sociology

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sociology : 

sociology - Dept. Of Community Medicine

Slide 2: 

SOCIOLOGY IS DRRIVED FROM THE LATIN SOCIO,MEANING SOCIETY AND THE GREEK LOGOS,MEANING SCIENCE THE WORD SOCIETY IS DERIVED FROM THE ROOT WORDS SOCIUS,MEANING INDIVIDUAL AND SOCOETA MEANING GROUP,SOCIETY IS A GROUP OF INDIVIDUAL WHO HAVE ORGANIZED THEMSELVES AND FOLLOW A GIVEN WAY OF LIFE,AND SOCIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF INDIVIDUAL AS WELL AS GROUP IN A SOCIETY

COMPONENTS : 

COMPONENTS MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY SOCIETY COMMUNITY SOCIAL STRUCTURE SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS ROLE SOCIALISM SOCIALIZATION SOCIAL CONTROL MECHANISMS CUSTOMS CULTURE ACCULTURATION STANDARD OF LIVING SOCIAL STRESS SOCIAL PROBLEMS SOCIAL PATHOLOGY CASE STUDY FILD STUDY COMMUNICATION SOCIAL DEFENCE

MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY : 

MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY social epidemiology to practice social medicine cultural factors and social relation social factors of family,society, and government about health or disease. social principles in medical organisation and treatment

Slide 5: 

Social epidemiology is defined as the “study of the social distribution and social determinants of states of health” The aim of social epidemiology is to identify socio environmental exposures that may be related to physical and mental health outcomes. The principal concern of social epidemiology is the study of how society and social organization influence the health and standard of living of individuals and populations.

SOCIAL MEDICINE : 

SOCIAL MEDICINE THE STUDY OF MEDICAL NEEDS OR MEDICAL CARE OF THE SOCIETY WITH THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY.

Socio-economic Conditions And Health : 

Socio-economic Conditions And Health ECONOMIC STATUS EDUCATION OCCUPATION POLITICAL SYSTEM HOUSING EMPLOYMENT ILLITRACY AND IGNORENCE TRAVEL INDUSTRILIZATION FOOD HABITS TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE

Slide 8: 

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR HEALTH INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY THE STATE RESPONSIBILITY NATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY

FAMILY : 

FAMILY Family is a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood or adoption; constituting a single household, interacting and inter-communicating with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter, brother and sister creating a common culture –

FAMILY CYCLE : 

FAMILY CYCLE STAGE OF FORMATION STAGE OF GROWTH STAGE OF RETRACTION STAGE OF DISINTEGRATION

ROLE OF FAMILY IN HEALTH AND ILLNESS : 

ROLE OF FAMILY IN HEALTH AND ILLNESS SOMATIC SYMPTOMS INCREASES TENSION AMONG THE FAMILY MEMBERS CHRONIC ILLNESS AND COMPLICATED ILLNESS IS DETERMINTEL TO THE FAMILY FUNCTIONING FAMILY PRESTIGE IS AFFECTED BY MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD THE FAMILY WILL OFFER REMEDIES AND ADVICE TO TAKE OVER THE ROLL OF THE ILL PERSON WHEN HE/SHE IS NO LONGER CAPABLE OF PERFORMING IT WILL PROVIDE CARE UNTIL RECOVERY AND LONG TERM SUPPORT

SOCIAL FUNCTION OF FAMILY : 

SOCIAL FUNCTION OF FAMILY REGULATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND REPRODUCTION CARE AND TRAINING OF CHILDREN ECONOMIC RECREATION PROTECTIVE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION

Slide 13: 

A society is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

SOCIETY cont. : 

SOCIETY cont. HUMAN BEINGS EVERYWHERE ARE MEMBERS OF A GROUP OR GROUPS A GROUP OF PEOPLE MAY OR MAY NOT FORM A SOCIETY. THE INPORTANCE OF SOCIETY LIES IN THE FACT THAT IT CONTROLS AND REGULATES THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE INDIVIDUAL BOTH BY LAW AND CUSTOMS. PUBIC HEALTH IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE SOCIAL SYSTEM.IT IS INFLUENCED BY SOCIETY,AND SOCIETY BY PUBLIC HEALLTH.

