History of Marine Science

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self explanatory

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By: shenjunqiang (147 month(s) ago)

well done

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A Brief History of Marine Science By Wallace Black Pine View School

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4000BC-500 AD: Polynesian colonization of the Pacific Islands using simple rafts and wind-powered canoes. Primary voyaging craft = double canoe (From http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_4.html Downloaded 10/10/07) From http://www.riverdell.k12.nj.us/staff/molnar/onotesch1.htm Downloaded 10/17/07

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Developed portable agricultural system (From http://www.pbs.org/wayfinders/polynesian2.html Downloaded 10/10/07) ”Stick charts" ; show islands in relation to prevailing winds, ocean currents. Navigator read cloud formations, reflections of sky from water's surface, faint movements in the water due to currents, sound of waves against the canoe hull; flora, fauna. (From http://pbin.nbii.gov/about/stickchart.html Downloaded 10/10/07)

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3200 BC onward: Egyptians developed oar-powered and wind-powered boats for navigation of the Nile River, coastal eastern Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Arabian Sea.(From http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_4.html Downloaded 10/10/07) From http://www.kingtutshop.com/freeinfo/egyptian-boats.htm Downloaded 10/10/07

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3200 BC onward: Egyptians developed oar-powered and wind-powered boats for navigation of the Nile River, coastal eastern Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Arabian Sea.(From http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_4.html Downloaded 10/10/07) From http://www.kingtutshop.com/freeinfo/egyptian-boats.htm Downloaded 10/10/07

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3200 BC onward: Mesopotamians developed similar oar-powered and wind-powered boats for navigation of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the Persian Gulf, and Arabian Sea.(From http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_4.html Downloaded 10/10/07) Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians. (From http://www.crystalinks.com/mesopotamia.html Downloaded 10/10/07) From http://www.crystalinks.com/mesopotamia.html Downloaded 10/10/07

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2000-1300 BC: Minoans perhaps the first true maritime civilization centered at Crete (legend of Theseus, the minotaur, and the labyrinth). (From http://www.riverdell.k12.nj.us/staff/molnar/onotesch1.htm Downloaded 10/17/2007) (From http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~donegalstrongs/map_minoa_mycenea.jpg Downloaded 10/17/2007)

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2000-1300 BC: Minoans perhaps the first true maritime civilization centered at Crete (legend of Theseus, the minotaur, and the labyrinth). (From http://www.riverdell.k12.nj.us/staff/molnar/onotesch1.htm Downloaded 10/17/2007) (From http://www.civfanatics.net/uploads7/Minoan_ship.jpg Downloaded 10/17/2007) Downloaded 10/17/2007)

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1500-500 BC: Phoenician voyages throughout Mediterranean and easternmost Atlantic Ocean (especially western Africa), Red Sea, Indian Sea. (From http://www.riverdell.k12.nj.us/staff/molnar/onotesch1.htm Downloaded 10/17/2007)

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590: circumnavigated Africa Reached England Searching for tin Used celestial navigation. (From http://www.riverdell.k12.nj.us/staff/molnar/onotesch1.htm Downloaded 10/17/2007) From http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Parliament/2587/ships.html Downloaded 10/18/07

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Early Greek Scientific Development Early Greek quadrireme from http://www.thepirateking.com/ships/ship_types.htm downloaded 10/24/07 500-200 B.C. developed trade routes in Mediterranean; estimated latitude using day length. 384-322BC: Aristotle catalogued marine organisms. 325BC: Pytheas sailed from Greece to Iceland; observed latitude using the North Star; also proposed that the tides were caused by the Moon.

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Early Greek Scientific Development

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265-194BC: Eratosthanes calculated circumference of Earth. Hellenistic Greece made use of coastal markers and light houses as navigational aids - Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

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150 A.D. - Ptolemy produced map of Roman world with latitude & longitude; showed world as globe. Map from http://usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibit8/nrwinds.html downloaded 10/24/07

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The Norsemen established states and settlements Northern Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. 986 Bjarni Herjólfsson, 10th century, Norse explorer, first known European discoverer of the mainland of the Americas. ≈ 1000 AD Leif Ericson first European to land in North America (presumably Newfoundland, Canada)

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2500 BC India, world's first tidal dock built

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722–481 BC China, 'castle ships' ('lou chuan'), large rectangular-based barge-like ships with layered decks and cabins with ramparts acted as floating fortresses on wide rivers and lakes 202 BC–220 AD Han Dynasty ship with stern-mounted steering rudder with masts and sails was innovated, known as the junk in Western terminology. 1122 to 256 BC Zhou Dynasty made use of the floating pontoon bridge

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220-280 Wu State had prosperous shipbuilding industry; once built five-story ship that could hold up to 3,000 soldiers. 1405 Zheng He, eunuch aka San Bao; fleet of 62 ships manned by more than 27, 800 men. 1405 and 1433, over period of 28 years, Chinese envoy eight times largest, most advanced fleet in 15th century; kept detailed logbook; made nautical charts later collected in Zheng He's Nautical Charts, first of its kind in the world.

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Age of European Discovery and Exploration 1420: Prince Henry of Portugal founded the first school of navigation, Institute at Sagres; designed to teach navigational techniques, collect and disseminate geographical information, invent and improve navigational and seafaring equipment, sponsor expeditions, spread Christianity around the

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Age of European Discovery and Exploration 1486,1498 - Bartholomew Dias and then Vasco de Gama sailed around Africa and into the Indian Ocean.

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Age of European Discovery and Exploration 1490's: Columbus sailed the Atlantic and (re)discovered the Americas.

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Age of European Discovery and Exploration 1513: Ponce de Leon 'discovered' Florida

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Age of European Discovery and Exploration Magellan (1520) and later Sir Francis Drake (1580) circumnavigate the Earth.

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The Modern Search for Scientific Knowledge of the Oceans 1728-1761: John Harrison developed sea-going chronometer; revolutionized ability to determine longitude; led to markedly improved navigation, maps.

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1768-1779: Captain James Cook- Modern Marine Biology- four voyages, he determined outline of the Pacific Ocean; measured winds, currents, temperatures; researched coral reefs; showed value of Harrison's chronometer; discovered New Zealand, Australia, Great Barrier Reef, Sandwich and Hawaiian Islands.

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The Modern Search cont’d 1777: Benjamin Franklin published map of Gulf Stream based on ship reports.

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1806-1873: Matthew Fontaine Maury, father of modern oceanography; career USA Navy officer; compiled analyses of wind, current logs; published wind, current pattern maps; wrote first oceanography textbook in 1855.

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The Modern Search cont’d 1831-1836: Voyage of HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin; observations led to The Origin of Species.

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The Modern Search cont’d 1815-1854: Edward Forbes established vertical distribution of life in oceans; divided the sea into life-depth zones; incorrect "azoic theory," postulated life should not exist below 300 fathoms; one of the "fathers" of marine biology

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1893-1895: Fridtjof Nansen mapped the Arctic Ocean while trapped in sea ice aboard the Fram; credited with observation that ice packs drifted at 30º degrees right of wind direction; correctly interpreted this as effect of earth's rotation; laid foundation for mathematical solution later derived by Ekman. - the Ekman spiral

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The Institutions 1859 - world’s oldest marine station, Station Biologique de Roscoff established in Concarneau, France founded by the College of France in 1859. 1871, Spencer Fullerton Baird, began a collection station in Woods Hole, Massachusetts because of the abundant marine life there and to investigate declining fish stocks. This laboratory still exists now known as the Northeast Fisheries Science Center, and is the oldest fisheries research facility in the world. 1888 Alpheus Hyatt established Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole.

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The End!

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