Turning Points

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Change & Turning Points : 

Change & Turning Points Regents Prep Global History and Geography

Slide 2: 

Throughout human history various events have changed the way people have lived.  These events can be political revolutions, social and religious changes, new technologies, or the exploration of unknown places.  These changes occur in two different fashions, evolution and revolution.

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Evolution: is the gradual change or development of something.  An example of historical evolution would be the development of democracy in Great Britain.  Revolution: is a sudden or abrupt change in something, usually political in nature.  An example of historical revolution is the French Revolution.  Over a few short years France's government changed from absolute monarchy, to constitution monarchy, to democratic republic,  to dictatorship, and back to monarchy. Whatever the process, history is about change.  This thematic review focuses on the major periods of that change, and the turning points of human history.

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Geography : 

Geography Change and Turning Points

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Geography shapes history because it is where all history takes place.  Geography is the study of people, their environment, and their resources.  Civilizations are influenced by access to various types of resources, by geographical features that either protect, or isolate, and by the area in which they live.  Some of these geographical resources and features are, rivers, mountains, oceans, irregular and regular coast lines, and islands.

Neolithic Revolution : 

Neolithic Revolution Change and Turning Points

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Paleolithic Age: (750,000 BCE - 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source. nomad: A person who belongs to a group of people who move from place to place seasonally in search of food and water. hunting and gathering: System of food production for prehistoric peoples. Involves hunting animals and gathering foods grown in the wild.

Neolithic Revolution : 

Neolithic Revolution During the Paleolithic Period, which lasts from the beginnings of human life until about 10,000 BCE, people were nomads. They lived in groups of 20 -30, and spent most of their time hunting and gathering.  In these groups, work was divided between men and women, with the men hunting game animals, and women gathering fruits, berries, and other edibles.  These early peoples developed simple tools such as, spears and axes made from bone, wood, and stone.  Human beings lived in this manner from earliest times until about 10,000 BCE, when they started to cultivate crops and domesticate animals.  This is known as the Neolithic Revolution.

Slide 14: 

The Neolithic Revolution was a fundamental change in the way people lived. The shift from hunting & gathering to agriculture led to permanent settlements, the establishment of social classes, and the eventual rise of civilizations. The Neolithic Revolution is a major turning point in human history.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… social class: A group of people within a society who share the same social, political, and economic status. civilization: A society that has a high level of culture and social organization including organized government, job specialization, and a organized belief system. calendar: A system for keeping track of time.

Great Discoveries : 

Great Discoveries About 10,000 BCE, humans began to cultivate crops and domesticate certain animals.  This was a change from the system of hunting and gathering that had sustained humans from earliest times. As a result, permanent settlements were established.  Neolithic villages continued to divide work between men and women.  However, women's status declined as men took the lead in in most areas of these early societies.

Great Discoveries : 

Great Discoveries Villages were usually run by a Council of Elders composed of the heads of the village's various families.  Some of these villages may have had a chief elder as a single leader. When resources became scarce, warfare among villages increased.  During war, some men gained stature as great warriors.  This usually transferred over to village life with these warriors becoming the leaders in society.

Great Discoveries : 

Great Discoveries Early social class divisions developed as a result.  A person's social class was usually determined by the work they did, such as farmer, craftsman, priest, and warrior.  Depending on the society, priests and warriors were usually at the top, with farmers and craftsman at the bottom.

Great Discoveries : 

Great Discoveries New technologies developed in response to the need for better tools and weapons to go along with the new way of living.  Neolithic farmers created a simple calendar to keep track of planting and harvesting.  They also developed simple metal tools such as plows, to help with their work.  Some groups even may have used animals to pull these plows, again making work easier.  Metal weapons were developed as villages needed to protect their valuable resources.

Effects : 

Effects The Neolithic Revolution changed the way humans lived.  The use of agriculture allowed humans to develop permanent settlements, social classes, and new technologies.  Some of these early groups settled in the fertile valleys of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Yellow, and Indus Rivers.  This resulted in the rise of the great civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and India.

Commercial Revolution : 

Commercial Revolution Change and Turning Points

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Middle Ages: Time period in European history between the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance in the early 15th century. Crusades: European Christian military expeditions made between the 11th and 13th centuries to retake the Middle Eastern Holy Lands occupied by the Muslims. cultural diffusion: The spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war. Commercial Revolution: A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.

Commercial Revolution : 

Commercial Revolution Toward the end of the European Middle Ages, the Catholic Church launched a series of Holy Wars against the Muslims in the Middle East.  These wars were known as the Crusades, and while their original goals were not achieved, they nevertheless, had long reaching effects.  As a result of the Crusades, trade increased, which also increased cultural diffusion between the Islamic world and Europe.  As this trade flourished and grew, new practices in business were developed, and a fundamental change in European society took place.  This time period is know as the Commercial Revolution.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Venice and Florence: Italians City-States which were the center of the rebirth of European trade and culture at the end of the Middle Ages. trade fair: A gathering of merchants, craftsmen, and artisans to buy and sell goods and service during late Middle Ages. bubonic plague: An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Black Death.

