what is ontology and semantic web

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ontology and it's description for semantic web

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Ontology and Semantic Web:

1 Ontology and Semantic Web Presentation by Badam Niazi Program MS University of Peshawar Sept 08, 2012

Contents :

Contents 2 Introduction to world wide web Introduction to Semantic Web Introduction to Ontology Role of Ontology in Semantic Web Language for Ontology Development Tools for Ontology Development A few Popular Ontology Conclusion References

Introduction to World Wide Web?:

Introduction to World Wide Web? World Wide Web (www) a way to access and provide information in various media via the Internet a hypertext based system for providing, organizing and accessing information that allows users to jump from one information space to another comprises servers and client computers on the Internet that communicate using the hypertext transfer protocol (http) 3

Introduction to World Wide Web? Continued…:

Introduction to World Wide Web? Continued… World Wide Web (www) information resource consisting of web pages that organize and present vast amount of information (mostly text embedded with images, audio, video, or animation), and other resources (databases, interactive multimedia, virtual environments, etc.) body of information available on the Web 4

Limitations of the World Wide Web :

5 Limitations of the World Wide Web Machine-to-human, not machine-to-machine

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6 Having a web that knows “what you want” or “what you mean” is accomplished by semantics…. specifically using semantic annotation on web resources

Semantic Web:

7 Semantic Web The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning , better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation. Information on the Web Both human and machine understandable Deal with Presentation of information Meaning of content and structure Example Applications [1] Task-Centered Knowledge Support through Semantic Markup Semantic Gadget in a museum Advance Search Engines

Semantic Web continued….:

8 An enhancement to the current Web, not a replacement Semantic Web continued…. Example Search the web for performing particular task The system understands the task of users and gives better service in order to achieve the goal. E.g. when the user search the car keyword, | if the system can understand the user’s task is to repair the car, it can perform search in accordance with the task instead of a general search.

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9 Human Agent Agent Rich Information Source for Agent Manipulation/Interpretation

Introduction to an Ontology?:

10 Introduction to an Ontology? The branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being Theory of existence In the field of computer science an ontology is “explicit specification of conceptualization Shared and common understanding of knowledge concerning domain of interests

What an Ontology Can Conceptualize:

What an Ontology Can Conceptualize Things to exist Individuals, not necessarily physical existence Classes of individuals Relations among things Is a part of Is not equal to Properties about things Has a value of

Why are ontologies important?:

12 Why are ontologies important? Ontological analysis clarifies the structure of knowledge. Ontologies enable knowledge sharing.

Role of Ontologies in Semantic Web:

Role of Ontologies in Semantic Web O ntologies provide a shared understanding of a domain : semantic interoperability overcome differences in terminology mappings between ontologies Ontologies are useful for the organization and navigation of Web sites

Role of Ontologies in Semantic Web continued…:

Role of Ontologies in Semantic Web continued… Ontologies are useful for improving the accuracy of Web searches search engines can look for pages that refer to a precise concept in an ontology Web searches can exploit generalization/ specialization information If a query fails to find any relevant documents, the search engine may suggest to the user a more general query. If too many answers are retrieved, the search engine may suggest to the user some specializations.

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15 Ontology languages are formal languages used to construct ontologies. They allow the encoding of knowledge about specific domains and often include reasoning rules that support the processing of that knowledge. Ontology language for Development

Ontology Language By Syntax:

Ontology Language By Syntax 16 Markup ontology languages These languages use a markup scheme to encode knowledge, most commonly with XML. DAML+OIL Ontology Inference Layer (OIL) Web Ontology Language (OWL) Resource Description Framework (RDF) RDF Schema (RDFS) SHOE

Ontology Language By Structure:

17 Web Languages RDF/S XML DAML-ONT Formal Foundations Description Logics FACT, CLASSIC, DLP, … Frame Systems DAML+OIL OWL OIL Ontology Language By Structure Frame-based F-Logic OKBC KM These are completely or partially frame-based languages.

Tools for Developing Ontologies:

18 Tools for Developing Ontologies A few Tools as example: Annotation Ontology Translation Browser Persistence Crawler Query Tools Editor RDMS Mapping Graph Visualizer Report Generation Transformation Search Validator Ontology Analyzer Importer Ontology Editor Inference Engine Merging More information about tool for Developing Ontologies available on http://www.daml.org/tools/

Applications of Ontologies:

Applications of Ontologies Organising complex and semi-structured information UN-FAO, NASA, Ordnance Survey, General Motors, Lockheed Martin, …

Example of Ontology:

20 Example of Ontology Orange Juice and Mango Juice Banana Juice and Apple Juice Which Juice should I serve with food today? A shared ONTOLOGY of Juice and food

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21 The Semantic Web is in its infancy today but is ready for applications Markup languages, ontologies , and some tools are ready for use Specialized tools are buildable/usable today Semantic web can be leveraged to support Further search will continue if something found from the semantic web community it will added Conclusion

References:

References T.R.Gruber (1993), A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications, Knowledge Acquisition J.Gennari , M.Musen , R.Fergerson (2003), The evolution of Protégé: an environment for knowledge-based systems development, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies A.Kalyanpur , B.Parsia , E.Sirin , B.Grau (2006), Swoop: A web ontology editing browser, Web Semantics: Science O.Corcho et al. (2003), Methodologies, tools and languages for building ontologies . Where is their meeting point? Data&Knowledge Engineering L.Lacy (2005), OWL: Representing information using the web ontology language J.Euzenat , P. Shvaiko (2007), Ontology Matching, Springer Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=ontology+ language

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