APGA 2012 Griffith - Conservation through Cultivation Supply Demand

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legacy plant collections, conservation horticulture and economics. Judy Kay Arantza A. Strader, Vickie Murphy, Lan Nghiem-Phu, Michael Calonje & M. Patrick Griffith Conservation through Cultivation:

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial legacy plant collections, conservation horticulture and economics. Conservation through Cultivation:

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial legacy plant collections, conservation horticulture and economics. Conservation through Cultivation:

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conservation horticulture: a main objective for modern botanic gardens. context:

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Sampling goals: 1. robust records 2. genetic diversity (Namoff et al., 2010; Griffith & Husby 2011; Griffith et al., 2011) conservation horticulture: a main objective for modern botanic gardens. context:

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What about the “legacy collections”

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No detailed records . . . What about the “legacy collections”

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No detailed records . . . Not broadly sampled . . . What about the “legacy collections”

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What about the “legacy collections” No detailed records . . . Not broadly sampled . . . Can these advance . Conservation?

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Case Study: Microcycas calocoma at Montgomery Botanical Center ca. 1958

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Microcycas calocoma Native to western Cuba Critically endangered: Pena et al., 1998; Bosenberg, 2009

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Microcycas calocoma Critically endangered: Collection for ornamental purposes, Lazcano-Lara, 2004; Pinares et al., 2009; Vovides et al., 1997; Chavez and Genaro, 2005

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Microcycas calocoma Critically endangered: Collection for ornamental purposes, Habitat destruction, Lazcano-Lara, 2004; Pinares et al., 2009; Vovides et al., 1997; Chavez and Genaro, 2005

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Microcycas calocoma Critically endangered: Collection for ornamental purposes, Habitat destruction, Reduced natural reproduction rates, Lazcano-Lara, 2004; Pinares et al., 2009; Vovides et al., 1997; Chavez and Genaro, 2005

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Microcycas calocoma Critically endangered: Collection for ornamental purposes, Habitat destruction, Reduced natural reproduction rates, Reduction of natural pollinators, Lazcano-Lara, 2004; Pinares et al., 2009; Vovides et al., 1997; Chavez and Genaro, 2005

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Microcycas calocoma Critically endangered: Collection for ornamental purposes, Habitat destruction, Reduced natural reproduction rates, Reduction of natural pollinators, Predation by exotic herbivores Lazcano-Lara, 2004; Pinares et al., 2009; Vovides et al., 1997; Chavez and Genaro, 2005

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Microcycas calocoma Critically endangered: Collection for ornamental purposes, Habitat destruction, Reduced natural reproduction rates, Reduction of natural pollinators, Predation by exotic herbivores Lazcano-Lara, 2004; Pinares et al., 2009; Vovides et al., 1997; Chavez and Genaro, 2005

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Microcycas calocoma one conservation strategy: ‘‘cultivate ex situ collections for future reintroduction, exchange, or controlled sales.’’ Lazcano, 2007

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Microcycas calocoma one conservation strategy: ‘‘cultivate ex situ collections for future reintroduction, exchange, or controlled sales.’’ Lazcano, 2007 Focus of our case study

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial

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Specimen from National Herbarium of Cuba, Havana

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Specimen from National Herbarium of Cuba, Havana Van Hermann 564: Pinar del Rio, November 10, 1914

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Courtesy of Ian Simpkins, Vizcaya Archives

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Courtesy of Ian Simpkins, Vizcaya Archives

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Vizcaya, 1915

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Vizcaya, 1915

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Montgomery Plant Collection, Established 1932

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Col. Montgomery purchased both Microcycas from Vizcaya, 1932 1932

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Col. Montgomery purchased both Microcycas from Vizcaya, 1932 Both were male 1932

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Col. Montgomery purchased both Microcycas from Vizcaya, 1932 Both were male Only plants known in US 1932

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Stanley Kiem, from Fairchild Tropical Garden Fieldwork in Cuba, 1959

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Stanley Kiem, from Fairchild Tropical Garden Fieldwork in Cuba, 1959 Purpose: collect female Microcycas

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Stanley Kiem, from Fairchild Tropical Garden Fieldwork in Cuba, 1959 Purpose: collect female Microcycas ONE female collected, produced seed in 1977

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Descendants of the sole 1959 female plant at FTBG The 1959 female was destroyed by lightning (1991).

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Descendants of the sole 1959 female plant at FTBG The 1959 female was destroyed by lightning (1991). Descendants of the 1959 female are now producing seed.

