Political Parties

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political parties in india and how were they from all thing are in this ppt

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Political Parties Submitted by – Amit Paunikar Class – 10 th A Roll No - 6

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Political parties are easily one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. For most ordinary citizens, democracy is equal to political parties. Political Party: A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. Political parties

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How do they work ? They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good. Since there can be different views on what is good for all, parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others. They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections. Thus, parties reflect fundamental political divisions in a society. Parties are about a part of the society and thus involve PARTISANSHIP .

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Thus a party is known by which part it stands for, which policies it supports and whose interests it upholds. A political party has three components: The leaders, The active members and The followers

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Basically, political parties fill political offices and exercise political power. Parties do so by performing a series of functions : Parties contest elections. In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways. In some countries, such as the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates. Now more and more countries are following this method. In other countries like India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections . Functions

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Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society. But no government can handle such a large variety of views. In a democracy, a large number of similar opinions have to be grouped together to provide a direction in which policies can be formulated by the governments. This is what the parties do. A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it supports. A government is expected to bas its policies on the line taken by the RULING PARTY .

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People influencing politics by Riots People play a vital role in influencing government policies . This Picture show the people fighting for their rights with the help of Riots , strikes and by disrupting government policies .

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Opposition Parties as Activists Activists of BJP Mahila Morcha demonstrating against hike in prices of onions and LPG in Visakhapatnam Activists of CPI (M), CPI, OGP and JD (S) take out a rally in Bhubaneswar to protest against POSCO, the Korean steel company for being permitted by the State Government to export iron ore from Orissa to feed steel plant s in China and Korea

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Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. But since most of the members belong to a party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions. Parties form and run governments. As we noted last year, the big policy decisions are taken by political executive that comes from the political parties. Parties recruit leaders, trains them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want .

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Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Many of the pressure groups are the extensions of political parties among different sections of society. Parties sometimes also launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by people. Often opinions in the society crystallise on the lines parties take.

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Minister distributes rs one lakh cheque to the hooch victims family at their houses. Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments. For an ordinary citizen it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties even when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands. Otherwise people can reject those parties in the next elections.

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Popular Participation in political parties

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In a Democracy any group of citizens is free to form a political party. In this formal sense there are a large number of political parties in each country. More than 750 parties are registered with the Election Commission of India. But not all these parties are serious contenders in the elections. Usually only a handful of parties are effectively in the race to win elections and form the Government . How many parties should we have ?

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Types of Parties One Party System : In some countries , only one party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party systems. Example : In China, only the Communist Party is allowed to rule. Although, legally speaking, people are free to form political parties, it does not happen because the electoral system does not permit free competition for power .

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Two Party System : In some countries, power usually changes between two main parties. Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures. But only the two main parties have a serious chance of winning majority of seats to form government. Such a party system is called two-party system. Example : The United States of America and the United Kingdom are examples of two-party system.

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Multi Party System : If several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, we call it a multi-party system. Example : Thus in India, we have a multi-party system. In this system, the government is formed by various parties coming together in a coalition.

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Alliance or Front : When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections an winning power, it is called an alliance or a front. Example : In India there were three such major alliances in 2004 parliamentary elections– the National Democratic Alliance, the United Progressive Alliance and the Left Front.

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Candidates thinking

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National Parties In I N D I A

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5,000 year old civilization 325 languages spoken – 1,652 dialects 18 official languages 29 states, 5 union territories 3.28 million sq. kilometers - Area 7,516 kilometers - Coastline 1,000,000,000 people in 2000 History Of India

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Parliamentary form of Government Secular democratic constitution Worlds largest democracy since 55 years 4 th largest economy Fastest growing IT super power Indian Railways ,the biggest employer in the world .

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National parties are political parties which participate in different elections held all over India. Some of the national parties have their origin even before India's independence. What Is NATIONAL PARTY?

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National Parties Indian National Congress – (INC, led by Sonia Gandhi) Bharatiya Janata Party – ("Indian People's Party", BJP, led by Rajnath Singh) Bahujan Samaj Party – ("Majoritarian Society Party", BSP, led by Mayawati) Nationalist Congress Party - (NCP, led by Sharad Pawar)

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Communist Party of India (Marxist) - (CPI(M), led by Prakash Karat) Communist Party of India- (CPI, led by Ardhendu Bhushan Bardhan) Rashtriya Janata Dal - (RJD, led by Lalu Prasad Yadav) Samajwadi Party - (SP, led by Mulayam Singh Yadav)

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Indian National Congress Party chairperson Sonia Gandhi Parliamentary Party Chairperson Sonia Gandhi Leader in Lok Sabha Pranab Mukherjee Leader in Rajya Sabha Manmohan Singh Prime Minister Founded 1885 Alliance United Progressive Alliance Seats in Lok Sabha 145 Seats in Rajya Sabha 72 Political ideology Populism Democratic Socialism Social Democracy Publications Congress Sandesh Website www.aicc.org.in