Resurgence of Trade : 

Resurgence of Trade In the late 1300s, Italian City States became the center of the resurgence of trade.  Venice was the richest and most powerful of these states.  From Italy, goods were shipped to large trade fairs, which were located on major trade route crossroads.  The larger of these trade fairs evolved into towns, with a change in the way of life for their inhabitants.

The Black Plague : 

The Black Plague A result of the increased interaction between Europe and the Middle East was the spread of the Bubonic Plague, also known as, the Black Death.  Starting in the 1100s, the plague was spread along trade routes and had an enormous impact on Europe, including the loss of 1/3 of the population, a decline in their economy, and a weakening of feudalism.  In China, 35 million people died as a result of the plague, and in Cairo, Egypt, 7,000 people a day died at the disease's height.

Commercial Revolution : 

Commercial Revolution Despite some setbacks due to the plague, the resurgence of trade continued across Europe, with many new innovations in business. Guilds: were trade associations of craft workers and merchants.  All of one craft would form together to set standards on prices and quality.  Guilds dominated economic life during this period and were the main mode of production.

Commercial Revolution : 

Commercial Revolution Capitalism: emerged with the decline of feudalism. Capitalism is based on trade and capital, which is money for investment. Higher demand for a product means higher prices and higher profits.  Capitalism becomes the new economic system and resulted in the development of new business practices to handle the increase in trade.

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The Commercial Revolution and the resurgence of trade across Europe completely reshaped society.  These changes resulted in the decline of feudalism, and a revival of arts, literature, and science known as the Renaissance.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Feudalism : A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life. Renaissance : A rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits after the stagnation of the Middle Ages. This period in European history, from about the 14th through 16th centuries, features major cultural and artistic change.

Reformation : 

Reformation Change and Turning Points

Slide 33: 

The Protestant Reformation was a major turning point in history. Not only did it affect religious life in Europe, but also affected social, political, and economic institutions as well.  The Reformation's leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin, both educated as priests for the Catholic Church.  The Reformation was a protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church.  The followers of Luther and Calvin became known as Protestants, because of their "protesting."

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Luther, Martin: (1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences. Calvin, John: (1509-1564) Theologian and church reformer who developed a form of Protestantism during the Reformation. His church is known for the idea of predestination, which states certain people are predestined for heaven. Roman Catholic: A branch of Christianity based in Rome. The original Christian church.

Causes - Church Corruption : 

Causes - Church Corruption By the 1500s the Catholic Church was the most wealthy and powerful institution in Europe.  Many church leaders lived more like kings, than priests, and became increasingly involved in political matters. To raise money for these activities, the Church raised fees for services such as, marriage and baptism, and also began the sale of indulgences, which were letters of forgiveness for one's sins.  This caused both anger and resentment across Europe, and many called for reforms to take place.

Martin Luther : 

Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German monk who was concerned about the sale of indulgences and other corruptions in the church.  In 1517, he wrote his 95 Theses, which were 95 arguments against the sale of indulgences. He posted these on the door of the Wittenberg church in protest. The Catholic Church ordered Luther to recant, or take back his theses, but he refused.  The Church excommunicated him, and would have executed him had they been able to capture him.  Luther's ideas spread quickly throughout the Germany and Scandinavia, mainly due to the new printing press.  Luther's beliefs are what sparked the Reformation.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… indulgence :Letters of forgiveness for one's sins provided by the medieval Church, and one of the causes of the Reformation. excommunicate :To exclude a Christian from receiving the Sacraments. movable type printing machines :A printing machine that used individual letters that could be moved after each printing. This allowed for faster and easier printing. Pope :Leader of the Roman Catholic Church. Chosen by the College of Cardinals. predestination :The idea of Calvinist Protestants that certain people were pre-selected to go to heaven.

Beliefs : 

Beliefs Luther believed that Christians could only reach salvation through faith in god.  He did not believe that the Pope or other priests had any special powers, including the forgiveness of sins.  Luther's beliefs became the basis for the Protestant form of Christianity.

John Calvin : 

John Calvin John Calvin was another priest - turned reformer.  Like Luther, he believed that faith in god provided the path to salvation, but he also promoted the idea of predestination.  Predestination is the belief that certain people were chosen by god for salvation. Followers of Calvin all believed they were predestined for heaven.  They set up religious communities throughout Europe and lived very strict, moral lives.

Counter/Catholic Reformation : 

Counter/Catholic Reformation As a response to the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church began a program to enact reform from within.  The purpose of the Counter/Catholic Reformation was to end corruption, return to traditional teachings, and to strengthen the church in an attempt to stop its members from converting.  Pope Paul III called the Council of Trent in 1545 to institution these reforms.  The Council set up new schools for priests, ended most corruption, and created new religious orders to deal with these problems.

