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Graphic aids :

Graphic aids

Description :

Description Graphic, basically, is the art of drawing, painting and writing which causes one to have a clear picture of communication in the mind.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The word ‘graphic’ has originated from the Greek word ‘ graphikos ’ and ‘ graphiein ’-the former meaning to paint or draw and latter meaning to represent with lines .

Uses :

Uses Arresting student’s attention Conveying information in a condensed form Presenting information efficiently. Concertizing abstract ideas Stimulating interest



PowerPoint Presentation:

A chalkboard or blackboard is a slightly abrasive writing surface made of wood, ply, hard board, cement, ground glass, asbestos, slate, plastic etc. with black, green or bluish green paint on it. White chalks or color chalks are generally used for writing on the board

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Types of chalkboard

The chalkboard held by an easel:

The chalkboard held by an easel Useful for teaching of art subjects in small class

Roller type chalkboard with a mat surface:

Roller type chalkboard with a mat surface Made of thick canvas wrapped on a roller

Magnetic board:

Magnetic board Useful for 3 dimensional demonstrations Small magnets are used to hold suitable objects Board is made of steel on which magnets are fixed .

Ceramic unbreakable board:

Ceramic unbreakable board Framed with aluminium or teak wood frame

Lobby stand board:

Lobby stand board Useful in lobby Light weight and easy to carry Stand height will be 6 feet

Exhibition board:

Exhibition board Can be folded and expanded easily Both sides are usable Papers and pamphlets can be fixed with pushpin

Double side stand board:

Double side stand board One side white board for marker writing and other side blackboard for chalk piece writing Fixed on a wheel stand It can be moved from one place to another place easily

Reception board:

Reception board Gold powder coated aluminium frame Golden letters can be fixed on this

Characteristics of good chalkboard:

Characteristics of good chalkboard The recommended size is 5 m× 6 m. The surface of the chalkboard should be ROUGH enough to hold the writing on the board. The surface of the chalkboard should be DULL enough to eliminate glare which hampers visibility of the writing on the board

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The writing should be EASILY REMOVABLE with a cloth or foam duster. The chalkboard should be mounted on an appropriate height within the reach of the teacher and visibility of students

Using the chalkboards :

Using the chalkboards Write clearly in cursive handwriting the important points of the topic on the chalkboards. Avoid over crowding of information The size of the lettering should be large enough (6 cm× 8cm)

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Plan the chalkboard work in advance in simple brief phrases and knew words Classroom should be lighted properly and the chalkboard should be glare-free. Rub off the information already discussed in the class and noted down by the students

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Use shading and underlining for stressing the keywords and statements A difficult illustration should be drawn before hand to save the class time Use other supplementary teaching aids to emphasize and clarify the main concepts

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Use color chalks for an aesthetic appeal and for proving contrasts Use a soft cloth piece or foam duster for rubbing off the chalkboard Plan rubbing off sequence. Rub off a section of the board and write there. Then rub the rest of it. Rub the board horizontally first, then vertically. Do not use hands or kerchiefs to rub the board.

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Stand on one side of the chalk board while explaining a points to students. Use a pointer to draw attention to the written material on the chalkboard For teaching drawing geometry, use a large scale, protractor, compass, etc. with handles

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Divide the board into 2 or 3 parts by drawing vertical lines Writing should be started from top of the left corner

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Don’t speak to the chalkboard. Keep turning back and forth; speak to the students while writing on the board. Do not crowd the chalk board with too much matter

Advantages of blackboard over other visual aids: :

Advantages of blackboard over other visual aids: 1. Readily available in most of the lecture rooms. 2. Electricity is not necessary for its usage. 3. Sequential development of a concept can be done effectively. 4. Initial and recurring expenditure is minimal. 5. Easy to use (and misuse !). 6. Darkening of the room is not necessary.

Disadvantages of blackboard over other visual aids: :

Disadvantages of blackboard over other visual aids: 1. Eye to eye contact is lost while writing. 2. The written material cannot be stored and reused. 3 . Advance preparation of material is not possible.

Chalk sticks:

Chalk sticks Sticks of processed "chalk" are produced especially for use with chalkboards in white and also in various colours . These are not actually made from chalk rock but from calcium sulfate in its dihydrate form, gypsum.

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Hold the chalk between thumb and fingers. Break off a little piece to avoid squeaking while writing. Use colored chalks in order to distinguish some components of the visuals on the board.

Flash cards:

Flash cards

PowerPoint Presentation:

These are pieces of cards large enough for the whole class to see. Can use either drawing, magazine cutouts, pictures, written words or numbers Shown in the class only for a short time.