TEMPORARY SOCIAL GROUP : 

TEMPORARY SOCIAL GROUP THE CROWD THE MOB THE HERD

PERMANENT SOCIAL GROUP : 

PERMANENT SOCIAL GROUP THE BAND THE VILLAGE THE TOWN THE CITY THE STATE

COMMUNITY : 

COMMUNITY COMMUNITY IS A HUMAN POPULATION LIVING WITHIN A LIMITED GEOGRAPHIC AREA AND CARRYING ON A COMMON INTER-DEPENDENT LIFE

URBAN COMMUNITY : 

URBAN COMMUNITY NAMELESSNESS CLASS EXTREME SOCIAL HETEROGENESITY SOCIAL DISTANCE EMOTIONAL TENSION AND INSECURITY

RURAL COMMUNITY : 

RURAL COMMUNITY COMMUNITY CONCIOUSNESS ROLE OF NEIGHBOURHOOD JOINT FAMILY FAITH IN RELIGION SIMPLICITY

Slide 20: 

URBAN PROBLEMS URBAN SLUMS PAVEMENT DWELLERS UNEMPLOYMENT ANTISOCIAL ACTIVITY POVERTY CRIME MENTAL ILLNESS DELINQUENCY BEGGING PROSTITUTION POPULATION GROWTH POLITICAL AND INDUSTRIAL UNREST ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND POLLUTION

Slide 21: 

MAJOR RURAL PROBLEMS MALNUTRITION UNDER 5 YEAR CHILDREN ILLITRACY CHILD LABOUR SCHOOL DROPOUT POOR TRANSPORT POOR COMMUNICATION INADEQUATE WATER FOR CULTIVATION ELECTRICITY PROBLEMS LABOUR PROBLEMS BONDED LABOURER

RURAL – URBAN DIFFERENCES : 

RURAL – URBAN DIFFERENCES JOINT FAMILY LESS OF LOVE MARRIAGE WOMEN LITTERACY IS LESS NEIGHBOURHOOD IS IMPORTANT SENSE OF WE FEELING IS MUCH STRONGER SOCIAL INTERACTION IS PERSONNEL RURAL CULTURE IS CONSERVATIVE NUCLEAR FAMILY MORE OF DIVORCE WOMEN LITTERACY IS HIGH IT IS NOT IMPORTANT IT IS NOT SEEN SOCIAL INTERACTION IS IMPERSONEL CITY CULTURE IS COSMOPOLITAN

SOCIAL STRUCTURE : 

SOCIAL STRUCTURE SOCIAL STRUCTURE REFERS TO THE PATTERN OF INTER-RELATIONS BETWEEN PERSONS. EVERY SOCIETY HAS A SOCIAL STRUCTURE-A COMPLEX OF MAJOR INSTITUTIONS,GROUPS,POWER STRUCTURE. THE STUDY OF SOCIAL STEUCTURE IS COMPARABLE TO THE STUDY OF ANATOMY AND THAT OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION TO THAT OF PHYSIOLOGY

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS : 

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION IS AN ORGANIZED COMPLEX PATTERN OF BEHAVIOUR IN WHICH A NUMBER OF PERSONS PARTICIPATE IN ORDER TO FURTHER GROUP INTEREST. THE FAMILY,THE SCHOOL,THE CHURCH,THE CLUB,THE HOSPITAL,POLITICAL PARTIES,PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND PANCHAYATS ARE THE SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS. WITHIN EACH INSTITUTION,THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE MEMBERS ARE DEFINED.

ROLE : 

ROLE IN A SOCIETY,INDIVIDUALS ARE ALLOCATED ROLES AS PEOPLE IN A DRAMA SOCIOLOGISTS HAVE CLASSIFIED ROLES INTO ASCRIBED AND ACHIEVED,ACCORDING TO WHETHER A PARTICULAR ROLE IS GIVEN BY VIRTUE OF SEX,AGE,AN BIRTH STATUS OR ACQUIRED BY VIRTUE OF EDUCATION OR OTHERWISE. IN A SINGLE DAY ,A MAN MAY PLAY A ROLE OF HASBAND,FATHER,EMPLOYEE,FRIEND,SON,BROTHER,COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN,GUEST,NEIGHBOUR.

Socialism : 

Socialism equality.  Humankind will be unified and cooperative, once wealth is owned and used for the common good. Capitalism exploits the very people who create society’s wealth. Moralism. Division of rich & poor is evil; capitalism is fundamentally unjust. Instead, the ideal future emphasizes peace, social justice and true liberty for all.

Socialization : 

27 Socialization Socialization (defined): the social interaction process through which individuals acquire personality and learn the way of life of their society. Socialization is the link between the individual and society – neither can survive without it. Primary socialization: the initial socialization, lasting roughly 6 years, in which the infant acquires a personality. This is the most important phase. Secondary socialization: all additional socialization after primary socialization, lasting the rest of one’s life.

