Research Report Writing, Types of Report, Draft Report and Presentatio

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RESEARCH REPORT • Burns 1997: “Extremely valuable interesting practical work spoiled at last minute by a student who is not able to communicate results easily.” • More than a summary of findings. • Record of research process.

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NEED OF RESEARCH REPORT • To fulfill a class or lab. Assignment • To meet an obligation to an organization • To persuade a professional group about scientific aspects of a problem • To tell the general public about findings.

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FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH REPORT • Findings of study their implications: Communicated to the supervisor readers through research report. • Informs the world on following matters: v What researcher has done. v What he has discovered v What conclusions he has drawn from his findings.

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FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH REPORT vTells the readers prospective researchers following matters: • Problem investigated • Methods used to solve the problem • Results of investigation • Conclusion derived from results.

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Qualities of Good Research Report 1. Clarity 2. Definition of different Concepts used 3. Careful use of Terminology 4. Clarification of the Problem 5. Presentation of the Report 6. Proper Organization of the Report 7. Inclusion of Data 8. Size of the Report 9. Authenticity 10. Use or References or Bibliography

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1 Clarity • Written communication skills clarity of thought: Imp. for Research Report • Ability to express thoughts in a logical sequential manner: Crucial • Every explanation in the report must be clear so that readers can easily understand what the researcher wants to express. • Language should be simple.

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2 Definition of different Concepts used • Different concepts used in the report should be clearly defined. • Contradictions confusions in the concept: Should be avoided.

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3 Careful use of Terminology • Researcher may use different terminologies the meaning of which may be different from common sense meaning. • So such terminologies should be clearly defined. • Meaning of such terminologies throughout the report should be same.

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4 Clarification of the Problem • Clearly define the problem under study. • Mention the necessity of studying that particular problem. • Also mention objectives of study scope of study methods used in study difficulties faced by investigator during the course of study.

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5 Presentation of the Report • Should be presented in such a way that it can be understood even by the laymen. • For this language terminologies should be simple. • Use of graphs to present the findings though not essential: To make information more easily understood by readers.

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6 Proper Organization of the Report • Should be well organized ie. should follow certain structure format during Report Writing. • However every institution can make some changes add certain requirements for the organization of Research Report.

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7 Inclusion of Data • Researcher should include all the data in his report. • Those data which are not related to the study: Should not be included. qReason: If such data are included it will make the report boring lengthy.

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8 Size of the Report • Should be neither too voluminous nor too concise. • Should be written in proper size. • Should include all necessary components. • Lengthy report may discourage the readers to read it.

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9 Authenticity • Should be authentic to attract the confidence of readers towards the Report. • For this researcher mention reliable sources of information. • Scientific techniques should be used to analyze data.

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10 Use of References or Bibliography • Researcher should include “References” or “Bibliography” at the end of the Report. • References section: Consists of all those documents which were cited in the Report. • Bibliography section: Consists of every document included in “References” as well as those documents which were useful but not cited in the report.

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Other Determinants of Quality of Research Report • Experience in research writing: The more experienced the researcher the more effective is his research report. • Use of statistical procedures: Reinforce validity of conclusions arguments. Reason: They enable researcher to establish if an observed association is due to chance or otherwise.

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TYPES OF REPORT • 2 broad categories of reports: Quantitative Qualitative Their findings communicated differently. vQUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT: • Findings communicated in descriptive or narrative format. • Written around major themes or events emerged from findings. • Describes variation in a phenomenon situation or event without quantifying it.

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QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT • Descriptive • Also includes quantification. • Statistical tests: Also a part of research writing to support findings.

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Other Types of Research Report v Baker 1998: Identified following 6 types of Research Reports. 1. Research Papers for Courses 2. Presentation before a Professional Audience 3. Publication in Professional Journals 4. Papers prepared for the Mass Media 5. Dissemination in Book Form 6. Commissioned Research Report

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1 Research Papers for Courses • Prepared to fulfill the requirements of academic courses. • You must make it clear to the instructor that you understand every methodological step taken to conduct research. • Should include comprehensive discussions evidences of methods used in research process.