Description :

Description Flash cards are small compact cards, which flashed before the class to bring any idea. Size should be 25×30 cm Used for a small group not over 30 people Provides variety & activity in class

PowerPoint Presentation:

10-12 cards for one talk can be used Prepare the picture for each idea It can be used individually or combined with others

Materials required:

Materials required A foolscap Chart paper Stencil Sketch pen and other writing articles Magazine cutouts, pictures

Preparation :

Preparation Cut a foolscap chart paper and cut into four equal parts. Write the content on it either in the free hand or using lettering stencils and sketch pen Height of writing on the flash card is to be appropriately 5cm

PowerPoint Presentation:

It is advisable to make rough card on an ordinary paper first and then transfer it on the chart-paper or cardboard flash cards. Messages can be brief, it may be simple line, drawing or photographs or cartoons Content will be written in few lines at the back of ach card

Using the flash cards:

Using the flash cards Arrange the cards in sequential order before starting the explanation

Steps of presentation:

Steps of presentation Give a brief introduction about the lesson to students Give the instructions to the students about their actions while you flash the cards.

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Flash the card in front of the class by holding the cards at chest level where the people can see. Hold against body, face different parts of the group Use pointer, don’t cover the matter with hand Be enthusiastic and enjoy explaining the matter

Advantages :

Advantages Used to introduce and present topics Used to apply information already gained by the students to new situation Used to review a topic Can be used for drill and practice in elementary classes

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Used to develop the cognitive abilities Useful supplementary aid and can be effectively used with other materials.

Disadvantages :

Disadvantages Flash card has limited use It may not be clearly visible At time they may be dull It is not suitable for a big group

Posters :


Meaning :

Meaning A large notice often with a picture on it, that is put in a public place to advertise. Varies from simple pointed card to a complicate and artistic design

Purposes :

Purposes To make instant appeal To convey single idea or few ideas. To be understood at a glance. Suitable for health education Presenting scientific facts

PowerPoint Presentation:

Showing safety measures and many other facts relating to health. To advertise a meeting or specific event. To popularize your slogans and messages.

Materials :

Materials Card board Plastic sheets Poster paper Marker pens paints

Rules to prepare poster:

Rules to prepare poster Make the posters as large as possible Keep the writing as big as possible so that people can read it easily from about 10 meters away. Use as few words as possible. Letters should be in bold approximately 20”× 30” size

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Use pleasing colors Must be timely Do not put too many words and images in poster Make sure that the poster is easily recognized as belonging to your organization by using logo, color or abbreviation of your organizations name.

How to make a poster??:

How to make a poster? ? Decide the purpose of poster, how much money it cost, and the numbers of posters needed Decide exactly what content has to be written in posters. Develop a basic design on a paper.

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Remember to include the name of organization or logo Make sure there are no unnecessary words Make final copy

Features of a good poster:

Features of a good poster Simplicity Dramatic action-packed short message Colorfulness. Eye catching design


ADVANTAGES In schools for general display purposes the posters are put on the wall. Instant method of conveying messages to the public. Used effectively for teaching desirable values like sincerity, punctuality, character, honesty & truthfulness

Disadvantages :

Disadvantages Time consuming Expensive Posters will not be effective if it is not attractive If it is not placed in proper place, it will be less effective.

Graphs :


PowerPoint Presentation:

Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical information and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes

Types :

Types Bar graphs Line graphs Picture graphs Pie graphs

Bar graphs :

Bar graphs A bar graph consists of the bars arranged either horizontally or vertically from an origin base. 2 perpendicular lines from a point (called origin) work as the reference lines. Useful in comparing and contrasting two variables or two groups on the same attributes.

Preparation of bar chart:

Preparation of bar chart Before making the bar chart make a rough sketch of it in a note book For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50 × 72 cm size Use 2 different colors for the two contrasting groups The bars should be equi -spaced Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper

Line graph :

Line graph A free hand smooth line through various points indicating the instantaneous values of two variables at various moments is called line graph. The line may be a straight line or curved line indicating the relationship between the variables at some instances.

Pie graph (distribution graph):

Pie graph (distribution graph) Usually shown as a disc (resembling a pie) or circle divided into sectors of different angles to represent the fractions or percentages of the divisions of a distributive attribute

Preparation :

Preparation Find out the angles from the percentages or fractions Draw the circle on a chart paper of full size using a big compass carrying a sketch or marker pen. Divide the circle into appropriate sectors using the protractor. Color each section and write the corresponding percentage it represents Caption the pie graph while with descriptive title

Pictoral graph :

Pictoral graph Consists of pictures of the same type but of different sizes

Charts :


Definition :

Definition A chart is a combination of pictorial, graphic, or numerical material, which presents a clear visual summary.

Purposes :

Purposes For presenting material symbolically For summarizing information For showing relationships by means of facts and figures To show continuity in process For presenting abstract ideas in visual form

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For showing development of structure To stimulate critical thinking To encourage the utilization of other media of communication For motivating the students.

How to use charts effectively?:

How to use charts effectively? Involve the students in the preparation of charts Should be visible to all Should not contain too many details Should possess neat appearance Provision for hanging the chart Should be carefully stored and preserved for use in future.

