Economics of global environmental pollution

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Economics of Global Environmental Pollution Group No - 06:

Economics of Global Environmental Pollution Group No - 06 Ankit Rana Anuj Kumar Ashish Sharma Anupam Pandey Mayank Bharadwaj 4/5/2012 1


Contents Introduction Global Environmental Pollution Effects on Economy Conclusion 4/5/2012 2


Introduction The environment encompasses the whole of life on earth and the complex interactions that link the living world with the physical world. In a general sense, this covers everything contained within the air, land and water. 4/5/2012 3


Cont…. Sudden and dramatic natural changes to the environment have occurred, and continue to occur, which have the potential to upset the whole balance of the Earth's ecosystem. Significant environmental issues cause impacts throughout the world economy. This presentation aims to inform people on the global, regional and local environmental issues that relate indirectly to Economy. 4/5/2012 4

Global Environmental Pollution :

Global Environmental Pollution 4/5/2012 5


Pollutions Global Warming Ozone Layer Depletion Acid Rain Deforestation Loss of Biodiversity Water Pollution Desertification Waste disposal 4/5/2012 6

Global Warming :

Global Warming Greenhouse gases help to maintain the earth’s temperature at a level suitable to support life. Human activities are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which cause more heat to be trapped. Predicted effects of global warming include: Higher sea levels Higher temperatures Variable climatic conditions These changes are expected to cause a significant impact on agriculture and ecosystems . 4/5/2012 7

Ozone Layer Depletion :

Ozone Layer Depletion The ozone layer protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) light. The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleting substances as refrigerants, solvents and insulation is destroying the ozone layer. Depleted ozone levels cause the following impacts: Increased penetration of UV light to earth Increased risks of skin cancer and eye diseases Damage to agricultural crops Disruption to marine food chains 4/5/2012 8

Acid Rain:

Acid Rain The burning of fossil fuels leads to atmospheric emissions of NO x and SO 2 These gases react with water and oxygen to make sulfuric and nitric acids. Sunlight increases the rate of these reactions The deposition of acids can: Damage forests and soils Causes acidification of waterbodies Disturb wildlife Impact on human health 4/5/2012 9


Deforestation The deforestation of tropical rainforests is a major global problem-each year millions of hectares are lost Deforestation rates in some countries continue to increase despite worldwide pressures The impacts of deforestation include: Loss of livelihood for local inhabitants Variable environmental conditions (susceptibility to flood, aggravated droughts, soil erosion etc) Loss of biodiversity and disturbance to ecosystems Loss of carbon sink 4/5/2012 10

Loss of Biodiversity:

Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity has three key components: Genetic diversity Species diversity Ecological diversity Approximately 2.1 million species are known to exist, but up to 50 million still to be discovered Biodiversity is important for food, drugs, maintaining ecological stability, aesthetic and cultural benefits Natural causes and human activity can threaten biodiversity, The loss of biodiversity means ecosystems are destabilized. 4/5/2012 11

Water Pollution:

Water Pollution A change in water quality that impacts on living organisms Types and effects of water pollution include: Infectious agents, such as typhoid, cholera Nutrients and eutrophication Toxic materials, through mining Organic chemicals Sediments can disrupt aquatic ecosystems 4/5/2012 12

Waste Disposal:

Waste Disposal Waste disposal methods include: Open dumping and landfill Ocean dumping Exporting waste Waste to energy plants Minimize the waste stream: 3R’s: reduce, reuse, recycle Composting Waste to energy Hazardous waste disposal Needs to be safely handled and disposed of to minimize threats to the environment and human health 4/5/2012 13

Effects on Economy:

Effects on Economy 4/5/2012 14


Effects Major Environmental Issues:- Corrosion Air Pollution Loss of Tourists Rubbers Cracking Land Degradation Damage to building materials Effects on Glasses & Ceramics Deterioration of Leather & Paper Increased Transportation Costs During Smog . etc 4/5/2012 15

Corrosion :

Corrosion Air pollution damages materials chiefly by corrosion of metals. The prime air pollutant responsible for metallic corrosion is SO2. In the presence of oxygen & moisture , its converts in H2SO4. 4/5/2012 16

Air Pollution:

Air Pollution Air pollution is a major environmental concern in Asian cities. Diseases related to air pollution kill more than half a million people in the region each year Many nations have implemented new emission standards aimed at reducing atmospheric suspended matter, primarily in the motor vehicle sector 4/5/2012 17

Rubber Cracking:

Rubber Cracking Cracking of vehicles tyres . Cracking of electrical insulation . It caused mainly by ozone & PAN. 4/5/2012 18

Land Degradation:

Land Degradation Many Asian nations, particularly India, China, Afghanistan and Mongolia are facing the challenges of desertification Desertification in these areas is caused by: Overgrazing Overploughing Vegetation removal These problems continue to intensify as human and livestock numbers continue to increase 4/5/2012 19

Damage to building materials & Glasses & Ceramics :

Damage to building materials & Glasses & Ceramics Reacts with lime stones ,marbles & other building materials to cause deterioration & disfigured the building materials. Glasses & ceramics are especially resistant to the chemical action of Air/water ,but a long exposure for years showed a change in their appearances. 4/5/2012 20

Deterioration of Leather & Paper :

Deterioration of Leather & Paper SO2 caused leather to lose too much of its strength & ultimately disintegrated. The impurities in paper absorb SO2 & convert it into H2SO4 in the presence of moisture . which makes the paper extremely brittle & decreases its folding resistance. 4/5/2012 21

Relation Between Economy & Global Pollution:

Relation Between Economy & Global Pollution Global pollution directly influence every human activities and economic sectors such as land, marine ecosystems, banking and insurance, health, food security, agriculture, water resources management, communication, tourism and recreation activities. In order to prevent or mitigate the adverse consequences of weather extremes on socio-economic activities in India & other countries, much more is expected from National Meteorological Services (NMS) in terms of sustainable development. 4/5/2012 22


Conclusion Development recognises that social, economic and environmental issues are interconnected, and that decisions must incorporate each of these aspects if there are to be good decisions in the longer term. For sustainable development, accurate environment forecasts and warnings with effective information on pollution which are essential for planning and for ensuring safe and environmentally sound socio-economic activities should be made known. 4/5/2012 23


Cont…. There is therefore the need for a cooperative program among all stake holders (government, public and private) in order to advance our understanding of the weather for a sustainable socio-economic development. 4/5/2012 24

PowerPoint Presentation:

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PowerPoint Presentation:

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