INTERVIEW methodology methods

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PURPOSES OF INTERVIEWS Factual Information Behavioural Information Attitudional Information


TYPES OF INTERVIEWS Informal Conversational Interview General Intervıew Guide Approach Standardized Open - ended Interview

1. Informal Conversational Interview :

1. Informal Conversational Interview - Usually suitable for case - studies - There are not fixed questions asked to every participant - Time- length might change - It is possible to conduct interviews at different times ( unstructured ) + natural data - time- consuming , no uniformity

2. General Interview Guide Approach :

2. General Interview Guide Approach - There are fixed questions There is still flexibility in the wording or order of the questions (semi- structured ) + uniformity in responses - Unable to pursue topics

3. Standardized Open-ended Interview :

3. Standardized Open - ended Interview - Standardized questions to each participant - There is exact wording and order No flexibility ( The most - structured ) + Uniformity in data, data analysis is easier

Focus Group Interviews:

Focus Group Interviews - 6-8 participants with similar backgrounds - A list of pre - specified questions - Sharing + takes less time, sharing is appreciated - less opportunity on the part of the participants - group - effect - some dominant participants


WORDING OF QUESTIONS Patton (1990) - Ask truly open - ended questions - not leading questions - Avoid yes /no questions (no elaboration ) - Avoid doubled - barreled questions - Questions must be appropriate to the linguistic level of the participants ( or L1)

Sample Questions:

Sample Questions * How satisfied are you with this textbook ? * What do you think of the program, and how would you improve it?

How to Overcome Power Relationships? :

How to Overcome Power Relationships? - Teachers - Students Explain the purpose of the interview Explain how information gathered will be used Explain the benefits on the part of the students Be sensitive to students ’ responses Do reduce the tension Offer praise , support and thanks to the participants .

Power Relationships:

Power Relationships The tendency to give expected responses 1. Vertical Reading : Everthing the participant say is seen as reliable 2. Symptomatic Reading : Relationship and the context may affect the interview process

Tips for Conducting Effective Interviews:

Tips for Conducting Effective Interviews Identfying the purpose clearly Asking the right questions Giving appropriate verbal and non - verbal feedback to the participant


RECORDING INTERVIEWS Tape Recording Note - taking


TAPE RECORDING + preserves the actual language used , objective record _ tape recorder increases the anxiety _ transcribing takes a long time Check the taperecorder Provide more than enough tapes Check the microphone and recording system Listen to it many times .


NOTE-TAKING Includes recording central facts + analysis is easier _ not having an objective word - for - word record _ not easy to take notes - reduces rapport So , Tape recording + taking notes

Analysing Interview Data:

Analysing Interview Data Look for KEY IDEAS Reading the data over a variety of times 1. Transcribe the data 2. Make an additional copy of the transcripts 3. Label the interview data person by person by indicating data collection date etc .

Case vs. Cross-case Analysis:

Case vs. Cross-case Analysis Case Analysis : Writing a case for each participant Cross - case Analysis : Organizing interviewees ’ responses according to topics

Practice Time:

Practice Time 1) Page 153 Research by Türnüklü and Galton (2001) on Misbehaviours in Turkish and English Primary Classrooms Answer the questions on page 152 2) Page 130 L1 USE