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2 Presentation before a Professional Audience • Designed for professional audience. • Methodology not discussed in depth. Reason: Audience less concerned with methodological details. • Focus given to findings of study. • Should draw sharp conclusions to make sure that audience remembers what has been said.

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3 Publication in Professional Journals vShould be precisely written. Reason: Once published article becomes part of literature for others. vGreat care must be taken to make certain that: • Evidence presented is without error • Implications of the findings most rational • Background literature supporting the project: Most relevant current.

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4 Papers prepared for the Mass Media • Made available to the public through mass media. • Should be prepared to make it most fascinating to lay audience. • Researcher may prepare a written piece or article for a mass media. • May be written by reporters on the basis of reading or hearing your paper.

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4 Papers prepared for the Mass Media • Details of methods can not be given. But most central facts such as sample size type of individuals sampled are required. • Background literature way the methods were measured way the data were collected: Entirely left out. • Should include most critical information which the readers need to apply your findings.

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5 Dissemination in Book Form • Book: Much more ambitious form of dissemination • If the book contains qualitative data in tables explain the methods used. • If the book is based on the field study methods are kept only in appendix. • Methodological techniques details: May be cited in notes or references so that interested readers may consult them if they wish.

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6 Commissioned Research Report • Prepared to fulfill the obligations of a grant or a contract. • Also prepared for an agency or organization which hired the researcher to conduct a study to evaluate or formulate policy. • Should offer policy recommendations at the end of the report.

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RESEARCH REPORT WRITING • Should be written in an academic style. • Should be divided into different chapters and/or sections based upon the main themes of study. • Clearly present what was done why it was done outcome of doing investigator’s conclusions.

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PROCEDURES FOR PREPARING RESEARCH REPORT • No clear rule for research report writing. • Researcher can plan organize report writing processes. • Commonly adopted research writing processes: 1. Preparation/Design of Outline 2. Planning of Time Time Mgmt. 3. Arrangement of Data 4. Drafting Reports 5. Direct +ve Sentences 6. Presentation

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1. Preparation/Design of Outline • Prepared before writing report. • Helps the researcher in arranging ideas in a comprehensive way to identify the points related to one another.

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2. Planning of Time Time Mgmt. • Researcher has to plan the entire process of inquiry. • Researcher has to plan the task to meet the required time schedule. • Effective time planning can prevent 11 th minute’s rush.

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3. Arrangement of Data • Data collected: Generally in raw form • Processed tabulated before starting analysis with usual editing. • The better is the organization arrangement of data the better the data will be appealing.

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4. DRAFTING REPORTS DRAFT REPORT PRESENTATION • 3 steps involved: 1. 1 st Draft 2. 2 nd Draft 3. 3 rd Draft Final Draft v Each step: Own distinguishing features.

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1 st Draft • Written in a no. of ways. • Working draft • Researcher can give simple clear shape to make the 1 st draft readable. • 3 stages in writing 1 st draft: 1. Mix the notes under each sub-topic put them in sequence. 2. Expand the notes outlines into manuscript. 3. Read own notes to draw out their full significance.

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2 nd Draft • After an interval of certain time from the completion of 1 st draft make revisions for writing 2 nd draft. • Concentrate mainly on the form language. • Evaluate all the written facts findings conclusions recommendations critically.

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3 rd Draft Final Draft • Final stage in drafting research report • Concentrates mainly on documentation polishing to make the research weighty authoritative convincing attractive. • Good research report depends on amount of readings or notes taken accurate thoughtful investigation.

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5. Direct +ve Sentences • Researcher should not use non-essential words phrases. • Use of unnecessary slang technical or unusual words or phrases should be avoided. • Researcher should write naturally directly using familiar words short sentences with simple constructions.

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6. Presentation • Each step section should be sequentially presented. • Charts sections tales etc. should be labeled adequately. • System of presentation should be simple logical.

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Presentation • Introduction Methods Results: Written in past tense. • Recommendations: Written in future tense. • Should be written in third person. • 1 st person pronouns such as I me my mine our we us etc.: Should be eliminated. • If required to refer to the researcher terms “the writer” or “the investigator” should be used.