Narrative chart:

Narrative chart An extended left to right arrangements of facts and ideas for expressing the events in a process technological improvement over a period years

The tabulation chart:

The tabulation chart A left to right, top to bottom arrangements of facts and ideas for expressing; Numerical data for making comparisons. Listing advantages and disadvantages of an organization Numerical data in a tabular form


IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE Vaccine Coverage BCG 85.9% DPT 87.6 OPV 87.7

Cause and effect chart:

Cause and effect chart

Chain chart:

Chain chart

The evolution chart:

The evolution chart

Flow chart:

Flow chart

Table chart:

Table chart

Flip chart :

Flip chart

Tree chart:

Tree chart

Preparation of charts- materials:

Preparation of charts- materials Sheets of thick white or light colored paper Color markers Graphic materials Scissors Drawing aids and adhesives

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Plan the content interms of the objectives and decide the layout The size of the chart, should be 90× 60 cm and 50 × 55 cm for most purposes The size of the letters for the caption labels and keywords should be 2-3 cm. The thickness of the lines should be between 2-3 cm

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Flat pictures and other material from books should be enlarged sufficiently before placing on charts. Chart should convey just one idea or one principle

Advantages :

Advantages Stimulates interest in students Conveys information in a condensed form Presenting information effectively Concretizing abstract ideas No electricity needed Arrests students attention

Disadvantages :

Disadvantages Time consuming Last minute corrections are not possible Expensive Charts crowded with information are less effective Chart conveys just one idea or one principle.

Flannel Graph:

Flannel Graph

PowerPoint Presentation:

Flannel board, also known as felt board, consists of a stiff backing covered with felt material on one side. Flannel graph is any graphic material presented on a flannel board.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Flannel graph is made of wood, cardboard, covered with colored flannel or woolen cloth. Display material like the cut-outs, pictures, drawings and light objects backed with rough surfaces like sand paper strips, flannel strips, etc. will stick to the flannel board temporarily.

Things You'll Need :

Things You'll Need flannel cardboard glue easel scissors stiff printer paper computer printer or markers

Different types of flannel board:

Different types of flannel board A flannel board may be fixed, folded, rolled-up or a combination of these.

Guidelines for preparation and presentation of flannel boardgraph:

Guidelines for preparation and presentation of flannel boardgraph Take a frame with a firm surface made of any board like plywood, fibre board, massonite etc, of 30" x 40" or any suitable size. Choose a neutral color of flannel, such as pale blue. Tightly stretch a dark coloured background flannel or cloth and fasten securely to the board with drawing pins.

The different stages of preparing flannel board:

The different stages of preparing flannel board

(i) A frame with a firm surface:

( i ) A frame with a firm surface

(ii) Soft flannel cloth:

(ii) Soft flannel cloth

(iii) Place the flannel on the frame:

(iii) Place the flannel on the frame

(iv) Stretch, fold the flannel cloth and pin it on the backside:

(iv) Stretch, fold the flannel cloth and pin it on the backside

(v) Find a support:

(v) Find a support

making the flannel graph.:

making the flannel graph. I ) Think of a11 idea or sequence of ideas. 2) Prepare the designs suited to the theme selected. Trace these on the material you are going to use. 3) Cutout the figures. Decorate them using paints, colored pens etc. 4) Be sure to store the figures carefully so that they can be used again and again.

Tips for making effective flannel graph:

Tips for making effective flannel graph Keep the theme simple. Use relevant pictures. Give suitable captions. Use bold and clean illustration and letters. Use arrows, cartoons, etc. to add interest.

Using a flannel board:

Using a flannel board It can be fixed next to the chalkboard or can be placed on a stand about one meter above the ground. Collect pictures, light objects or make cut-outs Display the material on the flannel board to create proper senses and designs relevant to the lesson.

Use of flannel board in teaching:

Use of flannel board in teaching For telling a story For letter recognition and work formation during language teaching in primary classes. For recognition and recall testing, appropriate pictures can be used for teaching different subjects. For teaching elementary lessons on numbers For playing educative Jig-saw puzzles For showing inter relationship between different parts or steps of a process.

Advantages :

Advantages Holds the interest of students and arrest their attention Permits numerous and varied arrangements of visual materials. Is appealing, because the audience is fascinated in watching the steps in the presentation. Permits the development of a complete story. Permits the use of either chart or small pieces of material.

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Materials can be packed and transported. Permits use of various colors, which may be used for specific purposes. Materials can be left on board after meeting closes for those who wish more complete notes. Easier to construct materials for flannel board than to make slides or movies. Chronological development of ideas on board promotes ease in note taking.


Disadvantages: Transportation and storing of boards and materials is a problem. Suitable tables to support boards must be available. Time and cost of making material for presentation present a problem.

PowerPoint Presentation:

To tell a complete story it often takes either too much board space Or smaller designs and materials some of which cannot be seen well. Requires considerable ingenuity and imagination to construct effective varied materials. Materials must be attractively prepared.

Bulletin board:

Bulletin board

PowerPoint Presentation:

It is a display board which shows the visual learning material on a specific subject. Usually in the form of a framed soft board. Have blue blazer cloth and the recommended size is 1.5 × 2 m

Using the bulletin boards:

Using the bulletin boards Procure enough illustrative material from various sources on a given subject or topic. Sort out the relevant material specific to the subject or topic. Display the material on the bulletin board in an aesthetic manner keeping the color balance and harmony in view.

