Report writing

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aproaches to the report writting

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What is Report?:

What is Report ? A report is a description of an event carried back to someone who was not present on the scene. Thus in a broad sense, many memorandums, letters and news items are reports. It is usually an answer to a question or a demand from some other person for information. A formal report presents in organized form the information that has been requested by an authorized person. A report is a communication from someone who has information, to someone who wants to use that information. Is a written statement of the facts of a situation , project, process or test ; how these facts were ascertained, their significances; the conclusions that have been drawn from them; the recommendations that are being made.( Note recommendations are not required in all cases.)

Types of Report?:

Types of Report? INFORMAL REPORTS Not have wide distribution Shorter than 10 pages long Eg;Trip report, laboratory report, Progress report, Not be published FORMAL REPORTS Lengthy (ten or more pages) Widely circulated reports use Eg; Reports of research results

Types of Report by Time:

Types of Report by Time Monthly > Major activities accomplishments with their Challenges Quarterly > Achievements with financial Reports Bi annual > Achevements, outputs with financial report Annual > Progress report with Audit report

Forms of Report?:

Forms of Report? ORAL Presenting the report orally Video, Pictures, slides etc… WRITTEN Reports backed up with legal documents

Report Structure :

Report Structure Entirely depends on the requirements or formats of end users of the report However, generally reports include > Title, Reporting period and report producer > Success or achievements > Issues and Concerns > Financial accomplishment > Plan for next reporting period

Purposes of a Report?:

Purposes of a Report? To know whether activities according to a project plan are being accomplished. 2. To know whether tasks according to a staff person’s workplan are being accomplished. 3. To highlight any problems being encountered in project activities in order to address them or communicate them to the entity which is responsible for resolving them. 4. To track progress at different levels of the project – progress against objectives, outputs, or activities – to demonstrate to the donor we are fulfilling our contractual obligations and/or for our own satisfaction that we (the project) are having positive results . 5. To see whether beneficiaries are satisfied with the project or have a different view from our own; to then report these differences to a higher level of decision making; and create some dialogue between the project and beneficiaries on the issue. 6. To aggregate information which can be analyzed and used for different purpose within or even after the life of the project.

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill 1. Spelling use machine spell check or manually after rough draft distinguish between frequently confused words --to/too/two, --their/there/they're --keep a small list of frequently used words you find difficult to spell - judgement vs. judgment - business vs. buisness learn the few basic spelling rules -“i” before ”e” except after “c” (believe, receive), - doubling (writing/written, riding/ridden, diner/dinner)

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill 2. Diction - diction is simply word choice use the correct word (correct in meaning, correct in form, correct level, etc.) distinguish between formal/informal/colloquial/slang use of words keep up with the times as sensitive words change

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill 3. Numbers ordinarily, below 10 use the word, but figures are common with measurements - We hired three new people. - The missing piece was about 9 inches long. 10 and above usually use the figure - After 15 calls, we made a sale. not begin a sentence with a figure - 350 people showed up at the meeting. (incorrect) - Three hundred and fifty people showed up... (correct) - Some 350 people showed up for the meeting.  [However, you want to be specific; beware of “some,” “several,” etc.

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill not use two figures next to each other - Power was supplied by 12 125-hp motors. (incorrect) - Power was supplied by twelve 125-hp motors. (correct) use figures if numbers are frequent in a passage - We selected 3 from KA1, 10 KA2, 6 KA3, and 12 from KA4. figures must agree with degree of accuracy implied by words - Around 3,578 people participated. (incorrect) - Around 3,600 people participated. (correct) - Exactly 3,578 people participated . (correct)

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill 4. Abbreviations - use the abbreviations accepted in your field but clarify them if there might be confusion note that most abbreviations, acronyms, and initializations do not take periods

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill 5. Capitalization proper names --Gainesville, Boston, IBM titles when name used --President Lombardi, Professor Smith languages and countries --Latin, Greece, Finland, Finnish organizations, including religions --Catholic, House of Representatives, School of Building Construction, Department of Electrical Engineering, United Way programs and such (software)--Windows 95, WordPerfect

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill days and months (Monday, January) but not seasons (summer) geographical areas (the South, the Northeast) but not directions (fly south, go west) courses but not subjects --I took Calculus I but I will never use calculus in my life. historical and geographical periods --the Bronze Age, the Eighteenth Century names of ships, trains, and planes (also italicized)--Silver Streak, Queen Mary, Spirit of St. Louis major words in titles --In the Name of the Rose special units --Building D, Figure 2, Room 27, Chapter 4

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill 6. Punctuation PERIODS - to end sentences and after some abbreviations, although most abbreviations no longer require periods Several suitable people, e.g., the director, the producer, and the composer could accept the reward. EXCLAMATION POINT --"I'm shocked, shocked to find gambling going on around here!" QUESTION MARK --"Do you think we will ever finish?" he asked.