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DRAFT REPORT DISSEMINATION PLAN Standard Format of Research Report • No uniformity on the format of research report. • Structure/format: Varies from researcher to researcher place to place. • General format: Title Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of tables figures Abstract

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Chapter I: Introduction Background of Study Statement of Problem Rationale of Study Significance of Study Objective of Study Research hypothesis Operational Definitions Chapter II: Literature Review Theoretical Review of Literature Empirical Review of Literature

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Standard Format of Research Report Chapter III: Research Methodology Research Design Study Design Study Population Sample Size Sampling Techniques Data Collection Data Analysis Statistical Analysis Limitation of Study Chapter IV: Results Chapter V: Discussions Chapter VI: Conclusions Recommendations References Appendices

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Share of IMRaD Format in a Report • Introduction: 20 of a Report • Methodology: 10 of a Report • Results: 25 of a Report • Discussion: 25 of a Report • Conclusion: 10 of a Report • Recommendations: 10 of a Report

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Title Page • 1 st page of the report • Should be concise adequately descriptive. • Should include following: i. Title of the Study ii. Full Name of the Candidate iii. Name of the Institution to which the Report is submitted. iv. Degree for which the Report is presented. v. Name of the place year when the degree is to be conferred on.

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Title Page • Entire title: Should be typed in all CAPITAL letters. • All items of the title page: Should be centered between the margins of the page. • If the title extends beyond one line it should be double spaced placed in an inverted pyramidal style.

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Acceptance Page Approval Sheet • Includes advisor’s signature along with title name of researcher. • If the thesis is examined by a Committee the examiner’s names should also be presented in the page.

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Acknowledgement Page Preface vIncludes: Reasons why the topic was selected by the researcher. vExplains: • Scope • Methodology or researcher’s opinion in the field of knowledge • How researcher’s opinion provides a basis for the dissertation.

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Table of Contents • Provides an outline of the contents of the report. • Appears after the Acknowledgement/Preface. • Contains a list of chapters their appropriate Roman numbers followed by page number on which each chapter begins. • The heading “TABLE OF CONTENTS” should be in the center at the top of the page the heading “PAGE NUMBER” at the right margin.

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Table of Contents • Main headings: Should be in CAPPITAL letters without using punctuation. • Sub-headings: Kept under the concerned main heading interpreted as 1.1 1.2 1.3 so on. Further sub-divisions interpreted as 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 so on.

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List of Tables Figures and illustrations • If tables figures included in the report they are listed in separate pages with full titles worded exactly as they appear in the text. • Arabic numerals used for identifying tables figures.

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Abbreviations Acronyms • It is possible to use abbreviations to avoid writing typing long names in full. • List of abbreviations should appear before the beginning of the main text.

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ABSTRACT • Overview of the whole report. • Summarizes the research report. • Readers prospective researchers look read this after the title and decide whether to proceed with reading or not. • Should be written at last to reflect accurately the content of the report.

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ABSTRACT • Length depends on the length of the report. • For small sized report: 200 words • Usually 350-500 words

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ABSTRACT vIncludes: i. What the researcher set out to do. ii. Brief summary of research problem iii. How reviewing literature focused narrowed the research. iv. Relation of methodology chosen to the aims of the study. iv. Summary of main principal finding v. Researcher’s analysis of findings vi. Recommendations

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Main Body Main Text • Division of the text into chapters/sections/ sub-divisions should be logical to make the contents meaningful. • Consists of: vIntroduction vMain body of the report developed for analysis interpretation presentation of data vConclusions

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION vBackground of Study: • Introduce the subject by highlighting its special features in about 2 or 4 paragraphs/ pages. • Should be interesting to the readers in the subject matter of research. • Should not be confusing aimless lacking in precision.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION vStatement of Problem: • A clear statement of nature importance of problem with specific “Qs” to be answered or hypothesis to be tested. • Consideration of significance of problem its historical background: Also imp. • Key “Qs” location of problem in the theoretical context of the concerned subject/discipline: Should be specified.