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Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC ) is a major political party in India . Founded in 1885 by Dadabhai Naoroji , Dinshaw Wacha, Womesh Chandra Bonerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Monomohun Ghose, Allan Octavian Hume, and William Wedderburn , the Indian National Congress became the leader of the Indian Independence Movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its struggle against British rule in India. After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political party, challenged for leadership only in more recent decades. In the 14th Lok Sabha (2004-2009), 145 members (out of 545), the largest contingent amongst all parties, serve in the house. The party is currently the chief member of the ruling United Progressive Alliance coalition. It is the only party to get more than 10 crore votes in the past two general elections (1999, 2004) INTRODUCTION OF INC

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Bharatiya Janata Party Party chairperson Rajnath Singh General Secretary Arun Jaitley Parliamentary Party Chairperson Atal Bihari Vajpayee Leader in Lok Sabha Lal Krishna Advani (Opposition ) Leader in Rajya Sabha Jaswant Singh (Opposition ) Founded 1980 Headquarters 11, Ashoka Road, New Delhi – 110001 Alliance National Democratic Alliance Seats in Lok Sabha 138 Seats in Rajya Sabha 48 Political ideology Hindutva Hindu nationalism Free markets Integral humanism Publications BJP Today Website http://bjp.org

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The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (Hindi: भारतीय जनता पार्टी [भाजपा] , translation: Indian People's Party ), founded in 1980, is a major political party of India. Designed to represent the country's majority community and Centre-right in nature, the party advocates conservative social policies, self reliance, robust economic growth, foreign policy driven by a nationalist agenda, and strong national defense. The party has a strong relation with the Sangh Parivar, in which the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh plays a leading role. The BJP, in alliance with several other parties, was in power from 1998 to 2004, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee as the Prime Minister and Lal Krishna Advani as his deputy. It is the biggest constituent of the National Democrati Alliance which currently is in the opposition. INTRODUCTION OF BJP

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Bahujan Samaj Party Party chairperson Mayawati Kumari General Secretary Satish Chandra Mishra Leader in Lok Sabha Rajesh Verma Leader in Rajya Sabha Satish Chandra Mishra Founded 1984 Headquarters 12, Gurudwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi – 110001 Seats in Lok Sabha 17 Seats in Rajya Sabha 6 Political ideology Dalit Socialism Publications Adil Jafri, Mayayug Website http:// www.bahujansamajp.com

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The Bahujan Samaj Party (Hindi: बहुजन समाज पार्टी ) is a national political party in India with socialist leanings. It was formed to chiefly represent Bahujans (OBC, SC, ST & Minorities), who are thought by some to be at the bottom of the Indian caste system, and claims to be inspired by the philosophy of Ambedkar. The BSP was founded by the high-profile charismatic leader Kanshi Ram in 1984. The party's political symbol is an elephant. In the 13th Lok Sabha (1999-2004) it had 14 (out of 545) members and currently in the 14th Lok Sabha has 17. The party has its main base in Uttar Pradesh of Indian state, in UP the BSP has formed government several times. Mayawati is the President of the party and has been so for many years. The deep and mutual hostility between the BSP and the Samajwadi Party – the other leading state party in Uttar Pradesh, whose support is mainly obtained from the OBC has led the BSP into allying itself many times with its erstwhile ideological enemies, the BJP. On 23 June 2008, the party withdrew support of a Congress led alliance called the United Progressive UPA in the Indian Government. INTRODUCTION OF BSP

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Nationalist Congress Party Leader Sharad Pawar Founded 1999 Headquarters 10, Bishambhar Das Marg, New Delhi – 110001 Alliance United Progressive Alliance Political ideology Populist Website http://www.ncp.org.in

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NCP was formed on May 25, 1999, by Sharad Pawar, P.A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar after they were expelled from the Indian National Congress (INC) for disputing the right of Italian-born Sonia Gandhi to lead the party. At the time of formation, the party also absorbed Indian Congress (Socialist) - which traced its origins to anti-Gandhi Congress of 1977-78. P.A. Sangma, however, quit the NCP in 2004 (and joined All India Trinamul Congress) over differences with Sharad Pawar on NCP's closing in with the INC. Owning to its leaders' respective support bases, particularly Sharad Pawar, NCP has significant presence in the state of Maharashtra. The NCP advertises itself as a progressive, secular party that stands for "democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice, and federalism." It positions itself as a moderate, centrist alternative to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the INC. The party's election symbol is an analog clock that reads 10:10. In the 2004 Indian General Election, which it fought in alliance in Congress, the party won nine seats and 1.8% of the vote. Since 2004, NCP has been a member of the United Progressive Alliance, which governs the country. The party is also a coalition partner in the state of Maharashtra in alliance with INC. INTODUCTION OF NCP

