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CCNA

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ECSE-4670: Computer Communication Networks (CCN):

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 1 ECSE-4670: Computer Communication Networks (CCN) Introduction Shivkumar Kalyanaraman Biplab Sikdar [email protected] [email protected] Adapted in part from S.Keshav (Cornell), Peterson (Uarizona)

Overview:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 2 Overview Syllabus, administratrivia Networking: An Overview of Ideas and Issues

Who’s Who:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 3 Who’s Who Instructors: Shiv Kalyanaraman; kalyas ; x8979 Biplab Sikdar; sikdab ; x6664 Course secretary: (on-campus) Jeanne Denue-Grady : JEC 6049 ; x6313 PDE/RSVP Point-of-contact: Kari Lewick; CII 4011; x2347 TAs: G.Liu, H. Yang, Y. Pei (PDE), S. Raghunath (PDE)

Web Resources:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 4 Web Resources WebCT Course Web Site: http://webct.rpi.edu (backup) http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/shivkuma/teaching/fall2001/index.html WebCT: bulletin board, video streams, homework drop-box etc Text book Web Site: http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross

Course Description Highlights:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 5 Course Description Highlights Syllabus: Networking layers: application, transport, network, link Issues: application models, multiplexing, reliability, flow/congestion control, error detection/correction, multiple access etc Network Modeling: Elementary probability, queuing theory, analysis of a router queue, network of queues, LAN performance

Course Description Highlights (Continued):

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 6 Course Description Highlights (Continued) Lectures Informal quizzes: Every two weeks WebCT bulletin board: Post your questions! TAs monitor it daily. WebCT: Grades, papers, RFCs, Internet drafts… 2 Labs: Transport/Network layers {20 pts} 6 Homeworks: {30 pts} 3 exams: 15 pts, 15 pts, 20 pts: {50pts}

Prerequisites :

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 7 Prerequisites Background in elementary probability Probability for Engineering Applications, ECSE-4500 , Discrete structures, CSCI-4320, or Modeling and Analysis of Uncertainity, ENGR-2600 Knowledge of basic computer organization ECSE-2660 Computer Architecture, Networks and Operating Systems or CSCI-2500 Computer Organization C programming knowledge If you do not have the required prerequisites , you must drop the course and take it later (next year).

Still trying to get into the course ?:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 8 Still trying to get into the course ? Do you have the pre-requisites ? Please submit course add form to course secretary: Jeanne, JEC 6049 by tomorrow (Wed, Aug 29th), noon time (12 pm). Depending upon the number of people who drop the class, space available, TA resources available, we will add more students. Decisions to be emailed to you by Jeanne. Make sure you mention your email address to her.

Answers to FAQ:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 9 Answers to FAQ All homeworks & labs due at the beginning of the class indicated on the course calendar Up to one late submission: no penalty Beyond that 10% penalty: only if submitted before solutions are posted. Exams are open-book and extremely time limited. Exams consist of design qns, numerical, true-false, and short answer questions.

Answers to FAQ:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 10 Answers to FAQ Focus will be on conceptual understanding, and problem-solving skill. Labs are based upon the programming assignments suggested in chap 3 and 4 of the textbook Informal quizzes will be given for your benefit once in 2-3 weeks to recap/test recently covered material and reading assignments. No grading.

Information, Computers, Networks:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 11 Information, Computers, Networks Information : anything that is represented in bits Form (can be represented as bits) vs Substance (cannot be represented as bits) Properties: Infinitely replicable Computers can “ manipulate ” information Networks create “ access ” to information

Networks:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 12 Networks Potential of networking: move bits everywhere , cheaply , and with desired performance characteristics Break the space barrier for information Network provides “ connectivity ”

What is “Connectivity” ?:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 13 What is “ Connectivity ” ? Direct or indirect access to every other node in the network Connectivity is the magic needed to communicate if you do not have a direct pt-pt physical link. Tradeoff: Performance characteristics worse than true physical link!

