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NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY Introduction Types of NVT Thermal Imaging Image Enhancement Performance Attributes Technical characteristics Equipments Applications Conclusion References


Introduction NVT allows us to see in the dark Originally developed for military use Now used for site security, surveillance as well as search and rescue Evolved from bulky optical instruments in lightweight goggles through the advancement of image intensification technology.

Types of night vision:

Types of night vision Categorized by generations Each substantial change NVT establishes a new generation Categorized into: Generation-0 Generation-1 Generation-2 Generation-3 Generation-4


Generation-0 Created by US Army Uses active infrared A projection unit called IR illuminator is attached Full moon operation Use anode in conjunction with cathode to accelerate the electrons Problems –acceleration causes distortion of image as well as reduction of life of the tube Also, it was quickly duplicated by the hostile nations

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Figure illustrates Generation 1 Night vision technology.

Generation-1 (1960’s):

Generation-1 (1960’s) Uses passive infrared Uses ambient light provided by the moon and the stars Don’t require a source of projected infrared light Don’t work well on cloudy or moonless nights One quarter moon operation Uses same image-intensifier tube technology as Generation-0 Same problems as faced by the Generation-0

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Figure illustrates Generation 2 Night vision technology.

Generation-2 (1970’s):

Generation-2 (1970’s) Offer improved resolution and performance over Generation-1 devices Considerably more reliable Able to see in extreme low light conditions due to the addition of microchannel plate(MCP) to the image-intensifier tube The images are less distorted and brighter

Generation-3 (1990’s):

Generation-3 (1990’s) Currently used by the US Army Better resolution and sensitivity Photocathode is made up of Gallium Arsenide MCP is coated with an ion barrier Tube life is increased

Generation-4 (2000’s):

Generation-4 (2000’s) Known as “filmless and gated” technology Shows significant improvement in both high- and low-level light environments No ion barrier in MCP Responds quickly to different lightning conditions Reduced background noise Enhances signal to noise ratio Images are less distorted and brighter

Thermal imaging :

Thermal imaging This technology operates by capturing upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat Hotter objects emit more of this light than the cooler objects These elements then create a thermogram Thermogram  electric pulses  display data

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The basic components of a Thermal-imaging system

Thermal imaging :

Thermal imaging Thermal imaging lets you see again . It is quite easy to see everything during the day... ...but at night, you can see very little.

Thermal imaging devices:

Thermal imaging devices Two types: 1. Uncooled. 2. Cryogenically cooled. Great for detecting people or working in near-absolute darkness

Image Enhancement:

Image Enhancement

Image Enhancement:

Image Enhancement It is also known as Image intensification Relies on image intensifier tube to collect an amplify infrared and visible light Lens captures the light which is then sent to image intensifier tube It has photocathode that converts photons into electrons When electrons pass through MCP ,more electrons are presented This causes chain reaction where atoms are released Electrons reach phosphor screen and photons are released Those phosphor create green image

Performance Attributes:

Sensitivity (photo response)- tube’s ability to detect the available light Signal- plays a key role in night vision’s performance Resolution- ability to dissolve detail in the image Performance Attributes

Technical Characteristics:

Technical Characteristics Textures, Light and Dark Depth Perception Fog and Rain Honeycomb Spots


Equipments Three categories Scopes Goggles Cameras


Scopes- monocular, handheld, better look at a specific object and then return to normal viewing conditions. Goggles- binocular, handheld or worn, excellent for constant viewing Cameras- send the image to a monitor for display or to a VCR for recording. Equipments

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DARK INVADER Multi-purpose Pocketscope DARK INVADER Night-vision Goggles 4501

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Stealth 301 Series Day/Night Video Camera Camcorders are a fast-growing segment of the night-vision industry.

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Soldiers using DARK INVADER night-vision Goggles .


Military Law enforcement Hunting Wild life observation Surveillance Security Navigation Hidden-object detection Entertainment Applications


Conclusions Although the term ``night vision'' currently encompasses three distinct technologies, it is the evolution of image intensification technology that first made devices practical and widely used. Their success was the result of advancements in light amplification and resolution techniques.


References Nightvision.html

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Thank You one and all…