Research Stars - Texting vs Calling Powerpoint

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Texting and Calling Communication Preferences:

Texting and Calling Communication Preferences Valentina Setteducate , Kendra Delahooke, Joanne Meshamel , Rebecca Cox Azusa Pacific University

Slide2:

Method Discussion Texting and Calling Communication Preferences Kendra Delahooke, Valentina Setteducate , Joann Meshamel , Reb ecca Cox Azusa Pacific University Chart #1 Chart #2 References Participants : For our study, our participants included graduate students at Azusa Pacific… Literature Review Results Our results do not strongly support our hypothesis. Our results showed that adults… After calculating the responses to our survey none of our results were found to be statistically significant. Some Bethany L. Blair, Anne C. Fletcher, and Erin R. Gaskin Cell Phone Decision Making : Adolescents’ Perceptions of… In the article Texting, textese and literacy abilities: A naturalistic study by Drouin and Driver (2014) the texting behaviors, text characteristics, as well as the relationships between texting and literacy among…

Literature Review:

Literature Review In the article Texting, textese and literacy abilities: A naturalistic study by Drouin and Driver (2014) the texting behaviors, text characteristics, as well as the relationships between texting and literacy among undergraduate students was studied. This study mentioned that during 2006-2008, there was a substantial increase from 65 to 357 text messages sent per month or an increase of 450% among adults and “there were no significant differences in texting frequency between men and women” ( Drouin & Driver, 2014, p.263). The authors note that further studies will need to be done to determine if the large increase in text usage might be because of the difference in measurement of text messages sent per day versus per month. This study assists us in our research because they found there is little difference in texting frequency between males and females so if we have an unbalanced response rate from one gender over another that should not skew our results. Additionally, the dramatic rise in the number of text messages sent per day gives support for our hypothesis that texting is increasingly becoming a preferred method of communication as cellular devices that make it easier to text become more common.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. In the article Use and perception of technology: Sex and generational differences in a community sample by Van Volkom , Stapley , and Malter (2013) a questionnaire was used to gain data on the attitudes toward the use of different types of technology and participants were broken up into groups based on age (young adults, middle age adults and older adults) and gender (male and female). This study found that middle age adults made and received more cellphone calls a day, possibly influenced by employment status, and young adults sent and received more text messages per day; furthermore, within each age group there were no significant differences found between genders regarding text message behavior (Van Volkom et al., 2013). This could be an interesting area for further research as our study did not collect the age of participants when asking about preferences for cellphone use. As generations are raised being more comfortable using technology like cellphones for more than basic functions like phone calls the results of studies may begin to show a preference for text messaging across all age groups.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. In the article, Texting everywhere for everything: Gender and age differences in cell phone etiquette and use by Kirby Forgays , Hyman, and Schreiber (2014) the study surveyed adults ages 18-65 about their own cellphone usage as well as instances where they thought that cellphone use was appropriate. Kirby Forgays et al. (2014) found that younger adults in were more accepting of text messaging than were older adults and no difference was found in the amount of calls made and received based on either gender or age. Younger adults were most likely to make contact via texts, whereas older adults were more likely to make contact via calls (Kirby Forgays et al., 2014). Understanding the attitudes that adults have towards cell phone usage in general can give us insight into how often adults might use their phone for texting or calling. Furthermore, the results in this study help support our hypothesis that younger adults prefer to text versus call. These findings indicate that it will be important to gather data from adults of all ages in our study to provide more valid and reliable results, particularly because younger adults text more and may skew our results in favor of our hypothesis .

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. In the article  Texting while stressed: Implications for students’ burnout, sleep, and well-being  by Karla Murdock (2013) a study was done to assess the effects of texting on an individual’s psychosocial wellbeing. Higher levels of stress in conjunction with higher rates of texting negatively impacted wellbeing on the individuals studied and higher levels of texting also correlated with higher levels of sleep problems (Murdock, 2013). The study also referenced a trend in studies showing an increase in phone usage, with college students reporting to text messaging more than any other form of telecommunication (Murdock, 2013). These studies illustrate the growing usage of cellular phones and telecommunication in general as a frequently used method of communication in both college students and adults.  If text messaging is occurring enough to impact social wellbeing in undergraduate students then it is likely there will be a preference for text messaging over phone calls as we suspect in our hypothesis. In the article  The attentional cost of receiving a cell phone notification  by Stohart , Mitchum , and Yehnert (2015) the effects of cell phone notifications on concentration were studied.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. Similar to our proposed study, Stohart et al. (2015) saw the prominence of cell phones in society estimating that roughly “91% of American adults report owning a mobile phone” (p. 893) and were interested in usage as well as how usage affects daily life. Even though the results showed both phone calls and text messages were disruptive, text messages were slightly less disruptive possibly increasing the use of the text message by many who view it as an advantage when communicating. The reported lower level of interruption may also increase the likelihood of someone being able to respond quickly without it inhibiting their current activity as much as a phone call, further supporting our hypothesis . In the article  Developing a theory driven text messaging intervention for addiction care with user driven content  by Muench , Weiss, Kuerbis & Morgenstern (2013) the acceptability of the use of text messaging to support and initiate behavioral health changes was measured.  An interactive text messaging intervention was used by the researchers for individuals enrolled in an intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment because texting is able “to deliver personal, intelligent, and adaptive health information anywhere in real time” and is considered “the most accessible and common form of mobile communications” ( Muench et al., 2013, p. 315).

