Save Your Ash_Herms

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Efficacy of Insecticide T reatments for EAB: They do work! Dan Herms Department of Entomology The Ohio State University Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Wooster, OH [email protected]

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Economic impact of EAB in urban areas $10.7 billion in 25 states for treatment, removal, and replacement of more than 17 million ash on developed land (Kovacs et al. 2010. Ecol. Econ. 69:569-578). $5.2 billion to remove and replace public and private ash trees in Ohio’s communities (Sydnor et al. 2007. Arbor & Urban For. 33:48-54). June 2006 August 2009

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Two common misconceptions are often used to justify preemptive removal of healthy ash trees: Insecticides are not effective. Pre-emptive removal of healthy trees slows the spread of EAB.

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“…city decided not to treat affected trees with insecticides because of the expense and the ineffectiveness of the treatments.” “While insecticides are available that can be professionally applied to try to combat the emerald ash borer, recent studies have not shown significant success with these products, according to the city.” “…there are no known preventions or cures. Treating a tree in an infested area will only prolong the inevitable demise of the tree. For this reason, the city will not attempt to save any public ash trees.” Misconception: insecticides are not effective

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“…cutting them down is a sure pre-emptive strike. If that's what has to be done to prevent the spread of the emerald ash borer, then that's just what has to be done…” “The city began cutting down trees on city property marked for removal on Thursday, the beginning of a six-week campaign to get rid of 700 trees and attempt to slow the spread of the insect.” “…are trying to slow the spread of the emerald ash borer, an invasive insect known for spreading like wildfire and killing ash trees. The trees here are not believed to be infested with EAB…” Misconception: tree removal slows the spread of EAB

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Conservation of ash in urban environments as part of an integrated EAB management strategy:

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Multi-year evaluation of systemic insecticides for control of EAB on street trees Soil treatments: Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran Trunk injections: Imidacloprid, Emamectin Benzoate, Azadirachtin Systemic basal trunk sprays: Dinotefuran

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Key questions: Will systemic treatments work on larger trees? What are optimal application rates? Are fall treatments effective? How long will treatments remain effective ? How do various products compare?

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Multi-year evaluation of systemic insecticides for control of EAB on street trees Soil drenches Trunk injections Basal trunk sprays

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Imidacloprid Soil Drenches 1. Merit 2F, 1.4 g ai / inch DBH, spring 2. Merit 2F, 1.4 g ai / inch DBH, fall 3. Xytect 75WP, 1.4 g ai / inch DBH, fall 4. Xytect 75WP, 2.8 g ai / inch DBH, spring 5. Xytect 75WP, 2.8 g ai / inch DBH, fall 6. Untreated control

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Treatment evaluation: Canopy decline rating using photographic scale (Smitley et al. 2008. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:1643-1650)

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Imidacloprid Soil Drenches (14-20 inch DBH)

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2006 2009

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2012

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Trunk Injections

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Emamectin Benzoate: duration of control at different rates (DBH: 20-25”) Emamectin benzoate (Tree- äge) 0.1 g ai / inch DBH (2.5 ml / inch - low) 0.2 g ai / inch DBH (5 ml / inch – med) 0.4 g ai / inch DBH (10 ml / inch – med / high) 0.8 g ai / inch DBH (20 ml / inch) Treat in 2006 and see how long they work.

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Treatment evaluation: Canopy decline rating using photographic scale (Smitley et al. 2008. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:1643-1650) Exit hole density in canopy branches.

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Untreated 0 8 53 a 96 a Emamectin benzoate 0.1 g ai / inch DBH 0 0 3 b 13 bc 0.2 g ai / inch DBH 0 0 3 b 38 b 0.4 g ai / inch DBH 0 0 10 b 38 b 0.8 g ai / inch DBH 0 0 0 b 5 c Treatment % Canopy Decline 2006 2007 2009 2008 Effect of Emamectin Benzoate Applied in 2006 for Control of EAB

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Tree- ä ge rate study (20-25 inch DBH)

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Untreated 19.2 a 24.6 a Emamectin benzoate 0.1 g ai / inch DBH 0.2 b 2.9 c 0.2 g ai / inch DBH 0.5 b 10.1 ab 0.4 g ai / inch DBH 1.4 b 3.3 c 0.8 g ai / inch DBH 0.0 b 0.5 c Treatment Exit Holes / m 2 2009 2008 Effect of Emamectin Benzoate Applied in 2006 for Control of EAB

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2006

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2009

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Safari ( Dinotefuran ) Trials in Bowling Green Basal trunk sprays Low volume soil injection

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Product Comparison ( avg DBH = 11 in) 1. Untreated control 2. Pointer, 2 ml / 4 inch circum 3 . TREE- äge , 0.2 g ai (5 ml) / inch DBH 4. Xytect 75WP, 2.8 g ai / inch DBH

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Comparison of Systemic Insecticide Products for Control of EA B Trees treated 11 June 2010 and 9 June 2011

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EAB-Induced Ash Mortality in the Upper Huron River Watershed, SE Michigan Solid line: direct measurements Dotted line: inferred from dendrochronology data confirming EAB-induced ash mortality from 1994 - 2004

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Hypothetical Ash Mortality Trajectories as Manipulated by Insecticides D Do Nothing Delay Mortality Stabilize Mortality Prevent Mortality

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Key Summary Conclusions: 1. Insecticides effective on large trees even under intense pest pressure. 2. Imidacloprid soil drenches most effective on large trees when applied at the 2X (2.8 g ai / inch DBH) rate. 3. Safari soil and basal bark spray treatments providing good control. 4. Neonicitinoid treatments must be applied annually. Fall soil drench requires higher rate than spring. 5. Emamectin Benzoate provides 2 years of control even at low rate. 6. TREE- äge trunk injection and Xytect soil drench were more effective than Pointer.

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Will they impact ground and surface water? Will they impact aquatic organisms? What about residues in leaves that fall in autumn? Will they harm honey bees? Other insects? Woodpeckers? Will injection wounds harm the tree? Will EAB evolve insecticide resistance? emeraldashborer.info

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http://imagecache.allposters.com © 2002 Steve Baskauf http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/f/hfram2-flmale18150.JPG Ash is pollinated by wind, not bees

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Special thanks to: Dave Bienemann, City of Bowling Green Craig Scharr, City of Toledo Ron Howell, Howell Tree Service Amy Stone & Master Gardeners, OSU Extension, Lucas County

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emeraldashborer.info

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