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On the top center of the bulletin board fix a title for the specific subject of the display material. Below the title fix a brief description about the specific subject or topic. While teaching, make references to the material displayed on the bulletin board. Keep the interest of students alive by involving them in collection of material for the bulletin board.

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The height of the bulletin board should be one meter above the ground The area where the bulletin boards are fixed or placed should be well lighted.

Advantages :

Advantages Work as a good supplement to normal classroom teaching. Bulletin board arouse student interest in specific subjects. Bulletin board displays can be effectively used as follow-up of chalkboard work.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bulletin boards add color and liveliness to the classroom as they have decorative value along with the educational value. Bulletin board display can be used to introduce a topic and as well to review it.

Limitations :

Limitations Cannot be used for all inclusive teaching . At times the collection of relevant material for certain specific topics may be difficult.

Cartoons :


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A cartoon is a humorous caricature which gives a subtle message. In cartoon, the features of objects and people are exaggerated along with generally recognized symbols.


SOURCES Periodicals Newspapers


Principles: The quality of the drawing should be high primarily for visual effectiveness. The symbols used should be familiar and represent a concept or idea to which students can react intellectually

Instructional advantages:

Instructional advantages To initiate certain lesson. To motivate students to start discussion. Used for making lesson lively and interesting

Models :


Definition :

Definition Models are replica’s of real objects and scaled representation of things A model is a recognizable representation of a real thing three dimensionally, that is height, width, and depth is felt as reality.

Types :

Types Scale model: it represents the external form and shape of original object and is prepared to scale- smaller or larger, such as insect, heart etc. Cross-sectional model : it reveals internal structure of real objects or parts such as heart, eye, etc.

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Working models: it shows operation of essential parts of real objects, for example T.V, telephone etc. Simplified model: it shows simple features of the real object without reproducing the original in precise proportion. It can be prepared out of clay, cardboard etc.

Purposes :

Purposes Models can be made to depict: Real objects which are either too large or too small Past or future Physical inaccessible objects like certain foods Unique reality such as working of human heart, eye, etc. Abstract constructions like development of village. Processes-for instance process of cooking.

How to prepare models?:

How to prepare models? Models can be made of food, clay, metal, cardboard, etc. Better to use local materials Color and ingenuity make them impressive.

Objects and specimens::

Objects and specimens:

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Objects and specimens are the real things. Gives direct learning experience to students Provides first hand experience to children

Meaning :

Meaning Objects: Collections of real things for instructional use refers to objects. (this are the thing that has no life for example furniture, clothes, coins relies stamps, toys, tools and pieces of literature of all times.)


Specimen Specimen is any typical object representing a class or group of things.(specimen- are the things that has life. For example rocks,shells,butterflies,and minerals deposits.)

Points to consider in using specimen and objects for teaching.:

Points to consider in using specimen and objects for teaching. 1.Develop a purpose for using them. 2.Provide opportunities to pupils and students to work with or to manipulate the specimens so that they can discover concepts, process and principles by themselves.

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3. Present just enough specimens or objects at a time so as not to overwhelm the students. 4.Present the materials in a dramatic way so as to arouse and sustain the interest of the students.

Sources of objects and specimen:

Sources of objects and specimen Local markets Manufacturers and factories Discarded material from  the houses Specimen found in the nature can be collected by students from field trips and nature hunt Plasters casts can be purchased Wild flowers, leaves, shells, stones ,butterflies, insects can also be procured.

Mounting the objects and specimens::

Mounting the objects and specimens : Objects and specimens should be mounted in shallow boxes in an artistic way and the boxes should be covered with cellophane paper. Also label each object or specimen using self adhesive paper.

Advantages :

Advantages Collection of objects and specimens by students requires interaction with others leading to development of social skills and values. Students when collect and display objects and specimens derive satisfaction of contributing to the school and teacher something worthwhile. Student’s power of observation and first hand experiences is enhanced by collection of objects and specimens.

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Student’s personal collection of objects and specimens can be good source of doing investigatory projects. Collection of objects and specimens become an interesting educational pursuit of the teacher and students alike. It arouse some interest among students in learning Objects and specimens involve all the five senses in the process of learning It heighten the reality in the class room It makes teaching lively.

Puppets :


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One of the old and popular arts in Indian villages is puppetry. Puppetry is an education cum entertaining aid in which puppets manipulated by the performer is a person termed as a characters in a story to be depicted.


Definition : A puppet is a manipulative doll dressed as a character and the performer is a person termed as a puppeteer. A good puppeteer has to blend his art with dramatization to produce the desired effect. It is used as an effective teaching aid for languages and social sciences.

Types of puppets:

Types of puppets 1. String or marionettes puppets: - Marionettes consist of puppets with hinged body parts which are controlled by nine strings produces required movements in the puppet. These puppets are mainly manipulated by professional puppeteers.

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2. Stick puppets : - stick puppet are the painted cutouts attached by sticks. The actions of these puppets are manipulated by the teacher and students by hiding behind a screen so that only puppets are visible to the audience or the class

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3. Shadow puppets : - shadow puppets are silhouettes of cardboard which produce shadows on white screen. The motion of these silhouettes is manipulated by the teacher and students.