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW • Summarizes the current status of research work already done. • A review of pertinent past work pitfalls other failings of earlier work mainly to substantiate need for other research work. • A brief summary indicating areas of agreement or disagreement in findings or gaps in existing knowledge: Should be included.

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW vSignificance or Justification for the present study: • Significance of the problem its contribution to the theory its practical importance overall relevance: Should be satisfactorily indicated. vScope of the Study: • Point out the exact coverage reported upon research within its large context.

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW vConceptual Framework: • States concepts or domains proposed to be used in research. • Enables readers prospective researchers to understand the concept underlying the investigation.

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Theoretical Review of Literature • List of relevant books other sources each followed by a description comment on its relevance. • Demonstrates that the researcher has read analyzed literature relevant to the topic. • Should cover the discussion of available theories.

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Empirical Review of Literature • Should contain past relevant studies done on the subject matter. ie. Describes previous research works on the subject. • Helps the researcher define the gap between what he intends to do what others have done. • Establishes the need for additional researches. • Helps to identify the difference in approaches.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY vResearch Design: • Describes the design used in research activities such as case-control cross-sectional etc. vSampling Procedure: • Describes the sampling procedure of data collection such as simple random sampling systematic sampling etc.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY vData Collection: • Indicates sources of data how they were collected. • Includes interview technique questionnaire procedure extraction of data from files use description of measuring instruments. • Format of interview schedules or questionnaires: Presented in appendices.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY vData Processing Procedure: • Gives a brief description of data coding procedure computer programs in advance. vStatistical Procedure: • Descriptive statistics: frequency mean SD • Inferential statistics: Chi Square test t test ANOVA etc.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY vLimitations of the Study: • All research designs have inherent limitations. So their implementation generalizability: Also affected.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS vGeneral Guidelines for Presentation of Data: • Present demographic characteristics such as age gender income education level etc. in tables using categories or frequencies with range mean SD. • Do not present without frequencies. • Do not present means without SD.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS • General Guidelines for Presentation of Data: • Establish cause-effect relationship for 2 qualitative variables. • Select proper statistical test for inference. • Examine hypothesis report relationship objectively. • Interpret results in rational with statistical laws.

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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION • In this part Results should be analyzed interpreted in the light of available theories past studies done on the subject. • Reasons should be sought for any discrepancy between the Results the available theories on the subject. • Should be related to the Research Objectives. • Should include implications of the findings.

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CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS • Last part of Report • Answers to “Qs” raised or statements of acceptance/not acceptance of hypothesis. • Main conclusion: Should be drawn from the Results of the study. • Recommendations for future research work: Should be suitably expressed. • Should not introduce new information.

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END SECTION Bibliography/References • Includes all published/unpublished sources mentioned in text or footnotes. • General entries in Bibliography: Made in following order. vFor Book: i. Name of author: Last name surname 1 st name issuing body ii. Title of publication/book

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Bibliography vFor Book: iii. Place publisher date of publication iv. No. of volumes in Roman letter v. Page no. Eg. Kerlinger F.N. Foundation of Behavior Research New Delhi Surjeet Publishers 1983:75-105.

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References • Referencing: Standard method of acknowledging sources of information ideas that were used in the report in a way that uniquely identifies their sources. • Direct quotations facts figures ideas theories from both published unpublished works: Must be referenced. • Different referencing formats: In common use

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Purposes of References • To acknowledge the source of data/ information • To allow readers prospective researchers to verify data/information • To allow readers prospective researchers to consult the sources of data/information independently • To show the reader the depth breadth of reading

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End Section Appendix/Appendices vUsed for additional or supplementary material which were not found in the main text. vIncludes: • Complex tables • Original data collection schedule • Questionnaire/Interview forms • Copies of cover letters • Any data calculations formulae etc.

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Footnotes • Piece of text which for some reason cannot be kept within main body of document which is therefore placed elsewhere. • It is usual preferable to place them at the bottom of the page on which they are referred to. • A reference mark that allows readers to find source of information noted.

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Purposes of Footnote • To identify material used in report. • To identify material not immediately necessary to the body of research text but still of supplementary value.