The Society of Jesus : 

The Society of Jesus The Society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius Loyola to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe.  Jesuit training emphasized spiritual and moral discipline, as well as strict loyalty to the Church.  Jesuits did much to slow the spread of the Protestant Reformation, and later became very successful as missionaries, spreading the Catholic faith throughout the rest of the world.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Loyola, Ignatius: (1491-1556) Founded the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Jesuits. He worked to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe. missionary: A person who spreads the teachings of a religion. anti-Semitism: The hatred of people of Jewish descent.

Effects : 

Effects Luther's and Calvin's ideas spread across Europe quickly.  This was due to unrest in the peasant population, inventions like the printing press, and the support of rulers wishing to free themselves from Catholic control. Religious unity in Europe was lost, which resulted in many wars including, civil wars in Germany and France, and wars between Protestant England and Catholic France and Spain.

Reformation : 

Reformation The Reformation also leads to a period of anti-Semitism.  Both Catholics and Protestants place restrictions on Jews, often forcing them to live in separate areas of town.  Witch hunts also increased as many people, caught up in religious zeal, accuse others of Satanism.  Thousands were killed as a result, most of them women.

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Overall, the Protestant Reformation and the Counter/Catholic Reformation changed the face of society in Europe.  Before the Reformation, Europe was united behind a single faith, with a strong Church for guidance.  By the end, Europe is divided religiously, and strong monarchs fill the leadership void left as a result of a weakened Catholic Church.

Exploration : 

Exploration Change and Turning Points

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The resurgence of trade following the Middle Ages in Europe resulted in a demand for goods from Asia.  Trade routes were established across the Mediterranean and through the Middle East to handle this need.  But, when the expansion of the Ottoman Empire caused disruption along these routes, Europeans were forced to seek alternative ways of importing these goods.  This led to the exploration of water routes to Asia, and eventually the discovery of the Americas by the Europeans.

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Ottoman Empire: Hereditary nation state centered in Turkey. It was founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and extended across most of Asia Minor and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire collapsed shortly after World War II. Dias, Bartholomeu : (1450?-1500) Portuguese explorer who, in 1488, was the first person to round the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Cape of Good Hope : Southern tip of the African continent. Da Gama, Vasco : (1469?-1524) Portuguese explorer who, in 1498, established an all water route to India Columbus, Christopher : (1451-1506) Italian explorer working for Spain who, in 1492, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Americas for Spain.

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raw materials : Various materials found in nature used in manufacturing such as wood, coal, and oil. slave : A person forced to work for another with no payment or freedom to seek work elsewhere. A slave can be bought and sold. Age of Exploration : Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Inca: A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century. colonization: A group of people moving from their homeland to a new area in large numbers. Diaspora: The enforced spreading out of a group of people. In history, there has been both a Jewish Diaspora and an African Diaspora.

The Portuguese : 

The Portuguese In the early 1400s, Europeans began exploring the west coast of Africa in search of an all water route to Asia.  These early explorations were led by the Portuguese. In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.  In 1498, Vasco Da Gama established an all water route to India.  The success of these explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages. I In 1492, Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Americas for Spain.  These discoveries had a lasting impact on Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas.

Imperialism : 

Imperialism European nations competed for colonies across the globe.  These colonies were exploited for their raw materials, and used as new markets for European goods.  Europeans had little regard for most of the indigenous peoples of these areas, and as a result, there was great loss of life and culture. Also, because of the need for a reliable labor source, slaves were transported from Africa to the Americas in large numbers.

Columbian Exchange : 

Columbian Exchange The Age of Exploration is a turning point in history because it altered the way people lived across the world.  The biggest aspect of this change deals with the exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas, and technology.  This is known as the Columbian Exchange, because it starts with Columbus.  While many aspects of this exchange had positive effects, such as the exchange of foods between Europe and America, there were also negative effects, such as the exchange of diseases between Europe and America.

The Age of Discovery : 

The Age of Discovery Changed the world.  Access to new and better foods allowed the European population to grow, and access to the New World gave these people a place to go.  New World civilizations such as the Inca and Aztecs, faced near total destruction of their cultures either through disease brought by the Europeans, or by colonization.  Africa faced a diaspora, or forced movement of its people, as slavery became the dominant labor force in the Americas.  The Age of Exploration was both a positive and negative experience for many civilizations.

Nationalism : 

Nationalism Change and Turning Points

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Nationalism is feelings of strong devotion to one's country.  Nationalism develops among people who usually share a common language and history.  It can be an unifying force, as in Italy and Germany during the late 19th century.  OR It can be a dividing force, as in the Balkans during the late 20th century.

Italy : 

Italy Since the fall of the Roman Empire, Italy had been divided among many City States.  After the invasion by Napoleon, and subsequently, most of Italy being given to Austria and Spain, nationalistic feelings caused the Italian people to unite and move toward unification. The three great leaders of this movement were Guiseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo Cavour, and Guiseppe Garibaldi.

