Proxy_Servers instalation

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Proxy_Servers instalation

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PowerPoint Presentation:

Sai Bala subrahmanyam Proxy Servers Instalation in linux Sai bala subrhamanyam

Proxy Servers:

Proxy Servers Part of an overall Firewall strategy Sits between the local network and the external network Originally used primarily as a caching strategy to minimize outgoing URL requests and increase perceived browser performance Primary mission is now to insure anonymity of internal users Still used for caching of frequently requested files Also used for content filtering Acts as a go-between, submitting your requests to the external network Requests are translated from your IP address to the Proxy’s IP address E-mail addresses of internal users are removed from request headers Cause an actual break in the flow of communications Sai bala subrhamanyam

Security Advantages:

Security Advantages Terminates the TCP connection before relaying to target host (in and out) Hide internal clients from external network Blocking of dangerous URLs Filter dangerous content Check consistency of retrieved content Eliminate need for transport layer routing between networks Single point of access, control and logging Sai bala subrhamanyam

TCP Connection Termination:

TCP Connection Termination Both the outgoing and incoming TCP connections are terminated prevents a hacker from hijacking a stale connection on a service that is being proxied ex . HTTP page request User Proxy Server request packet request packet’ response packet’ response packet Connection left open until the proxy closes it after receiving response packet and sending it back to user Connection only left open until server closes the connection after sending the response packet Sai bala subrhamanyam

TCP Connection Termination:

TCP Connection Termination Transport layer packets don’t need to be routed because the entire request must be regenerated Prevents transport layer exploits source routing fragmentation several DoS attacks Since some protocols don’t have proxies available many admins will enable routing , this alleviates any benefit gained Most good proxy servers will allow you to create generic proxies using SOCKS or the redir utility Sai bala subrhamanyam

Performance Aspects:

Performance Aspects Caching By keeping local copies of frequently accessed file the proxy can serve those files back to a requesting browser without going to the external site each time, this dramatically improves the performance seen by the end user Only makes sense to implement this at the ISP rather than the small business level because of the number of pages available Because of dynamic content many pages are invalidated in the cache right away Load balancing A proxy can be used in a reverse direction to balance the load amongst a set of identical servers (servers inside the firewall and users outside) Used especially with web dynamic content (.asp, .php,.cfm,.jsp) Sai bala subrhamanyam

Proxy Liabilities:

Proxy Liabilities Single point of failure if the proxy dies , no one can get to the external network Client software must usually be designed to use a proxy Proxies must exist for each service Doesn’t protect the OS proxies run at the application level Usually optimized for performance rather than security WINGATE was installed to be easy to configure; opened a winsock proxy to the external interface, which let hackers essentially hijack the machine Create a service bottleneck solved via parallelism (more proxies, and load balance) Sai bala subrhamanyam

Transparent / Opaque:

Transparent / Opaque Transparent – both parties (local/remote) are unaware that the connection is being proxied Zorp - application layer proxy is transparent Opaque – the local party must configure client software to use the proxy client software must be proxy-aware software Netscape proxy server is opaque With all of the things modern firewalls can do in the area of redirection you could configure the firewall to redirect all http requests to a proxy no user configuration required (transparent) Sai bala subrhamanyam

Circuit Level Proxies:

Circuit Level Proxies Since some protocols require a real connection between the client and server, a regular proxy can’t be used Windows Media Player, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), or Telnet Circuit-level proxy servers were devised to simplify matters. Instead of operating at the Application layer, they work as a "shim" between the Application layer and the Transport layer, monitoring TCP handshaking between packets from trusted clients or servers to untrusted hosts, and vice versa. The proxy server is still an intermediary between the two parties, but this time it establishes a virtual circuit between them. By using SOCKS (RFC 1928) this can be done SOCKS defines a cross-platform standard for accessing circuit-level proxies SOCKS Version 5 also supports both username/password (RFC 1929) and API-based (RFC 1961) authentication. It also supports both public and private key encryption. SOCKS 5 is capable of solving this problem by establishing TCP connections and then using these to relay UDP data. Sai bala subrhamanyam

SOCKS based Proxying:

SOCKS based Proxying RFC 1928 Not a true application layer proxy SOCKS protocol provides a framework for developing secure communications by easily integrating other security technologies SOCKS includes two components SOCKS server implemented at the application layer SOCKS client implemented between the application and transport layers The basic purpose of the protocol is to enable hosts on one side of a SOCKS server to gain access to hosts on the other side of a SOCKS Server, without requiring direct IP-reachability . Copies packet payloads through the proxy Sai bala subrhamanyam

Socks Architecture:

Socks Architecture Sai bala subrhamanyam

Socks Functionality:

Socks Functionality Sai bala subrhamanyam

GNU ZORP Proxy Firewall Suite:

GNU ZORP Proxy Firewall Suite Protocol Analyzing Firewall core framework allows: the administrator to fine tune proxy decisions (Python based) fully analyze complex protocols with an application-level gateway: SSH with several forwarded TCP connections SSL with an embedded POP3 protocol). FTP, TTP, finger, whois, SSL . Usually integrated into the network topology as routers, this means that they have an IP address in all their subnets, and hosts on different subnets use the firewall as their gateway to the outside world. Proxy based but uses a packet filter to preprocess the packet stream and provide transparency. Sai bala subrhamanyam

How Zorp Works:

How Zorp Works A TCP session is established in the following way: client initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet destined to the server the firewall behaves as a router between the client and the server, receives the SYN packet on one of its interfaces and consults the packet filter the packet filter rulebase is checked whether the given packet is permitted if the given connection is to be processed by a proxy, then the packet filter rulebase contains a REDIRECT (ipchains) or TPROXY (iptables) target. Both REDIRECT and TPROXY requires a port parameter which tells the local port of the firewall host where the proxy is listening. Zorp accepts the connection, checks its own access control rules and starts the appropriate proxy the proxy connects to the server on its own as needed (the server side connection is not necessarily established immediately) the proxy mediates protocol requests and responses between the communicating hosts while analyzing the ongoing stream Sai bala subrhamanyam

PowerPoint Presentation:

Use a Real Firewall Disable Routing Secure the Base Operating System harden the OS Disable External Access Disable unneeded Services Sai bala subrhamanyam

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