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4. Finger of hand puppet : - Hand puppets are round balls painted as heads with overflowing colorful costumes. These are worn on fingers which operate their movements. These are operated from below the stage.


Selection In selecting a puppet play, the age, background and tastes of the students should be taken in to consideration. A short puppet play is always preferable.

Advantages :

Advantages 1) Creates interest 2) Gives the knowledge in a brief period 3) Puppet is an effective method in teaching. 4) Motivate students 5) Easy to carry and operate


Disadvantages 1) Needs group cooperation and coordination 2) Requires skills in preparation and supply 3) Skills needed in presentation

Overhead Projector :

Overhead Projector

PowerPoint Presentation:

THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR is a device for projecting matter written (or drawn) on a transparent plastic sheet (25x20cm) on to a screen.  It uses a lamp, lens and mirror arrangement. .


Purposes: Develop concepts and sequences in a subject matter area. To make marginal notes on the transparencies for the use of the teacher that can carry with out exposing them to the class. To test students performances, while other classmates observe. To show relationships by means of transparent overlays in contrasting color. To give the illusion of motion in the transparency.

During presentation::

During presentation: § Keep the screen above the heads of the participants. § Keep the screen in full view of participants § Make sure you are not blocking any ones view when presenting. § Darken the room appropriately by blocking out sunshine and dimming near by. § Turn the screen off between slides if you are going to talk for more than two. § Talk to the audience, not to the screen


DCU Office of the Dean of Teaching and Learning 155 OVERHEAD PROJECTOR Tables are best avoided:


DCU Office of the Dean of Teaching and Learning 156 OVERHEAD PROJECTOR Use Charts/Graphs instead:

PowerPoint Presentation:

OVER HEAD TRANSPERENCIES: Transparencies are popular instructional medium. They are simple to prepare and easy to prepare and easy to operate with the over head projector which is light weight. A 10×10 inches sheet with printed, written or drawn material is placed on the platform of the projector and a large image is projected on a screen behind you. The projector is used from near to the front of the room with the teacher standing or sitting beside, facing the student.

Preparing transparencies:

Preparing transparencies The rule of six: Six lines per transparencies Six words per line Six mm smallest letter size Six cm (3+3 on each side) margin

Guidelines for making effective transparencies::

Guidelines for making effective transparencies: Have one main idea in each transparency. Include only related figures and diagrams. Use simple lettering style in writing. Use diagrams in proposition to its lettering. Keep the message clear and simple. Emphasize the key messages. Use color and lettering with discretion.


Advantages Permits face to face interaction with the students. Can be used in daylight conditions. Can present information in systemic developmental sequences. Requires limited planning and can be prepared in variety of inexpensive methods. Easily available.

Limitations of OHP :

Limitations of OHP Dependence on power Mostly one-way nature of communication Straining the eye of the learners Tendency to proceed faster Motion can't be shown as easily as on film

Advantages over the blackboard:

Advantages over the blackboard I) The surface area is limitless. ii)  Material (including illustrations) can be prepared well in advance. iii) The teacher faces the class all the time and eye-to-eye contact is not lost. iv) The prepared transparencies can be preserved for future use.

Advantages over slides: :

Advantages over slides: I) There is no need to darken the room (the students may  stay awake!!) ii)   Progressive disclosure is very easy. iii)  The services of a  projectionist are not required. iv)  Material can be prepared at short notice by the speaker  himself. v)  The material on the stage of the overhead projector can be manipulated, added to, or altered in a way that is not possible with slides.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The projector-screen arrangement has to be such that every student in the class can see every part of the projected image with ease. The screen may be placed at a higher level than the speaker (directly behind him) or in one corner of the room with the projector diagonally in front of it Ensure that the smallest letter on the screen can be read comfortably by the persons in the last rows. The use of a template is strongly recommended.

PowerPoint Presentation:

It is best not to project the entire transparency at the very beginning.  Optimal 'progressive disclosure' of information achieves the same objective as the sequential presentation of information on the blackboard. A hexagonal pencil, a slide with an arrow drawn on it and plastic or cardboard arrows all make good pointers.  It is important that the pointer does not roll off the stage of the projector. The pointer must be laid flat on the transparency and not waved around .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Three or four transparencies can be used as overlays on the original transparency.  This technique is a very effective method of 'building up' or 'dissecting down' a complex diagram. Notes or cues written on a piece of paper and clipped to the mount of the transparency will not project but can be read easily by the speaker, obviating the need to refer to separate notes.  Alternatively, lecture notes can be written on large (25x20cm) sheets of ordinary writing paper which can then be used to progressively disclose the matter on the transparency. The matter on the paper will not appear on the screen, but will be clearly visible to the speaker.

PowerPoint Presentation:

THE BEST COLOURS to use to write on transparency are BLACK, BLUE AND GREEN.   Use red sparingly.  It is not a color that projects well.