Italy con’t : 

Italy con’t Mazzini started a group called Young Italy in 1831.  Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control. Cavour was the Prime Minister of Sardinia, a large Italian State.  He formed alliances with other foreign powers to help end Austria's and Spain's control. Garibaldi was a military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section.  After foreign control was ended, Italy chose Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia as King.  After unification, Italy faced many problems trying to build a national unity.

Germany : 

Germany Like Italy, Germany was composed of many independent states.  After Napoleon's invasions, nationalistic feelings began to grow, and a movement for unification was started.  However, at the Congress of Vienna, Prince Metternich stopped unification from occurring before the movement grew to large.  However, in the 1830s, the German state of Prussia, formed a trade union among other German states called the Zollverein.  This agreement brought the German states closer together economically and was the first step toward unification.

Germany con’t : 

Germany con’t Otto von Bismarck was appointed chancellor of Prussia in 1862, and began the work of unifying Germany.  While Bismarck may have used German nationalism as a tool to achieve his goals, he was not a nationalist.  In fact, Bismarck only sought to unify Germany to further strengthen Prussia, and make the Prussia king the ruler of all Germans.  Bismarck's policy to unify Germany was called Blüt und Eisen, or Blood and Iron.  This was a policy of war designed to give Prussia control of all of Germany.

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By 1871, Germany was united under the leadership of the Prussian King, Kaiser Wilhelm I (William I).  “Kaiser” is a term taken from the Roman Caesar, meaning emperor.

Meiji Restoration : 

Meiji Restoration Nationalistic feelings in Japan led daimyo and samurai to rebel against the Tokugawa Shogunate and restore the Emperor to power.  The Emperor Meiji began a process of rapid modernization and industrialization to strengthen Japan against Western control. Within a few short years, Japan became a strong industrial and military power, and began a series of military conquests across Asia.

Zionism : 

Zionism Zionism was a Jewish nationalist movement to establish a homeland in Palestine.  This movement began in the late 1800s, as anti-Semitic feelings intensified in Europe.  The main leader of this movement was a journalist by the name of Theodor Herzl.  Herzl's dream of a homeland for Jewish peoples was realized in 1948 with the creation of Israel.

India : 

India India had been controlled by the British Empire since the 1700s.  Over time, nationalistic feelings grew among the Indian population and a movement was began to first establish self rule, and then complete independence.  In 1885, Indian nationalists formed the Indian National Congress to achieve these goals.  In 1906, the large Muslim population formed the Muslim League to protect their rights, even calling for the creation of a separate state.

India con’t : 

India con’t In 1947, India gained their independence from Great Britain, due in large part to the strong leadership of Mohandas Gandhi.  At the same time, Britain created East and West Pakistan as Muslim states separate from India.  East Pakistan later became Bangladesh.

Africa : 

Africa Africa had been under the control of Europeans since the late 19th century.  A nationalistic movement called Pan Africanism, which emphasized the unity of all Africans, sought to end foreign control.  While some countries managed to achieve independence in the 1920s and 1930s, most would not until after World War II.  Unfortunately, nationalistic feelings for any particular African nation were weaker than feelings of loyalty to individual tribes.  Because of Tribalism, Africa has faced many problems since independence.  Nationalistic feelings helped to end European Imperialism, but have done little to unify any particular African nation.

Balkans : 

Balkans Nationalism has been a source of conflict in the Balkans for quite some time.  Many different ethnic groups live in this region including, Serbs, Greeks, Romanians, and Bulgarians.  In the 1800s, nationalistic feelings led these people to rebel against the Ottoman Empire.  By 1908, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Montenegro had all gained their independence.  However, the weakness of the Ottoman Empire cause instability in this region.

World War I : 

World War I Russia sponsored a nationalist movement called Pan Slavism, which was based on the idea of all Slavic peoples sharing a similar heritage.  Serbia took advantage of this idea in an attempt to gain more land.  This brought them into conflict with Austria-Hungary, and ultimately led to the start of World War I.

Slide 71: 

Nationalism continues to be a source of conflict in this area.  After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the different ethnic groups in Yugoslavia began to war with each other over control of the country.  This resulted in the breakup of Yugoslavia in different nations.  In the process, many people were killed as a policy of ethnic cleansing was followed.  Ethnic cleansing is the deliberate murder of people based on their ethnic background.  Today, this region continues to face many problems because of nationalism.

Industrial Revolution : 

Industrial Revolution Change and Turning Points

Agrarian Revolution : 

Agrarian Revolution In 1750, most people in Europe lived on small farms and produced most of their needs by hand. A century later, many people lived in cities and most of their needs were produced by complex machines using steam power. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to Belgium, France, Germany, the United States and Japan. It was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, and altered the way people lived. The Industrial Revolution is a major turning point in world history.

Causes : 

Causes Agrarian Revolution: was a change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The results of this revolution if farming was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. Also, the Enclosure Movement, which was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, left many people jobless and homeless. These people would provide the workforce of the Industrial Revolution.