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. The rise of the use of text messaging to communicate in research, especially as a preferred method of communication to garner responses, likely foreshadows a positive preference of text messaging to phone calls in other areas of life as well.  Our group research will likely show similar results among people who want to communicate information quickly. The article Text or Talk: Social Anxiety, loneliness, and Divergent Preferences for Cell Phone Use looked for a connection between the preference of calling or texting and if social anxiety and loneliness impacted this preference. Approximately 45.6% of the participants preferred using their phones to text, rather than talk, and individuals with high anxiety preferred to text to communicate more intimate conversations, but most people considered calling to be more personal (Reid & Reid, 2007). Studies show the partial correlation implied that loneliness is associated with an 8% increase in participants that would prefer using their cell phone to talk then to text. This does not support our hypothesis by indicating that texting is not universally preferred as much as we anticipated.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. The article The Relationship Between Mobile Phone Use, Metacognitive Awareness and Academic Achievement by Bulent Dos (2014) discusses the influence of the two measures between mobile phone use and texting to see if it had an impact on college students’ academic performance and satisfaction of life (Dos, 2014). Dos (2014) states, “mobile phone usage ( MPEse ) has an influence on changing the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors of the people (193).” Cell phone usage “is also becoming a source of severe problems for both individuals and organizations ( Salehan and Negahban , 2013). There was no relation constructed between frequency of mobile phone usage and academic performance or life satisfaction; therefore, the negative impact from using a cell phone to communicate is not great enough to dissuade users and we believe it will not be difficult to find participants with cell phones to take our survey . In the article Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults a study was conducted to illustrate phone usage using Facebook in particular with the research emphasizing the connection between receiving text messages regarding Facebook and the individual’s reaction.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. The study proved that the more the participants were active on Facebook the more their life satisfaction declined over time because people tended to use Facebook when they felt bad or lonely ( Kross et al., 2013). The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety, and Satisfaction with Life in college students ( Lepp et al., 2014) addresses the relationship between cell phone use and texting and student satisfaction of life and grade point average and positively related to students’ anxiety. Lepp (2014) explains, “On average, students reported spending 278.67 (SD = 218.00) minutes per day using their cell phones, and sending 76.68 (SD = 74.75) textmessages per day” (p. 346). The correlations for cell phone use and satisfaction with life and texting and satisfaction with life, along with GPA and anxiety were not significant. From these studies we noted that the current mood of our study participants may impact their recent phone usage and therefore their reported results.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review C ont. In the article Effects of Duration and Laughter on Subjective Happiness Within Different Modes of Commination ( Vlahovic et al.) the focus is on alternative forms of communication and the effect between time and happiness; the study included six communication components that consisted of, telephone, instant messaging, text messaging, face-to-face, Skype, and e-mail/social network site messaging. Vlahovic et al. state, “We may expect real laughter and symbolic laughter to have quite different effects, and there is some evidence that emoticons are not effective at communicating affect in CMC (computer-mediated communication)” (p. 439-440). Vlohovic et al., mention, “The occurrence of real laughter was a significant positive predictor of happiness” (p. 444). In the article Cell phone decision-making: Adolescents’ perceptions of how and why they make the choice text or call (Blair et al., 2015) the study observed participants making decisions on how to conduct communication, via phone calls or text. Adolescents reported that the easier form of communication is through text and not by calling.

Lit Review Cont.:

Lit Review Cont. Blair et al., (2015) illustrate that “75% of all American adolescent text and 63% text on at least a daily basis” (p. 397) versus the 26% of adolescents who received or made a call by cell phone daily ( Lenhart , 2012). This study shows that texting is a more common way to socialize for adolescents rather than calling. It has been validated that adolescent prefer texting over calling, but their decisions can be beyond their control as certain rules interfere with the time and day for cell phone usage. These studies likely indicate that if our study participants are younger there will be a great preference for text messaging over calling in their responses.  