Precautions :

Precautions Do not keep the bulb on fore a long time, It can over heat the projector and damage the acetate transparencies as well as the bulb. Switch off the bulb after every 5 to 10 minutes of use. Do not shift the OHP when the bulb is on as the filament of the bulb may break due to jerks during shifting. Do not keep the OHP too low, ass it will make the image distorted, i.e , image will get wider at the top and narrower at the bottom (KEYSTONING)



PowerPoint Presentation:

A slide is a small piece of transparent material on which a single pictorial image or scene or graphic image has been photographed or reproduced otherwise. Slides are a form of projected media that are easy to prepare. They are still pictures on positive film which you can process and mount individually yourself or send to a film laboratory. The standard size of the slides is 2 “X 2 “any 35mm camera will make satisfactory slides.

Types of slides:

Types of slides 1. Photographic slides: 2” X 2” 3” X 4” a)      Black and white b)      Colored 2 . Hand made slides: can be made with a)      Acetate sheet b)      Cellophane c)      Etched glass d)      Plain glass e) Lumarith

PowerPoint Presentation:

Slides can be made from photographs and pictures by teachers and pupils taking photographs and snapshots when they go on fieldtrips for historical, geographical, literacy or scientific excursions. The arrangement of slides in proper sequence, according to the topic discussed, is an important aspect of teaching with them.

Slide must be:

Slide must be Appropriate Accurate Legible Comprehensible Well executed

Preparation of slides:

Preparation of slides Letterings: Plain letters are usually used Color letters are used on black background Letters should have height to width 3:5 ratios Normal spacing between letters

PowerPoint Presentation:

Coloring: Red Black Orange Violet blue Blue Green yellow

PowerPoint Presentation:

Light sources Use photo fold bulbs 800-1000 watts

Points to be kept in mind while preparing slides:

Points to be kept in mind while preparing slides Limit each slide to an idea Use slide series for progressive disclosure Plan slide for a good visual pace Duplicate slides if they are to be seen more than once For a series of slides change level of camera and vary distance from subjects


Advantages: 1. Requires only filming, processing and mounting by self or laboratory. 2. Results in colorful, realistic, reproduction original subject. 3. Preparation with any 35mm camera for most uses. 4. Easy to revise and up-date. 5. Easily handled, stored and re-arranged for various uses. 6. Can be combined with tape narration or can control time for discussion. 7. May be adapted to group or individual use 8. Attract attention 9. Arouse interest 10. Facilitates student teacher participation

Disadvantages :

Disadvantages Lack motion Not 3 dimensional Takes time to prepare



PowerPoint Presentation:

Film strips are sequence of transparent still pictures with individual frames on 35mm film. Each strip contains from 12 to 18 or more pictures. It is a fixed sequence of related stills on a roll of 35mm film or 8mm film.


PRINCIPLES 1 . Preview filmstrips before using them and select carefully to meet the needs of the topic to be taught. 2. Show any part of the filmstrip which need more specific study. 3. Use filmstrip to stimulate emotions, build attitudes and to point up problems. 4. It should be introduced appropriately and its relationship to the topic of the study should be brought out. 5. Use a pointer to direct attention, to specific details on the screen.

Types of filmstrip::

Types of filmstrip : Discussion filmstrip : it is continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames arranged in sequence usually with explanatory titles. Sound slide film : it is similar to filmstrip but instead of explanatory titles or spoken discussion recorded explanation is audible, which is synchronized with the pictures.

Advantages: :

Advantages: 1) Are compact, easily handled and always in proper sequence. 2) Can be supplemented with recordings. 3) Are inexpensive when quantity reproduction is required. 4) Are useful for group or individual study at projection rate are controlled by instructor or user. 5) Are projected with simple light weight equipment.

Pamphlet :


PowerPoint Presentation:

A pamphlet is an unbound booklet ( ie ; without a hard cover or binding). It may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on both sides and folded in half, in thirds, or in fourths (called a leaflet), or it may consist of a few pages that are folded in half and stapled at the crease to make a simple book.

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In order to count as a pamphlet, UNESCO requires a publication (other than a periodical) to have at least 5 but more than 48 pages exclusive of the cover pages.

Definition :

Definition According to UNESCO a pamphlet is a on-periodic printed publication of at least 5 but not more than 48 pages exclusive of the cover pages, published in the country and made available to the public.

Synonyms :

Synonyms Booklet, brochure, bulletin, ephemera, ephemeron, flyer, folder, handbill, handout, leaflet, manual, monograph, tract, treatise

Purpose of pamphlets:

Purpose of pamphlets To mobilize people to support your cause. To advertise a meeting or specific event. To popularize your slogans and messages.

Important things to know about pamphlets:

Important things to know about pamphlets Pamphlets can be used to, Explain an issue to the community. Details regarding health aspects. Win support for a campaign you are running.

How to make a good pamphlet?:

How to make a good pamphlet? Make sure your purpose, the message, the target audience and the content. Work out how many you need to print and what quality you can afford

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If you are printing on both sides of a pamphlet each side should have an interesting headline to get peoples attention. Each side should also carry your organization’s logo or name. Keep your language simple by avoiding long words and jargon.