Geography : 

Geography Great Britain has an abundance of the natural resources needed for industrialization, such as iron ore and coal. Britain also had access to many navigable rivers and natural harbors which provided for the easy movement of goods both within the country, and overseas.

Capital, Technology & Energy : 

Capital, Technology & Energy The British had a vast overseas empire that provided them with a strong economy. They had the capital (money) needed to build railroads, factories, and mines.  Britain experienced a revolution in energy use as they switched from animal power, to water power, to steam power in a few short years.  The steam engine was the power source of the Industrial Revolution.

Effects : 

Effects Mass Production:  The use of the Factory System allowed for mass production of textiles and other goods.  This shifted people from production at home with the Put Out System, to production in large factories in cities.  Mass production also allowed for lower prices on the good produced.

Big Business : 

Big Business As the Industrial Revolution grew, so did business.  To meet the needs of this growth, business owners sold shares of their companies to stockholders who would share the profits and losses.  The influx of capital allowed business to grow into corporations that had dealing in many different areas.

Laissez-Faire Economics : 

Laissez-Faire Economics This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government.  This economic system dominated most of the Industrial Revolution.

Urbanization : 

Urbanization People moved to towns and cities to be closer to the factories.  Conditions were very poor during the early part of the Industrial Revolution, as factory workers lived in over crowded buildings, with no sewage or sanitation services.  This resulted in widespread disease.

Working Conditions : 

Working Conditions Factory workers worked very long hours, for little pay, under harsh conditions.  Workers included children as young as 8, both male and female.  Many people were injured or killed due to unsafe working conditions.

Societal Changes : 

Societal Changes New roles were defined for Middle Class men and women.  MC men went to work in business, while MC women worked from home and cared for the family.  The higher standard of living for the middle class meant that their children received some form of formal education. Working Class families faced many hardships due to poor living and working conditions, and most WC children never received an education.

Communism : 

Communism Karl Marx wrote in The Communist Manifesto (1848) that all of human history is based on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production) and the proletariat (working class). He predicted that the proletariat would rise up in a violent revolution to overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a society with an equal distribution of goods and services. This socialist theory would form the basis for the Bolshevik, Chinese, and Cuban Revolutions in the 20th Century.

Imperialism : 

Imperialism Africa, China, India, South East Asia, and others were controlled by Europe to provide raw materials and new markets for industrialized goods.  Imperialism had a negative effect on most of these cultures, and did not completely end until after World War II.  Imperialism usually only benefited the European nations.

Slide 87: 

The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in world history as it resulted in a complete change in society on all levels.  Effects of the Industrial Revolutions were long reaching, and influenced many other cultures both positively and negatively.

World War Two : 

World War Two Change and Turning Points

Slide 89: 

During the 1930s, Germany, Italy, and Japan tried to build world empires at the expense of others.  This resulted in a world war as other nations attempted to stop them.  World War II was the most destructive war in human history and became a turning point in history as is resulted in the division of the world into two competing political ideologies: Democracy and Communism.

Rise of Fascism : 

Rise of Fascism Fascism is the rule of a people by a dictatorial government that is both nationalistic and imperialistic.  Fascist are also anti-communist.  Fascism rose in Italy and Germany due to a severe economic depression that caused widespread poverty.  Benito Mussolini in Italy, and Adolf Hitler in Germany both promised solutions to these problems, and were able to win the support of the masses as they took absolute control over their countries.  Imperialistic goals in Italy, Germany, and Japan resulted in the start of World War II.

The War : 

The War Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the Axis Powers and waged war against the Allies, composed of Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union.  The war was waged across the globe, with major battles taking place in Europe, North Africa, and various Pacific Islands.

The War Ends : 

The War Ends War in Europe ended after the destruction of Germany in the Spring of 1945, and ended in the Pacific after the United States dropped two nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan in August of that same year.  World War II is a turning point because it marks the beginning of the Nuclear Age, and because it resulted in the creation of the two Superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States.

Rebuilding Japan and Germany : 

Rebuilding Japan and Germany Rather than repeat the mistake made by the Versailles Treaty which severely punished Germany for World War One, the allies occupied and rebuilt Japan and Germany. During this occupation, democratic governments were established and infrastructure destroyed during the war was rebuilt. West Germany and Japan would go on to become very competitive economically, often being ranked and compared to the United States.

Colonialism Ends : 

Colonialism Ends After World War Two, self-determination was extended beyond Europe to regions across the world. Former colonial possessions of European nations such as India and French Indochina became sovereign nations, establishing their own governments.

Democracy vs. Communism : 

Democracy vs. Communism After the war, the United States and other democratic nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which was a military alliance against communism.  The Soviet Union, which had gained control of most of Eastern Europe during the war, formed the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance against NATO.  This period of conflict between democratic and communist countries is known as the Cold War.  The two Superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, dominated world events for nearly 50 years after the end of the war.