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill HYPHENS used to join words, as unit modifiers - frequent in technical writing although movement is towards combining the words into one as in nonverbal communication, overhead projector indicated unit (compound) modifiers, two or more words functioning as one adjective end of semester exams, three-day weekend, entry-level position, 60-hp engine, 32-bit data bus, also used with fractions--one-third cup but not with 'ly' words--finely tuned engine, easily accomplished task

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill COMMAS avoid overuse - not needed after short introductory phrases nor around all titles but usually used with interrupters, strong transitions, appositives, before terminal item in series to avoid confusion, and to ensure clarity in reading - Surprisingly, he passed the test. - However, we should not assume success. - We should not, however, assume success. note the comma in non-restrictive (not-needed) constructions - My sister, Buffy, is dead. (one sister) - My sister Buffy is dead. (multiple sisters) - The committee, which had not met for all December, finished its work on time. - The committee that had been appointed by the president failed to function effectively.

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill SEMICOLON - used infrequently, can usually be replaced with new sentence - I decided not to go; however, he persuaded me. - I decided not to go. However, he persuaded me. - I decided not to go, he persuaded me, I gave in. needed with complex series I f I take calculus and chemistry this semester; calculus, chemistry, and physics next semester; and calculus, chemistry, statistics, and biology the next...

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill COLON used with decreasing frequency - introduces new information W e need one thing: luck. We found three causes: poor training, scant incentives, no initiative. Required items include a sleeping bag, good hiking boots, waterproof backpacks... Ideal choices are the Labrador, the golden retriever, and the .... BUT DOES NOT FOLLOW A VERB  [This construction has a great deal of leeway.]

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill DASH becoming increasingly popular--especially in less formal writing--to combine or separate, especially useful for imbedding material (replacing parentheses) or to increase emphasis the reports--all 10 of them--were excellent. Wet suits, weight belts, tanks—everything will have to be ordered. The candidates--Mary, Ellen, and Bill—were interviewed. The interviews--usually detestable things--went smoothly. DO NOT USE A DASH TO JOIN SENTENCES.

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill APOSTROPHE traditionally used with possessives and contractions and some shortened forms--but not with numbers The boy's/boys' performance(s) was/were flawless. I wouldn't be surprised if they were here. I gave several A's on the first paper, a one-time thing. We have been working on this since the early '80s and have made no progress. The 1920s [era] was a time of social chaos.

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill MISCELLANEOUS PUNCTUATION quotation marks are standard for short non-indented quotations "Not his time," he whispered angrily under his breath. quotation marks may appear around titles of shorter works or those works appearing in collections We read "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" in The Golden Treasury of Dull Poetry. titles of published works of any length are italicized or underlined (not titles of your papers)--italics can be used for all  publication titles italics are also used for foreign words, strongly emphasized words, and words used as words The word tornado comes from the Old French word tourneur meaning ‘to turn.'

A Basic Report Writing Skill:

A Basic Report Writing Skill single quotation marks can be used to indicate inappropriate or lightly emphasized words, as in irony He seemed slightly ‘bombed' at the meeting. He was ‘out like a light' for most of it. He was ‘mildly' excited at the change. if you must use a slang term or jargon, place in quotation marks.  This indicates that you know that the word is slang.  Your papers are formal papers. also ellipsis (. . .) to show omitted material, brackets ([ ]) to show added material, and parentheses for many uses

General Points to Consider While Writing Report :

General Points to Consider While Writing Report Keep it short . Many people do not have time to read lengthy report. Keep it clear . Avoid technical words & jargons. Unpack Acronyms. Use simple clear language. Use Short Sentences . Not more than 20 words in a sentence is a guideline. Different ideas belong to different sentences. Use sub-headings . Things are more structure & look better. Emphasis Key points . Things are easier if some one is looking only for specific information.

General Points to Consider While Writing Report :

General Points to Consider While Writing Report Discuss Challenges . Mention measures taken to deal with challenges at your level. Use annexes . Try to put tables and figures in annex. Stay on truck . Always keep the issues of the report in mind and do not go astray. Use checklists . Do not loose information. Edit your report carefully . Allow a day b/n completion of the report and its final editing to be able to have a fresh look at it. Submit on time . Especially important if the report is needed for decision making.

Report Flow in the organization :

Report Flow in the organization Field Level Head Office Level Int. Office Donors Government

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