Methods :

Methods Participants : For our study, our participants included graduate students at Azusa Pacific University, family members and friends all over the age of eighteen. Each member of the group sent our survey to five people. Materials : In order to distribute our survey we used SurveyMonkey to make a ten-item questionnaire pertaining to texting and calling as modes of communication, and email as the mode to send the survey to our participants. In order to discuss our findings as a group and to communicate we used group sections in the forum on our Sakai webpage, as well as Skype and email to collaborate on group materials reading the survey.

Methods Cont.:

Methods C ont. Procedure : To begin, the four of us collaborated on ideas for our research project. We were all interested in the idea of texting versus calling as a research idea and decided to choose that topic to study more specifically. Next we formed a hypothesis regarding adults’ preferences of calling versus texting as a means to communicate. We then submitted our hypothesis to our professor, Dr. Turner-August, and after receiving her feedback we revised our hypothesis and sent it to the OIRA for approval. After we received the approval from the OIRA we created a questionnaire on SurveyMonkey and then sent that link out to our twenty participants. Once we received twenty survey responses back, we closed the survey and analyzed the results. From the results, we created three charts and graphs pertinent to three of the most significant questions. Finally, we calculated the means and standard deviations of all eight of our quantitative survey items as a way to analyze our results.

Results:

Results Hypothesis: Adults prefer to spend more time texting than talking on the phone. Our results do not strongly support our hypothesis. Our results showed that adults send fewer texts and spend less time texting than we expected before we conducted our study. More adults believe that calling someone is a more efficient means of communicating with people than texting. Overall, it seems that people would prefer to call another person when the news is important, personal, or is lengthy or detailed. On the contrary, people prefer to text others when they need a quick response, a short response, or when they are coordinating details such as a time or place to meet. Our questions regarding the preference of texting or calling someone to communicate with them did not yield any significant results. For future study on this topic, we feel that it would be important to randomize the participants by age, gender, location, etc. in order to obtain the most accurate results to reflect a larger population of adults.  

Results Cont.:

Results Cont . Pertinent qualitative comments: What situations would people prefer to text versus call ? I f the topic of conversation isn’t super important S hort messages for minor matters Need to convey information quickly Y es /no answers needed W hen the time is inconvenient to talk on the phone (late at night, early morning ) C onfirming or coordinating plans/ details What situations would people prefer to call versus text? L engthy discussion or detailed discussion S erious /more personal topics T o convey important news C atching up with friends or family/want to hear person’s voice  

Chart #1:

Chart #1 On an average day, I tend to spend more time sending text messages rather than calling someone to communicate with them.

Chart #2:

Chart #2 Generally speaking, I would prefer to call someone to communicate with them.

Chart #3:

Chart #3 Generally speaking, I would prefer to send someone a text message to communicate with them.

Table of Quantitative Results:

Table of Quantitative Results Survey Item Mean SD 1. Communication Preference of Texting 3.2 1.15 2.Communication Preference of Calling 3.24 1.05 3. Text Messages are More Efficient 3.6 0.71 4. Calling is More Efficient 4.16 0.85 5. When I Have News, I Text 3.76 0.97 6. Average Text Messages Sent Per Day 2.75 1.45 7. Amount of Minutes Spent Texting Per Day 1.84 1.28 8. More Time Texting vs Calling 3.48 1.26

Discussion:

Discussion After calculating the responses to our survey none of our results were found to be statistically significant. Some of our questions showed a slight preference for texting over calling such as, “On an average day, I tend to spend more time sending text messages rather than calling someone to communicate with them.” with 64% of participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with this statement. Overall while there was a slight preference for texting over calling, both forms of communication were reported as preferred and utilized regularly. Based on our preliminary research we are not able to say that our hypothesis of “Adults prefer to spend more time texting than talking on the phone.” has been supported with statistically significant findings . For our study a broad age range of participants was used (approximately ages 18 to 65) with a high concentration of people in their 30’s. Further research on the impact of age on texting versus calling preference is recommended. The study by Kirby Forgays , Hyman, and Schreiber (2014) shows younger age group tends to text more and if there had been a larger response from younger population we may have perhaps found different results.

