics *Dependent and independent verb forms, in Goidelic languages, distinct verb forms used either with a preceding particle, in the case of dependent forms https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Medicine:

Dependency - Medicine *Dependence (behavioral medicine), a continuum of physical and psychological attachments related to the concept of behavioral addiction https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Politics:

Dependency - Politics *Dependent territory, a classification of territory, especially a region that is not a sovereign state, but the possession of such https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Psychology:

Dependency - Psychology *Codependence, a pattern of detrimental, behavioral interactions within a dysfunctional relationship https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Psychology:

Dependency - Psychology *Dependency need, the real need of the organism, or something that individuals can not provide for themselves https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Psychology:

Dependency - Psychology *Substance dependence, a need for a substance so strong that it becomes necessary to have this substance to function properly https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Music:

Dependency - Music *Dependent (record label), a German independent record label that focuses on aggrotech, electro-industrial and futurepop music https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Music:

Dependency - Music *Dependent Music, an independent Canadian record label, owned and operated by the artists that were a part of the collective https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Other uses:

Dependency - Other uses *Dependency (religion), the relation of a monastic community with a newer community https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency - Other uses:

Dependency - Other uses *Depend (undergarment), a brand of absorbent, disposable underwear for adults https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML):

Dependency (UML) In the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a 'Dependency' is a relationship that shows that an Element (UML)|element, or set of elements, requires other model elements for their specification or implementation.OMG Unified Modeling Language, Superstructure, Version 2.4.1 The element is dependent upon the independent element, called the supplier. Two or more elements in this relationship are called tuples. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML):

Dependency (UML) In the UML, this is indicated by a dashed line pointing from the dependent (or client) to the independent (or Distributor (business)|supplier) element. The arrow representing a Dependency specifies the direction of a relationship, not the direction of a process. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies Unified Modeling Language|UML - defined dependencies include: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «call» UML2: The client (an operation) may call the supplier (an operation) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «create» UML2: The client (a classifier) may create instances of the supplier (a classifier) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «derive» UML2: The client (e.g., attribute value, link) may be computed from the supplier(s) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «instantiate» UML2: Operations of the client (a classifier) may create instances of the supplier (a classifier) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «realize» UML2: Obsolete https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «send» UML2: The client (an operation) sends the supplier (a signal) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «substitute» UML2: The client element can replace (under some circumstances) the supplier https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies:

Dependency (UML) - Standard predefined dependencies * «trace» UML2: The client elements trace to the suppliers. Typically used for levels of requirements https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link:

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link A UML link is run-time relationship between instances of classifiers, while a dependency is a model-time relationship between definitions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link:

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link A typical uni-directional link requires the one instance to know about, and thus depend, upon the other, but this is not required. A uni-directional link only requires the possibility of navigation not dependency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link:

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link Likewise, a bi-directional link requires that both instances may traverse to each other, but this also does not require dependency. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link:

Dependency (UML) - Differences with UML link However, after the traversal of the association, if some property of the target instance's definition is accessed, such as an operation or attribute, a dependency is created. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719:

Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719 The 'Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719' (6. Geo. I, c. 5) was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1719. Prompted by a routine lawsuit, it was aimed at resolving the long dispute between the British and the Irish House of Lords as to which was the final court of appeal from Irish Courts. As the Sixth of George 1 the Act https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719:

Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719 became a symbol of the subservience of the Parliament of Ireland and its repeal was long an aim of Irish statesmen, which was finally achieved in 1782. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html

For More Information, Visit::

For More Information, Visit: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-dependency-toolkit.html The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com