Alkaloids

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Alkaloids:

Alkaloids

Definition and general properties:

Definition and general properties Naturally occurring compounds in plants (mainly!) Nitrogen containing (heterocyclic) basic compounds With strong physiological effect Occurring in the form of salt with organic acids Common precursors

Classification according to:

Classification according to Origin Physiological effect Chemical structure

Characteristic groups of alkaloids:

Characteristic groups of alkaloids A. Non-heterocyclic alkaloids Ephedrine: - 2°amine - ephedra species - decongestant Mescaline: - 1°amine (!) - peyote cactus - hallucinogen

Characteristic groups of alkaloids:

Characteristic groups of alkaloids B. Heterocyclic alkaloids Coniine: piperidine ring - hemlock (Conium maculatum) - toxic Nicotine: - pyridine, pyrrolidine - tobacco - toxic (insecticide)

Characteristic groups of alkaloids:

Characteristic groups of alkaloids B. Heterocyclic alkaloids Atropine: tropic acid ester with tropine - Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) (solanaceae) - vagolitic Cocaine: ecgonine methyl ester benzoate - leaves of coca - euphorbic, hallocinogenic effect

Characteristic groups of alkaloids:

Characteristic groups of alkaloids B. Heterocyclic alkaloids Papaverine: isoquinoline - poppy - antispasmotic Quinine: quinoline, quinuclidine - cinchona barks - antimalarial agent

Characteristic groups of alkaloids:

Characteristic groups of alkaloids B. Heterocyclic alkaloids Morphine: phenanthrene - opium - analgesic Lysergic acid diethylamide: LSD - hallucinogene - Lysergic acid: fungus ergot

Characteristic groups of alkaloids:

Characteristic groups of alkaloids B. Heterocyclic alkaloids Purine alkaloids: Caffeine: 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine Theophylline: 1,3-dimethylxanthine Theobromine: 3,7-dimethylxanthine - coffee, tea, cocoa… - stimulant, diuretic

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