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Wikis: An innovation to improve student learning:

Wikis: An innovation to improve student learning Laura Lee

Identification & Introduction of Innovation:

Identification & Introduction of Innovation Witney and Smallbone (2011) define wikis as shared online spaces that encourage collaboration among users.


Need Need for an increase in student engagement Need for opportunities for students to apply social interaction skills in a safe online learning environment Need for promoting and encouraging peer editing, revision, and teamwork among all members involved in the learning community.

Student Needs:

Student Needs Critical thinking and problem solving Collaboration Agility and adaptability Initiative Effective oral and written communication Accessing and analyzing information Curiosity and imagination


Research Ward Cunningham: developer of wikis


Development To make online collaboration beneficial: Give clear directions Outline the expectations Ensure students understand the limits of online discussions ( Conforti , 2004)



Examples & Classroom Application:

Examples & Classroom Application

The Innovation-Decision Process:

The Innovation-Decision Process Knowledge: How does a wiki function? A wiki is a web site that lets any visitor become a participant.  

The Innovation-Decision Process:

The Innovation-Decision Process Persuasion: How can a wiki improve instruction? The greatest potential lies in student participation in the ongoing creation and evolution of the wiki.

The Innovation-Decision Process:

The Innovation-Decision Process Decision: How are wikis used in k-12 classroom instruction? Opportunity to learn and practice collaborative skills and strategies Support and accelerate humankind’s ability to respond to and solve many of our planet’s unrelenting problems. (Morreilon, Hunt, and Ewing, 2009)

The Innovation-Decision Process:

The Innovation-Decision Process Implementation: What are the effects of implementing this innovation? Choice, safe environment for social discourse, and Combination of structured and unstructured activities Encourages reading while inspiring students to write Promotes critical and creative thinking

The Innovation-Decision Process:

The Innovation-Decision Process Confirmation: “In the best digital media experiences, they (students) are challenged to think harder and to weave together what they know rather than to have it presented to them predigested” (Moreillon, Hunt, & Ewing, 2009).

Wikis: The “Disruptive Innovation”:

Wikis: The “Disruptive Innovation” 1994: Wiki concept created by Ward Cunningham 1995: Ward Cunningham releases wikis to facilitate communication between software developers 2000: Concept transitions to more than its original purposes, Meatball Wiki gains popularity 2001: Wikpedia launched becoming most popular wiki 2004 - 2006: Explosion in the interest of wikis Resource:

Adopter Categorization:

Adopter Categorization Current adoption of wikis in classroom instruction

Innovation Approach: Decentralized:

Innovation Approach: Decentralized Experimentation by users (non-experts) Peer diffusion through horizontal networks Wide sharing of power Created based on need

Change Agents:

Change Agents Potential Change Agents: Technology Coaches Innovative users of technology for each grade level Unofficial position but persons noted for their consistent strives for incorporating technology Media Center Specialist

Strategies for Achieving Critical Mass:

Strategies for Achieving Critical Mass Use by highly-respected individuals (technology coaches) Present to classroom teachers the desirability of using wikis to meet student needs Offer training/workshops to increase the desirability Introduce the concept to members likely to use the innovation Provide incentives for teachers taking the initiative to use the innovation

Action Plan:

Action Plan Create wiki for use in professional training for school employees to provide hands-on learning experiences Align training activities to standards for each content area – specifically focusing on English Language Arts Implement and encourage attendance to follow-up workshops to share success stories and ideas

Key Factors to Consider for Adoption:

Key Factors to Consider for Adoption Enhancement of student skills: Communication Student-to-teacher Student-to-peer Technological Critical thinking


References Higdon, J., & Topaz, C. (2009). Blogs and Wikis as Instructional Tools: A Social Software Adaptation of Just-in-Time Teaching. College Teaching , 57 (2), 105-110. Moreillon, J. (2009). Learning and Teaching in WANDA Wiki Wonderland: Literature Circles in the Digital Commons. Teacher Librarian , 37(2), 23-28. Retrieved from EBSCO host . Newkirk, T., & Kent, R. (2007). Teaching the neglected "r": Rethinking writing instruction in secondary classrooms . (pp. 149-161). Portsmouth: Heinemann. Roe, M. (2010). WIKI TECHNOLOGY and the return to rigor. Leadership , 39 (3), 20-22. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. (5th ed.) New York, NY: Free Press. Witney, D., & Smallbone, T. (2011). Wiki Work: Can Using Wikis Enhance Student Collaboration for Group Assignment Tasks?. Innovations in Education and Teaching International , 48(1), 101-110. Retrieved from EBSCO host .