Discussion Cont.:

Discussion Cont. Furthermore , the study by Van Volkom , Stapley , and Malter (2013) indicated that age dramatically impacts employment status and those who are employed fulltime (typically middle age adults) tend to make more phone calls for work related communication. As a significant portion of our participants fall within this age range it is possible this affected our results. It is recommended that future research be done to compare the number of calls made on a daily basis to the number of text messages sent as well as the time spent doing each activity on a daily basis. It might be beneficial for future research to compare results when participants are asked to measure usage on a daily basis versus a monthly basis or to use phone bills to obtain a more accurate measurement of usage. The study by Drouin and Driver (2014) also recommends further research comparing the expected difference in participant reporting when asked to report daily versus monthly, noting that the difference in measure may significantly impact the statistical significance of results.

Discussion Cont.:

Discussion Cont. Bulent Dos (2014) conducted a study that illustrated the significant increase in use of cell phones and the frequent use among college students. The components of academic achievement and mobile phone usage gained a notably positive affiliation. No further research is necessary in this area. Our study can be narrowed down with the age range to engage with only college students for more accurate, age-based results. The study by Vlahovis , Roberts, and Dunbar (2012) generated unique communication modes that included three-level models. This strategy brings effective findings to the research because it gathers information with more depth. Communication patterns were developed with encouragement to participate in 14-day diaries. Our survey was closed prior to two weeks due to limited time and our study could have benefitted from more qualitative answers, but all of our participants completed the survey. Upon further reflection it may be wise to alter our hypothesis to measure communication preference in units other than time (such as quantity of texts versus calls) as calling tends to take longer than texting and both methods were reported as begin useful for communicating efficiently.

Discussion Cont.:

Discussion Cont. Our open-ended questions showed a preference for using text messaging when communicating simple, concise information versus using a call to communicate more detailed or personal information efficiently. Therefore, both communication methods proved valuable to participants depending on the circumstances. As the population ages and a greater percentage of the population becomes comfortable using technology for more than the originally suggested use (e.g. phones for making calls), it is possible we will see a shift in the results of studies similar to the one we conducted toward a preference for text messaging over phone calls.

References:

References Bethany L. Blair, Anne C. Fletcher, and Erin R. Gaskin Cell Phone Decision Making : Adolescents ’ Perceptions of How and Why They Make the Choice to Text or Call Youth & Societ y May 2015 47: 395-411, first published on September 16, 2013 doi : 10.1177 /0044118X13499594 Dos , B. (2014). The relationship between Mobile Phone Use, Metacognitive Awareness and Academic Achievement. European Journal of Education Research , 3(4), 192-200. Drouin , M., & Driver, B. (2014). Texting, textese and literacy abilities: A naturalistic study. Journal of Research in Reading , 37(3), 250–267. doi : 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2012.01532. x Kirby Forgays , D., Hyman, I., & Schreiber, J. (2014). Texting everywhere for everything: Gender and age differences in cell phone etiquette and use. Computers in Human Behavior 31, 314–321. doi : 10.1016 /j.chb.2013.10.053

References Cont.:

References Cont. Kross , E., Verduyn , P., Demiralp , E., Park, J., Lee, D.S., Lin, N., & … Ybarra , O. (2013). Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. Plos ONE, 8 (8), 1-6. doi : 10.1371 /journal.pone. 0069841 Lepp , A., Barkley, J. E., & Karpinski , A. C. (2014). The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety, and Satisfaction with Life in college students. Computers In Human Behavior, 31343-350. doi:10.1016/j.chb. 2013.10.049 Muench , F., Weiss, R. A., Kuerbis , A., & Morgenstern, J. (2013). Developing a theory driven text messaging intervention for addiction care with user driven content. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors , 27(1), 315-321. doi:10.1037/ a0029963   Murdock, K. K. (2013). Texting while stressed: Implications for students’ burnout , sleep, and well-being.  Psychology of Popular Media Culture , 2(4), 207-221. doi:10.1037/ppm0000012

References Cont.:

References Cont. Reid , D. J., & Reid, F. J. (2007). Text or Talk? Social Anxiety, Loneliness, and Divergent Preferences for Cell Phone Use. Cyberpsychology & Behavior , 10(3). 424-435 . doi :10.1089/cpb .2006.9936 Stothart , C., Mitchum , A., & Yehnert , C. (2015). The attentional cost of receiving a cell phone notification. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance , 41(4), 893-897. doi :10.1037/ xhp0000100 Van Volkom , M., Stapley , J., & Malter , J. (2013). Use and perception of technology : Sex and generational differences in a community sample . Educational Gerontology , 39, 729–740. doi : 10.1080 / 03601277.2012.756322 Vlahovic , T. A., Roberts, S., & Dunbar, R. (2012). Effects of Duration and Laughter on Subjective Happiness Within Different Modes of Communication . Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication , 17 (4), 436-450. doi : 10.1111/j . 1083 -6101.2012.01584.x