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Descendants of the sole 1959 female plant at FTBG The 1959 female was destroyed by lightning (1991). Descendants of the 1959 female are now producing seed. All known Microcycas in the US Descend from: one female plant (1959), and two male plants (1915 and 1959)

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Descendants of the sole 1959 female plant at FTBG The 1959 female was destroyed by lightning (1991). Descendants of the 1959 female are now producing seed. All known Microcycas in the US Descend from: one female plant (1959), and two male plants (1915 and 1959) Highly inbred genetic stock

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Descendants of the sole 1959 female plant at FTBG The 1959 female was destroyed by lightning (1991). Descendants of the 1959 female are now producing seed. All known Microcycas in the US Descend from: one female plant (1959), and two male plants (1915 and 1959) Highly inbred genetic stock Not a structured germplasm collection.

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial

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Phenology well established.

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Phenology well established. Pollen shedding and female cone receptivity peak in August.

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Pollen Collection ca. 1977

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Pollen Collection (Norstog & Nicholls, 1993) ca. 1977

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Pollen Storage

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Viability testing

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Dry pollination

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Dry pollination Larry Krauss, ca. 1995

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Dennis Stevenson, ca. 1977 1959 Female plant

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One of the 1977 plants

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Seeds mature 10 months later This cone will be ready in two months One of the 1977 plants

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Observed viability Germination rate 75% 60% 75% 60% 90% 40% 90% 68% 0% 0% 15% 8% 65% 24% 65% 0% 0% - very low - 65% 20% 70% 40% 30% 6% 10% 5% 35% 31% 25% - 30% - 30% 3% Viability examined via sampling for embryos

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Observed viability Germination rate 75% 60% 75% 60% 90% 40% 90% 68% 0% 0% 15% 8% 65% 24% 65% 0% 0% - very low - 65% 20% 70% 40% 30% 6% 10% 5% 35% 31% 25% - 30% - 30% 3% Viability examined via sampling for embryos VIABILITY = GERMINATION RATE

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Free-draining, inorganic media

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Free-draining, inorganic media Treat with hydrogen peroxide

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Free-draining, inorganic media Treat with hydrogen peroxide Not overcrowded

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial

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MBC Seedbank = broad distribution of seeds

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Following permit requirements = limited to US market

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US = largest cycad market Donaldson et al., 2003

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Partnership with FNGLA: F lorida N ursery G rowers and L andscape A ssociation

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Method for supplying industry

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Method for supplying industry Also

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Method for supplying industry Also Source of data on seed economics

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SUPPLY

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Over time, Greatly increased supply of Microcycas seed SUPPLY

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DEMAND

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DEMAND Over time, Greatly decreased cost of Microcycas seed

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Basic resource economics Price increase increased extraction = Price reduction reduced extraction Examples: Medicinal Plants, Ore, Feathers

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Basic resource economics Price increase increased extraction = Price reduction reduced extraction Examples: Medicinal Plants, Ore, Feathers Economic approach: Strategic contribution to in situ conservation

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial

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Coveted plant Jones, 1993

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Coveted plant Limited availability 2004

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Coveted plant Limited availability Challenging propagation 2008

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Coveted plant Limited availability Challenging propagation An example: Legacy garden collections can make a strategic contribution ca. 1999

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Coveted plant Limited availability Challenging propagation An example: Legacy garden collections can make a strategic contribution Reduced price = reduced poaching 1975

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook

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Better communication with consumers needed

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Better communication with consumers needed Challenging to grow

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Better communication with consumers needed 2. Genetic stock is limited

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Better communication with consumers needed Solution: exchange with other collections 2. Genetic stock is limited

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Solution: exchange with other collections Liberec Botanical Garden, Czech Republic

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Solution: exchange with other collections Liberec Botanical Garden, Czech Republic 2011: Pollen from wild provenanced collection

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial

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New Stock will be reproducing soon

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Propagation is being improved

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Supply will increase greatly

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Microcycas will not stay expensive or rare

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Microcycas price will not motivate extraction.

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1. Introduction: a case study A. Provenance and History B. Horticulture C. Economics 2. This case as a model system 3. Limitations of this case 4. Future outlook 5. Editorial

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5. Editorial Conservation and botanic gardens: Where is the intersection?

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Conservation and botanic gardens: Where is the intersection? conservation needs

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Conservation and botanic gardens: Where is the intersection? conservation needs botanic garden skills and assets

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Conservation and botanic gardens: Where is the intersection? conservation needs botanic garden skills and assets GROWING PLANTS

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Conservation and botanic gardens: Where is the intersection? conservation needs botanic garden skills and assets GROWING PLANTS Conservation through Cultivation!

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Thank You Liberec Botanic Garden Vizcaya Archives Lee Anderson Stella Cuestas John DeMott Chad Husby Ian Simpkins Tracy Magellan Dennis Stevenson

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For technical info: August 2011

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No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the American Public Gardens Association. Copyright © 2012 by the American Public Gardens Association All rights reserved

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