Slide 28: 

SOCIAL CONTROL STABILITY OF SOCIAL GROUP COMMUNITY RELATION AND SHARED VALUES

Slide 29: 

MEANS OF SOCIAL CONTROL INFORMAL MEANS FORMAL MEANS

Slide 30: 

INFORMAL MEANS BELIEF SOCIAL SUGGESTION IDEOLOGIES FOLKWAYS OTHER

Slide 31: 

FORMAL MEANS LAW EDUCATION COERCION

Slide 32: 

NEED OF SOCIAL CONTROL TO MAINTAIN SOCIAL ORDER TO ESTABLISH A SOCIAL UNITY TO REGULATE OR CONTROL INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR TO CHECK CULTURAL MAL- ADJUSTMENT

Cultural Adaptation andAcculturation : 

Cultural Adaptation andAcculturation Definitions Group-Level Acculturation: Changes resulting from contact between two autonomous and independent cultural Groups. Psychological Acculturation: the changes an individual experiences as a result of being in contact with other cultures, and as a result of participating in the process of acculturation that one’s cultural or ethnic group is undergoing.

Group-Level Acculturation:Type of Changes : 

Group-Level Acculturation:Type of Changes Physical (e.g., new place to live, more/less pollution) • Biological (e.g., new nutrition) • Political (e.g., new laws) • Economic (new economic opportunity) • Cultural (e.g., spanking) • Social (e.g., new ingroup/outgroup)

Psychological Acculturation: Typeof Changes : 

Psychological Acculturation: Typeof Changes Behavior (e.g., language, food, emotional expression) Values (e.g., ind/interdependence) Acculturative Stress (e.g., nostalgia) Adaptation strategies (e.g., withdraw, interact) Identity (e.g., ethnic/racial identity)

Standarad of living : 

Standarad of living The term stndard of living refers to the usual scale of our expanditure,the goods we consume and the services we enjoy,it includes food,dress,house and in short the mode of living. The standard of living in a country depends upon The level of national income. The total amount of goods and services a country is able to produce. The size of the population The level of education General price level and The distribution of national income

Social Stress Factors : 

Social Stress Factors Unequal Income Distribution Unmet Basic Human Needs Unemployment

Slide 38: 

SOCIAL PROBLEM PROSTITUTION THE DISABLED POVERTY JUVENILE DELINQUENCY UNEMPLOYMENT ALCOHOLISM CHILD LABOUR STREET CHILDREN SOCIAL PROBLEM OF WORKERS

Social pathology : 

Social pathology The term social pathology is given a restricted interpretation linking it to poverty,crime,delinquency and vagrancy.in the modern context,the term is also used to describe the relation between disease and social conditions.the social pathology of accidents,diabetes,cardiovascular disease.canser,cronic bronchitis have all been subject of recent invrstigations in medical literature.social pathology is uncovered by social surveys.

Social surveys : 

Social surveys Social surveys disclose social pathology.social surveys have played an important part.in the sevelopmen of public health.it was such a survey by chadwick that led to the foundation of the general board of health in 1848 in great britain.there Is a strong kinship between epidemiological survey and social survey.when the objective of the research is to study the role of social factorss in the aetiology of disease,the two merge into what is known as,social epidemiology.

Slide 41: 

There are vast inequalities in the standards of living of the people in differentcountries of the world.the extent of differences in the level of living can be known through the comparison of per capita income on which the standard of living of people primarily depends.

Field study : 

Field study Whereas Surveys are concerned with the breadth of knowledge(systematic collection of data from population or samples of population through personal interviews or other data-gathering devices),field studies are concerned with depth of knowledge,they involve observation of people in situ.

communications : 

communications The term communications refers to a social process,the flow of information,the circulation of knowledge and ideas.and the propagation of thoughts.the role of communications in community health is to help motivate people to accept ideas.the ultimate aim of communication is to bring about changes in behaviour.the mass media(e.g-song and drama radio talks,posters)are extensively used as vehicles of dissemination of information.

SOCIAL DEFENCE : 

SOCIAL DEFENCE THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT, 2001 THE CHILD LABOUR ACT,1986 THE IMMORAL TRAFFIC ACT,1956 THE DOWRY PROHIBITION ACT,1961 THE NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROP SUBSTANCES ACT,1985

Slide 45: 

SOCIAL SECURITY SOCIAL SECURITY IS THE GUARANTEE THAT THE STATE GIVES TO SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS (WHO MAY OR MAY NOT BE REQUIRED TO PAY MONTHLY PREMIA) BY VIRTUE OF WHICH THEY RECEIVE, IN TIMES OF CRISES, FREE REMEDIAL AND SUPPORTIVE MEASURES.

Social security act : 

Social security act W.C.A 1923/ FACTORY ACT 1948 E.S.I, ACT 1948 C.G.H.S 1963 STATE OLD AGE PENSION ACT EMPLOYEE’S PROVIDENT FUND ACT PAYMENT OF GRADUITY ACT 1972 MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT BONUS SCHEME ACT

Notes & references : 

Notes & references PREVENTIVE AND SOCIAL MEDICINE -K.PARK

Thank you.. : 

Thank you.. Sourav Baur 6th term 3rd M.B.B.S

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