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Do not make the layout too dense with lots of small typing. Leave some space in between the writing either as empty white space or as space for logos or pictures. This makes it easier for people to read, typing by using bold and italics as well as different size letters for headings, captions, and so on.

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Use bold headlines that catch people’s attention and sound interesting

Articles required :

Articles required Cardstock or other heavy paper for a cover 3-4 sheets of Text- weights paper for the pages Paper cutter or craft knife or scissors A ruler-preferably metal

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A small hole-punch Needle to sew it together.

Steps :

Steps Decide the furnished size for your pamphlet. Cut out your cover, making it the height you want × twice the width. Cut out your pages. The dimensions should be 1/8 of an inch narrower than your cover.

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Fold your cover sheet and pages in half, one by one. If you are really accurate and careful, use a ruler to score the center of each sheet and it will fold over so nicely. Once the sheet is folded, burnish the crease so its nice and smooth

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Stack your pages together and stack them on top of the cover. The cover is slightly larger, so carefully center the pages, with the center folds all matching up to prepare to punch 3 holes for sewing.

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Make a mark in the very center, and then make two more marks an equal distance on either side of the center mark. The top bottom marks should be about ¾ to 1 inch from the top and bottom edges.

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Place your book on top of a cutting mat if you are using a hole punch.

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Cut a length of whatever fiber you have chosen to use. You will need twice the distance between the top and bottom holes, plus enough to tie.

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Thread your tapestry needle and start sewing: A. go into the middle hole from the outside to the inside, leaving a tail of few inches B. come out through the top hole C. go back into the bottom hole D. come back through the middle hole Pull it snugly, but carefully, so that it is flat and tie the ends in a square knot (right over left, left over right)

Writing a pamphlet:

Writing a pamphlet Every sentence has to be clear, concise and coherent Few small images

Distribution of pamphlets:

Distribution of pamphlets Door to door Scools Factories Churches Hospitals Depending on the target group

Tape recorder:

Tape recorder

Definition :

Definition A tape recorder is a portable electronic gadget to record, reproduce, erase and record sound on a magnetic tape

Objectives :

Objectives To discuss passages To answer questions To clarify certain points Recording can be made to play at desire and teaching needs

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The school can have its own recording Recording can be used to introduce a lesson Recording can be used for enriching classroom activity Recording can be used for summing up a topic

Types of Information:


Destination of the Recordings:

Destination of the Recordings LARGE MEETINGS, SMALL MEETINGS.

Right way of using tape recorder:

Right way of using tape recorder The recording should be done in the following steps; Choose a room with proper acoustics. Place the recorder on a steady table and insert the cassette. Also, plug in the power cord if the tape recorder is not to be run on the battery. Check, whether it is working or not Locate the microphone input socket and plug in the microphone, it is advisable to use external microphone placed 25 to 30 cm away from the person whose voice is recorded.

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Press the record button, speak into the microphone, watch the sound level indicator or meter and appropriately adjust the volume control, and tone control. Record the actual material spoken into the microphone by pressing the record and play buttons simultaneously. After recording is over, rewind and play the tape recorder for editing, auditing and evaluation before it is used in the classroom.

Do’s for using tape recorder for teaching:

Do’s for using tape recorder for teaching The teacher must practice the use of tape recorder to get familiar with various controls and techniques. The teacher must make special efforts to use the tape recorder in teaching proper speaking of language, music and social sciences. The teacher must prepare and practice recorded lessons before use in the classroom.

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The teacher must record programmes from other sources such as radio programmes, sound tracks, TV programmes, performances in and out of the school. The teacher must start a cassette library in his own subject area. The teacher must use the tape recorder for speech training and corrective feedback The teacher must use a tape recorder supplemented by other teaching aids The teacher must use the tape recorder for recording interviews, talks and discussions of various experts

Advantages :

Advantages Economical Easy to operate. Can be stored for reuse. The talks of well known personalities can be recorded at a convenient place and brought to the school for replay to the students. Ability to immediately play back a recording Provides flexibility for the teacher to edit and evaluate material.

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On the spot events can be recorded and played at an appropriate time for classroom instruction. Promotes children to particip0ate in the learning programme. Used for improving spoken languages Make lesson enjoyable when used along with other visual aids. For teaching music, phonics, oral reading, poetry and recitation…tape recorder is of immense value Tape recordings can be easily done from other sources like TV, movies etc. for use in the classroom

Television :


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Television ( TV ) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with accompanying sound.

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The etymology of the word has a mixed Latin and Greek origin, meaning "far sight": Greek tele far, and Latin visio , sight (from video, vis - to see, or to view in the first person).

Using a television programme as class room instruction aid :

Using a television programme as class room instruction aid Procure in advance the information from the programme manual about the background and objectives of educational programme. Collect other instructional materials that relate to the program which you wish students to watch in the classroom. Discuss about the programme topic and build up a background of the students to have a meaning to the programme.