Connectivity.:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 14 Connectivity. Building Blocks links: coax cable, optical fiber... nodes: general-purpose workstations... Direct connectivity: point-to-point multiple access

Connectivity..:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 15 Connectivity.. Indirect Connectivity switched networks => switches inter -networks => routers

Connectivity …:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 16 Connectivity … Internet: Best-effort (no performance guarantees) Packet-by-packet A pt-pt physical link: Always-connected Fixed bandwidth Fixed delay Zero-jitter

Point-to-Point Connectivity:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 17 Point-to-Point Connectivity Physical layer: coding, modulation etc Link layer needed if the: link is shared between apps ( framing, medium access control, multiplexing ) link is unreliable ( reliability ) link is used sporadically and traffic can flood receivers ( flow control ) No need for protocol concepts like addressing, names, routers, hubs, forwarding, filtering … A B

Connecting N users: Directly ...:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 18 Connecting N users: Directly ... Bus : broadcast, collisions, media access control Full mesh : Cost vs simplicity . . . Full mesh Bus Address concept needed if we want the receiver alone to consume the packet!

List of Problems (so far):

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 19 List of Problems (so far) Topologies Framing Error control Flow control Multiple access How to share a wire

How to build Scalable Networks? :

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 20 How to build Scalable Networks? Scaling: system allows the increase of a key parameter. Eg: let N increase… Inefficiency limits scaling … Direct connectivity is inefficient & hence does not scale Mesh: inefficient in terms of # of links Bus architecture: 1 expensive link, N cheap links. Inefficient in bandwidth use

Filtering, forwarding …:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 21 Filtering, forwarding … Filtering : choose a subset of elements from a set Filtering is the key to efficiency & scaling Forwarding : actually sending packets to a filtered subset of link/node(s) Packet sent to one link/node => efficient Solution: Build nodes which filter/forward and connect indirectly => “switches” & “routers”

Connecting N users: Indirectly:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 22 Connecting N users: Indirectly Star: One-hop path to any node, reliability, forwarding function “ Switch” S can filter and forward! Switch may forward multiple pkts in parallel for additional efficiency! Star S

Connecting N users: Indirectly …:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 23 Connecting N users: Indirectly … Ring : Reliability to link failure, near-minimal links All nodes do “forwarding” and “filtering” Ring

Topologies: Indirect Connectivity:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 24 Ring Star S Tree Topologies: Indirect Connectivity

Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 25 Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks = Internet … … … … Our goal is to design this black box on the right

Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 26 Inter-Networks: Networks of Networks Internetworking involves two fundamental problems: heterogeneity and scale Concepts: Translation, overlays, address & name resolution, fragmentation: to handle heterogeneity Hierarchical addressing, routing, naming, address allocation, congestion control: to handle scaling Covered in more detail in "Internet Protocols“ course

Additions to Problem List:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 27 Additions to Problem List Fragmentation Switching, bridging, routing Naming, addressing Congestion control, traffic management Reliability

How to do system design ?:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 28 How to do system design ? Eg goal: Design an Inter-network… Resources: Space Time Computation Money Labor Design: tradeoff cheaper resources against expensive ones to meet goals.

Building blocks: Multiplexing:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 29 Building blocks: Multiplexing Multiplexing = sharing Trades time and space for money Cost : waiting time , buffer space & packet loss Gain : Money => Overall system costs less

Statistical Multiplexing:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 30 Statistical Multiplexing Reduce resource requirements by exploiting statistical knowledge of the system. Eg: average rate <= service rate <= peak rate If service rate < average rate, then system becomes unstable !! First design to ensure system stability!! Then, for a stable multiplexed system: Gain = peak rate/service rate. Cost : buffering, queuing delays, losses.

Stability of a Multiplexed System:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 31 Stability of a Multiplexed System Average Input Rate > Average Output Rate => system is unstable! How to ensure stability ? Reserve enough capacity so that demand is less than reserved capacity Dynamically detect overload and adapt either the demand or capacity to resolve overload

What’s a performance tradeoff ? :

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 32 What’s a performance tradeoff ? R=link bandwidth (bps) L=packet length (bits) a=average packet arrival rate Traffic intensity = La/R A situation where you cannot get something for nothing! Also known as a zero-sum game.

What’s a performance tradeoff ?:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 33 What’s a performance tradeoff ? La/R ~ 0: average queuing delay small La/R -> 1: delays become large La/R > 1: average delay infinite ( service degrades unboundedly => instability )!