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Communist Party of India (Marxist) ECI Status National Party General Secretary Prakash Karat Leader in Lok Sabha Basudev Acharia [1] Leader in Rajya Sabha Sitaram Yechuri [1] Founded 1964 Headquarters 27-29, Bhai Vir Singh Marg, New Delhi – 110001 Alliance Left Front Seats in Lok Sabha 44 Seats in Rajya Sabha 14 Political ideology Marxism-Leninism Publications People's Democracy (English), Lok Lehar (Hindi) Students wing Students Federation of India Youth wing Democratic Youth Federation of India Women's wing All India Democratic Womens Association Labour wing Centre of Indian Trade Unions Peasants wing All India Kisan Sabha Website cpim.org

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The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. In the Indian communist movement, there are different views on exactly when the Indian communist party was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by CPI is 26 December 1925. But the Communist Party of India (Marxist), which split-off from the CPI, claims that the party was founded in 1920. INTRODUCTION OF CPI

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Rashtriya Janata Dal Leader Laloo Prasad Yadav Founded 1997 Headquarters 13, V P House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi – 110001 Alliance United Progressive Alliance Political ideology Populism

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The Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD- "National People's Party") is a political party in India. The party was founded in 1997 by Laloo Prasad Yadav. The party came about as a result of Lalu Prasad Yadav, ex-president of Janata Dal, being evicted by Sharad Yadav, the then president, on corruption charges ($250 million) over the farm support funds. The mass base of the party has traditionally been Yadavs and Muslims, two large and relatively politically active segments of Bihar's population. In 2008, RJD received the status of recognized national level party following its performance in north-eastern states. INTRODUCTION OF RJD

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Samajwadi Party Party chairperson Mulayam Singh Yadav General Secretary Amar Singh Leader in Lok Sabha Ram Gopal Yadav Founded October 4, 1992 Headquarters Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Seats in Lok Sabha 38 Seats in Rajya Sabha 16 Political ideology Democratic Socialism Website http://www.samajwadipartyindia.com

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Samajwadi Party (literally, Socialist Party) is a political party in India. It is based in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It describes itself as a democratic socialist party. It was founded on October 4, 1992. The Samajwadi Party was one of several parties that emerged when the Janata Dal (People's League), India's primary opposition party prior to the BJP, fragmented into several regional parties. The Samajwadi Party is led by Mulayam Singh Yadav, a former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and a former defence minister of the country. ITRODUCTION OF SAMAJWADI PARTY

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Criteria to become a recognized political parties : State Party : A party that secures at least 6% of total votes in an election to the legislative assembly of a state and wins at least 2 seats is recognize state political party . National Party : A party that secures at least 6% of total votes in Lok sabha elections or assembly election in any 4 states and wins at least 4 seats in Lok Sabha is recognized National Political Party . Recognized political Parties

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Challenges to Political Parties The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties: All over the world there is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top. Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organizational meetings, and do not conduct internal elections regularly. Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party. They do not have the means or the connections needed to influence the decisions. As a result the leaders assume greater power to make decisions in the name of the party. Since one or few leaders exercise paramount power in the party, those who disagree with the leadership find it difficult to continue in the party. More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important .

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The second challenge of dynastic succession is related to the first one. Since most political parties do not practice open and transparent procedures for their functioning, there are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party. Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family members. In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family. This is unfair to other members of that party. This is also bad for democracy, since people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power. This tendency is present in some measure all over the world, including in some of the older democracies .

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The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties , especially during elections. Since parties are focused only on winning elections, they tend to use short-cuts to win elections. They tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party. In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections. Democrats all over the world are worried about the increasing role of rich people and big companies in democratic politics . The fourth challenge is that very often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. In order to offer meaningful choice, parties must be significantly different. In recent years there has been a decline in the ideological differences among parties in most parts of the world. For example, the difference between the Labour Party and the Conservative Party in Britain is very little. They agree on more fundamental aspects but differ only in details on how policies are to be framed and implemented. In our country too, the differences among all the major parties on the economic policies have reduced. Those who want really different policies have no option available to them. Sometimes people cannot even elect very different leaders either, because the same set of leaders keep shifting from one party to another.

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The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. This was done because many elected representatives were indulging in DEFECTION in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. Now the law says that if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature. How can Parties be Reformed ?

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The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals. Now, it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an AFFIDAVIT giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organizational elections and file their income tax returns. A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties. It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets, about one-third, to women candidates.

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There should be state funding of elections. The government should give parties money to support their election expenses. There are two other ways in which political parties can be reformed : One, people can put pressure on political parties. This can be done through petitions, publicity and agitations. Political parties can improve if those who want this join political parties.

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