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Motivate students to watch the programme critically and for specific details Draw attention of students to certain important aspects with short phrases during the program After the program, a follow-up session should be carried out and other instructional aids used to reinforce the learning. The follow-up should be extended to certain related activities like panel discussion or question answer session. Finally, test the students on their learning gains after the program and its application.

Evaluaing a telecast program:

Evaluaing a telecast program Serial no Criteria Rating Above average Average Below average 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 Purposefulness Viewer presentation Relevance Presentation Use of other aids Viewer involvement Structure of programme Extension and application Review assessment … … ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. …………. ……….. … ………. …… ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ……….. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ……….

Advantages :

Advantages Appeals to eye, ear and emotions Directly show the current happenings and live shows happening even in the remote parts. A television set is a compact piece of equipment which is easy and convenient to handle. The television can work as a powerful medium of mass education. It can impart experiences which are out of physical reach

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Breaks the dullness of classroom Easily made to include latest information and findings to update the knowledge of students and teachers.

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Microscopes are used to magnify small objects so that details can be seen that are normally invisible to the unaided eye. Commonly used in the classroom, microscopes are also used in the medicine and criminal investigations.

Types :

Types Light microscope--The most simple microscope is often used in classrooms and at home for recreational use. Stereoscope--Allows for a binocular/ two-eye view of larger specimens. Scanning electronic microscope--Uses a concentrated beam of electrons for illumination, allows examination of objects of a fine scale, can magnify objects up to 2 million times. Transmission Electronic Microscope--Uses technology similar to the scanning electronic microscope, samples mainly include metals, minerals, and biological products.

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Always carry with 2 hands Only use lens paper for cleaning Do not force knobs Always store covered Keep objects clear of desk and cords Microscope Care

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Eyepiece Body Tube Revolving Nosepiece Arm Objective Lens Stage Stage Clips Coarse Focus Fine Focus Base Diaphragm Light Microscope Parts

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Place the Slide on the Microscope Use Stage Clips Click Nosepiece to the lowest (shortest) setting Look into the Eyepiece Use the Coarse Focus Using the Microscope

Use in the Classroom :

Use in the Classroom Classrooms use microscopes so students can see the attributes of objects such as cells and small organisms such as bacteria. Students will commonly take skin samples or cheek swabs and view the differences in the cells. These samples are often compared and contrasted to cell samples of a plant.

Camera :


Uses :

Uses illustrate steps in a procedure, to aid in writing paragraphs use a photo as a prompt for narrative or descriptive writing school newspaper, class newspaper or newsletter graphics for written reports and presentations write letters to pen pals and others (such as reading buddies in another grade), inserting photos send photos via e-mail to electronic pen pals

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e-mail class updates to parents, with attached photos class books write a class novel with live-action photos as illustrations

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take photos on field trips, to aid in writing about them later publicize a class play or project

Other ideas for using the digital camera with projects and presentations include: :

Other ideas for using the digital camera with projects and presentations include: illustrate process for complicated projects illustrate a science experiment document growth of classroom plant or pet develop a student-generated, graphical web research site as a school showcase



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An LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface. It is a modern analog of the slide projector or overhead projector.

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The LCD projector was invented by New York inventor Gene Dolgoff .

Uses :

Uses An LCD projector can be used in the classroom to view educational films, show lesson presentations or even to get students involved with interactive slides. Administrators can use an LCD projector to display a slide show of fun school events and student interaction or as an educational tool at teacher trainings.

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Presentations Teachers can prepare presentations on a computer and display them on an LCD projector. This can be very useful for creating lesson plans that can be used year after year.

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Film Screenings LCD projectors allow teachers to easily show educational films. They can show clips of video they have found online or play a DVD.



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VCRs were the predecessors of Digital Video Discs (DVDs)

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The videocassette recorder (or VCR , also known as the video recorder ), is a type of electro-mechanical device that uses removable videocassettes that contain magnetic tape for recording analog audio and analog video from broadcast television so that the images and sound can be played back at a more convenient time. The first VCRs were designed and built in the 1960s, and became available to the public around 1970.


VCD VCD (also called video CD, video compact disc or "disc") is a compact disk format based on CD-ROM XA that is specifically designed to hold MPEG-1 video data and to include interactive capabilities. VCD was introduced in 1993 by JVC, Philips, SONY and Matsushita

Public address system:

Public address system

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A public address system ( PA system ) is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a sound source, e.g. , a person giving a speech, and distributing the sound throughout a venue or building.

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Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as in school auditoriums or in churches,

Small systems:

Small systems The simplest PA systems consist of a microphone, a modestly powered mixer amplifier and one or more loudspeakers

Large systems:

Large systems Some PA systems have speakers that cover an entire campus of a college or industrial site, or an entire outdoor complex (e.g., an athletic stadium). PA system will be used as voice alarm system that make announcement during emergency to evacuate the occupants in a building.

Computer :


We Learn and Retain::

DCU Office of the Dean of Teaching and Learning 255 30% of what we SEE We Learn and Retain: 10% of what we READ 20% of what we HEAR 50% of what we HEAR and SEE Higher levels of retention can be achieved through active involvement in learning.

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