The Cold War : 

The Cold War Change and Turning Points

US vs USSR : 

US vs USSR The Cold War is the period of time roughly from the end of World War II, until the collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.  The Cold War was the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union.  This conflict divided the world between the two Superpowers, resulted in a dramatic arms race, and led to numerous violent conflicts around the world.  However, the Cold War is also a period of economic change around the globe, as nations aligned themselves with the superpowers.  New nations become economic powerhouses, and global interdependence becomes reality in an ever shrinking market place.

Germany & Japan Recover : 

Germany & Japan Recover After World War II, both Germany and Japan were politically, socially, and economically devastated.  The Allies occupied these nations and began a program of recovery.   Germany was divided among the victorious Allies, with the Soviets holding the eastern half, while France, Britain and the U.S. held the western. The western half became the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.

Slide 99: 

The western Allies enacted reform that setup a representative democracy, and put Germany on the road to recovery.  These programs were enacted using money provided by the United States under the Marshall Plan, which offered economic aid to rebuild after the war.  East Germany suffered for decades under the control of the Soviet Union, who did little to improve the war torn country.

Germany & Japan Recover : 

Germany & Japan Recover Japan was occupied solely by the United States.  Like Germany, Japan formed a representative democracy with a new constitution.  Japan also rebuilt their industries using aid from the U.S..  Occupation ended in 1952, and Japan has since become the United State's strongest ally in the East, and also its main economic competitor around the world.

Market vs. Command Economy : 

Market vs. Command Economy A large part of the Cold War was nations aligning themselves economically with either the U.S. or the Soviet Union.  Capitalism, or a Market Economy and Communism, or a Command Economy came to dominate global economics.  The conflict became about which system better provided for the people.  In the end, Capitalism won out, but only by a slim margin.

Economic Interdependence : 

Economic Interdependence During the Cold War the world became more interdependent economically.  Examples of this include the European Union, OPEC, and NAFTA.

European Union : 

European Union The EU started as a small community in 1952 to regulate steel and coal production in Europe.  By 1957, the initial 6 nations, West Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, formed the European Community, or EC.  The EC was a free trade association that lowered economic barriers, such as tariffs, between the members.  During the 1980s and 1990s, the EC expanded and became the EU, and continues to work toward a common economic infrastructure.

OPEC : 

OPEC The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries was formed by Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela in 1960. Their goal was to control the oil industry by setting prices and production levels.  Control of the majority of the world's oil supply has given OPEC strong political powers.  In 1973, OPEC stopped the sale of oil to certain countries, namely the U.S. This caused a major slow down of many western nation's economies, and made them realize how dependent they were on foreign oil.  This continues today with OPEC limiting production of oil, which in turn causes gas prices to soar.

NAFTA : 

NAFTA The North American Free Trade Association was created by the United States, Mexico, and Canada in 1993.  Its purpose was to provide free trade between the three nations, by eliminating trade barriers like tariffs.

Pacific Rim : 

Pacific Rim The Pacific Rim is a group of nations in Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.  Economic interest in this area has grown dramatically since the end of World War II.  Many predict that the Pacific Rim will come to dominate world economics due to their large market size.  Many nations in this area, including, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea (known as the Asian Tigers) have experienced rapid economic growth and prosperity due to industrialization.  These nations were also aligned both politically, and economically with the West throughout the Cold War.

Post-Cold War : 

Post-Cold War Change and Turning Points

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The Post Cold War period has seen many changes around the globe.  The lack of two superpowers has increased the pressure on the United States to act as a world police force as violent hot spots crop up around the world.  Rogue nations, such as North Korea and Iran continue to pursue goals contrary to world opinion.  Also, the rise of terrorism, especially on an individual level, is on the increase.

Post Cold War Hot Spots : 

Post Cold War Hot Spots Middle East:  Tensions have continued to escalate in the Israeli - Palestinian conflict.  Violence is a near daily occurrence as neither side is able to reach peaceful coexistence.  This conflict also continues to spill over into nearby Lebanon, which has experienced near 30 years of bloodshed.  Another problem area is Iraq, which continues to harass its neighbors and pose a potential threat to stability in the Middle East.  The United States, Great Britain and others have maintained military forces in the region since the end of the Gulf War in 1991.

North Korea : 

North Korea North Korea remains a one party communist dictatorship.  Even though they have faced economic hardships, North Korea has spent large sums of money building up its military which is rumored to posses nuclear weapons.  The North Korean government maintains its hope of uniting the two Koreas one day.  This poses a threat to the nations of the west who are allied with South Korea, namely, the United States.

India & Pakistan : 

India & Pakistan India and Pakistan continue to be hostile toward each other.  Issues range from religious differences, to the subject of Kashmir, a region divided between the two in 1949.  Adding to this conflict is the threat of nuclear war, as both countries have tested such weapons.  This has become a global concern as a result.