Example Design: Circuit-Switching:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 34 Example Design: Circuit-Switching Divide link bandwidth into “pieces” Reserve pieces on successive links and tie them together to form a “ circuit ” Map traffic into the reserved circuits Resources wasted if unused: expensive . Mapping can be done without “headers”. Everything inferred from timing . Circuit-switching : A form of multiplexing

Example Design: Packet-Switching:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 35 Example Design: Packet-Switching Chop up data (not links!) into “ packets” Packets: data + meta-data (header) “Switch” packets at intermediate nodes Store-and-forward if bandwidth is not immediately available. Bandwidth division into “pieces” Dedicated allocation Resource reservation Packet-switching: Another form of multiplexing:

Packet Switching:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 36 Packet Switching A B C 10 Mbs Ethernet 1.5 Mbs 45 Mbs D E statistical multiplexing queue of packets waiting for output link Cost: self-descriptive header per-packet, buffering and delays for applications. Need to either reserve resources or dynamically detect/adapt to overload for stability

Summary of System Design Ideas:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 37 Summary of System Design Ideas Multiplexing Statistical Multiplexing Stability and performance tradeoffs Circuit switching Packet switching

What are protocols ?:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 38 What are protocols ? Networking software is organized as protocols Eg: Human protocol vs network protocol: Hi Hi Got the time? 2:00 TCP connection req. TCP connection reply. Get http://www.rpi.edu/index.htm <file> time

Analogy: Organization of air travel:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 39 Analogy: Organization of air travel Protocols : a series of functions performed at different locations ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing airplane routing

Organization of air travel: a different view:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 40 Organization of air travel: a different view Layers : each layer implements a service via its own internal-layer actions relying on services provided by layer below ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing airplane routing interface

Layered air travel: services:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 41 Layered air travel: services Counter-to-counter delivery of person+bags baggage-claim-to-baggage-claim delivery people transfer: loading gate to arrival gate runway-to-runway delivery of plane airplane routing from source to destination Similarly, we organize network protocols into a bunch of layers!

Distributed implementation of layers:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 42 Distributed implementation of layers ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing airplane routing Departing airport arriving airport intermediate air traffic sites airplane routing airplane routing

Protocol Implementations:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 43 Protocol Implementations Are building blocks of a network architecture Each protocol object has two different interfaces service interface : defines operations on this protocol peer-to-peer interface : defines messages exchanged with peer service interface peer interface L i+1 L i+1 L i L i

Reference Models for Layering:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 44 Reference Models for Layering Application Presentation Session Transport Network Datalink Physical Application Transport Internetwork Host to Network FTP TCP IP Ether net Telnet HTTP UDP Packet Radio Point-to- Point TCP/IP Model OSI Ref Model TCP/IP Protocols “Top-down” approach means we will first learn the application layer and then learn about lower layers

Internet protocol stack:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 45 Internet protocol stack application : supporting network applications ftp, smtp, http transport: host-host data transfer tcp, udp network: routing of datagrams from source to destination ip, routing protocols link: data transfer between neighboring network elements ppp, ethernet physical: bits “on the wire” application transport network link physical

Layering: logical communication :

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 46 Layering: logical communication application transport network link physical application transport network link physical application transport network link physical application transport network link physical network link physical data data E.g.: transport take data from app add addressing, reliability check info to form “datagram” send datagram to peer wait for peer to ack receipt analogy: post office data transport transport ack

Layering: physical communication :

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 47 Layering: physical communication application transport network link physical application transport network link physical application transport network link physical application transport network link physical network link physical data data

Protocol layering and data:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 48 Protocol layering and data Each layer takes data from above adds header information to create new data unit (“ encapsulation ”) passes new data unit to layer below application transport network link physical application transport network link physical source destination M M M M H t H t H n H t H n H l M M M M H t H t H n H t H n H l message segment datagram frame

Design Perspectives:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 49 Design Perspectives Network users : services that their applications need , e.g., guarantee that each message it sends will be delivered without error within a certain amount of time Network designers : cost-effective design e.g., that network resources are efficiently utilized and fairly allocated to different users Network providers : system that is easy to administer and manage e.g., that faults can be easily isolated and it is easy to account for usage

Summary:

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Shivkumar Kalvanaraman, Biplab Sikdar 50 Summary Administratrivia Networks, connectivity, topologies … Pot Pourri of networking concepts and problems to be explored in this course ...

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