China : 

China China remains a one party communist dictatorship, whose record on human rights has brought them world attention.  China wishes to grow economically closer to the more prosperous West, but refuses to end the human rights abuses that prevent this from happening.  Another trouble area with China concerns Taiwan, which the Communist Chinese consider to be a rebellious Chinese state.  Taiwan maintains its independence, and because of support from western nations has managed to remain free.

Terrorism : 

Terrorism Terrorism is the deliberate use of unpredictable violence, especially against civilians, to gain revenge or achieve political goals. Terrorism is usually used by groups or individuals that do not have a military of their own.  Terrorist activities include bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, and hijackings.  Areas where terrorism has seen widespread use are Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and any area with American citizens, who have become the target of individually funded terrorist activities, such as those begun by Osama bin Laden.  Efforts to stop terrorism have seen limited success due to the random nature of its activities.

Quick Review : 

Quick Review Change and Turning Points

Slide 116: 

Begins about 10,000 BCE. Shift from hunting and gathering to cultivation of crops and domestication of animals. Resulted in the development of permanent settlements. New technologies, such as a simple calendar to track harvesting and planting, metal tools to aid in farming, and metal weapons to protect the settlement were developed. Social classes and simple political systems begin. Neolithic Revolution leads to development of more complex civilizations such as those found in early Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China.

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Time of change in Europe  Marks the end of the Middle Ages. Renewed interest in arts and literature. Humanism is new philosophical movement. Famous Artists: Leonardo Da Vinci & Michelangelo Famous Writers: William Shakespeare & Dante Political Philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli writes “The Prince” Greatest technological achievement: Johann Gutenberg's Printing Press

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Develops as an offshoot of the Renaissance. Questions traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. Develops the Scientific Method for research. Important People and Discoveries: Nicolaus Copernicus develops heliocentric model of the universe. Galileo Galilei proves Coperinicus' work using a homemade telescope, but is forced to recant his findings due to Catholic Church pressure. Sir Isaac Newton described gravity as a force which works upon all things. Rene Descartes discusses the idea that human reason is superior to traditional beliefs. This idea  leads to the Enlightenment.

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Main Cause: Corruption in the Catholic Church & the sale of indulgences. Leaders: Martin Luther & John Calvin. Documents: 95 Theses by Martin Luther. Martin Luther rebelled against Church authority due to what he saw as gross corruption, the sale of indulgences. The result was the creation of a new branch of Christianity called Protestantism. Luther's followers became known as Lutherans. They believed that salvation only came through faith in God, not through faith in the Church. Calvin's followers became known as Calvinist. They believed that people were chosen for salvation. This is called Predestination. The Catholic Church launched a Counter-Reformation to stop Luther and Calvin.   It was mainly successful in southern Europe, while Protestantism was successful in Northern Europe.

Slide 120: 

Political revolution in England in 1688. Parliament places William and Mary on the throne. Monarchy forced to sign English Bill of Rights, creating a limited government. Parliament becomes supreme to monarchy. Glorious Revolution becomes model for American, French, and Latin American Revolutions

Slide 121: 

Political revolution in the British North American colonies beginning in 1776. Colonist wage a war to free themselves from British control. Colonist claim unfair taxes and representation in the British Parliament. The 13 Colonies sign the Declaration of Independence, a document of Enlightenment   ideas regarding freedom and equality. Colonist defeat British army, and establish the independent nation called the United States of America. The United States writes a Constitution very similar in goals to the English Bill of Rights.

Slide 122: 

Causes Political: Absolute Monarchy Social: 3rd Estate composed 98% of population, yet had no say in government  and were very poor. Economic: Severe crisis due to overspending. Plus, poor harvests lead to widespread food shortages and famine. Five stages in revolution: change the government from an Absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy, ending in another Absolute government under Napoleon. Effects: Spread of Enlightenment ideas across Europe. French Revolution inspires Latin American Revolutions. Nationalism ideas lead to the unification of Germany and Italy.

Slide 123: 

Causes:    Enlightenment ideas. Examples set by the American and French Revolutions. Big People: Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar By the beginning of the 19th century, many wealthy landowners in Latin America were tired of European control. They enlisted the support of the lower classes in an attempt to gain their independence. The Latin American revolutions are initially successful, gaining independence from Europe, but they fail to address any of the social class problems that exist. This leads to more almost 200 years of continued problems, with revolutions, military coups, and foreign control dominating Latin American politics.

Slide 124: 

Begins in Great Britain. Causes: Agrarian Revolution. Abundant natural resources.  Technological advances  Capital.  The Enclosure Movement. Britain switches to the factory system for manufacturing. Which results in people moving to the cities to find work. Factory working conditions are very poor and many people are injured or killed. Most working class are very poor, despite the entire family working, including children as young as 8. Big business grows and the Middle Class increases. Imperialism begins as industrialized nations need more raw materials and new markets. Industrial Revolution spreads across much of northern Europe, the Untied States, and Japan during the 19th century. New theories on economics: Laissez Faire; Society and Government: Socialism/Communism.

Slide 125: 

Causes:  Throughout the 19th century, Russian Czars attempted to westernize and  industrialize, without also importing French Revolution liberal ideas. They were   mostly unsuccessful, and many Russian liberals called for reform. In response, the Czars became harsh and oppressive. A rigid social class system added to this problem by denying the majority  peasant class most basic rights. A small revolution in 1905 forced Czar Nicholas II to enact some minor reforms, however, these did not last. World War I caused Russia to face shortages in food, fuel and housing, which resulted in the people revolting. The czar was forced from power in March of 1917, and a provisional government was setup. In November, a group known as the Bolsheviks, took control of the country. This is known as the Bolshevik or Communist Revolution, as the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, later renamed themselves Communists.

Slide 126: 

Effects: Russia became the first country to base its government on the writings of Karl Marx. By 1922, Lenin and the Communists had retaken most of the old Russian Empire and renamed it the Soviet Union. Initially, the Communists fulfilled their revolutionary  promises by improving basic living conditions, and ending Russia's involvement in World War I, but ultimately failed to provide a government of equal rights and  participation.

Slide 127: 

Causes: After China freed itself from foreign control, the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party  led by Jiang Jieshi, began a war against the Communist Party led by  Mao Zedong. Mao, along with 100,000 supporters, were forced to retreat from the Kuomintang in  1934 in what became known as the Long March. Despite losing 80% of his forces, Mao continued to fight against the government, and eventually overthrew it in 1949. Mao then setup a government based upon Communist principles.

Slide 128: 

Effects: Under Mao and the Communists, China was transformed from an agricultural society, into an industrial society. Mao eliminated the old landlord and business classes, and provided free health care  for peasants. Mao also instituted reform that made women legally equal to men, although in practice this was never achieved. China was transformed into a One-Party Dictatorship with Mao in total control. Similar to the Soviet Union, China never completely fulfilled the promises of equality and brotherhood that were originally promised when the revolution began.

Slide 129: 

Causes: Cuba suffered under a repressive government headed by Fulgencio Batista. Revolutionary figure, Fidel Castro, desired to rid his country of American  influence with the aid of the Soviet Union. In January 1959, revolutionaries Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Fidel  Castro, a self-described Marxist-Leninist, take over the Cuban government and establish a Revolutionary Government.  Castro established a communist dictatorship, and greatly supported the Soviet Union throughout the cold war. Effects: People suffer as they are denied basic rights and freedoms. Economically, Cuba suffers due to Command Economic System.

Slide 130: 

Causes:                 In 1953, Great Britain and the United States helped Muhammad Reza Pahlavi                 take control of the Iranian government.                Pahlavi proclaimed himself Shah, and ruled as a dictator.                He instituted a policy of westernization and modernization that caused                 problems among Islamic fundamentalists.                During the 1970s, the Ayatollah Khomeini, an Islamic religious leader, led the                 opposition movement against Pahlavi.                In 1979, the Shah was forced into exile, and Khomeini took control of the                                 government.  • Effects:                 Iran was transformed into a Islamic Republic, which meant a rejection of western                   ideas and culture, and a return to traditional Islamic beliefs.                Iran became extremely hostile to the West, often supporting terrorist activities                 directed against the United States.                After the death of Khomeini in 1989, more moderate leaders took control.                Iran remains an Islamic Republic, but has worked to normalize relations with the                    West.  • For more information, click here.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Paleolithic Age : (750,000 BCE - 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source. hunting and gathering : System of food production for prehistoric peoples. Involves hunting animals and gathering foods grown in the wild. social class : A group of people within a society who share the same social, political, and economic status. civilization : A society that has a high level of culture and social organization including organized government, job specialization, and a organized belief system. calendar : A system for keeping track of time.

More Terms to Remember… : 

More Terms to Remember… environment: Everything in nature including people, plants, and animals that affects development in life. civilization: A society that has a high level of culture and social organization including organized government, job specialization, and a organized belief system.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Evolution: is the gradual change or development of something.  Revolution: is a sudden or abrupt change in something, usually political in nature.  absolute monarchy: A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control. constitutional monarchy: A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch who has limited power due to a constitution democratic republic: A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature. dictatorship: A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… Magna Carta : A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy. Model Parliament : (1295) English Parliament where bishops and abbots, peers, two knights from each shire, and two representatives from each town all met in modern format for the first time. Long Parliament : (1640 – 1660) English Parliament which met off and on for twenty years due to religious and civil problems. Occurs during the English Civil War. Glorious Revolution : Political revolution in Great Britain in 1688 that put William and Mary on the throne, while limiting the power of the monarchy and making Parliament supreme. This event marks the beginning of a constitutional monarchy in England.

Terms to Remember… : 

Terms to Remember… English Bill of Rights : (1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation. Cabinet System : Collection of people who run various departments in government. Usually report to the chief executive, such as the prime Minister, or the President. Walpole, Robert : (1676-1745) British statesman, and first Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742. Bonaparte, Napoleon : (1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.

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