Category: Education

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written communication


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What is written communication?:

What is written communication? Communication in written form . Such as letters, circulars, notes, manuals, house magazines etc. Scope of written communication has been widen up with the invention of Internet.

Why is it used?:

Why is it used? Authenticity Proof for future reference Communication to distance places

To be remembered:

To be remembered Cost Format and Formalities Secrecy

Report writing :

Report writing A report presentation and summation of facts and figures either collected or derived. It is a logical and coherent structuring of information, ideas and concepts.

Five W’s and one H:

Five W’s and one H What Why Who When Where How

Types :

Types Basically there are two type of reports. Informational - entails provision of all details and facts pertaining to the problem. Analytical – it comprises stages in which there is a proper identification of the problem, analysis and subsequent interpretation

Structures :

Structures Introduction Text Terminal section

Report planning:

Report planning Define the problem and purpose Outline the issues for investigation Prepare a work plan Conduct research, analyze and interpret

Presentation :

Presentation “A formal or set-piece occasion with two usual hallmarks: the use of audio visual aids and team work” - Adair Speaking before an audience on an occasion It requires careful preparation

Some occasions…:

Some occasions… Launching anew product or service Starting a training course Presenting a new business plane Making a marketing/sales proposal Diversification of a business etc .

Steps for making a successful presentation..:

Steps for making a successful presentation.. Be clear about the occasion Make audience analysis Visit/have an idea of the location Plane out the presentation Decide upon the method of presentation Rehearse the presentation Consider personal aspects Overcoming nervousness Using visual aids

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JOB APPLICATION LETTERS Drafting an application for Employment and preparing a data sheet or resume to be sent along with it or independently are among the most important writing skills. An Application Letter sells a person’s suitability for a job or ability to work.

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APPLICATION FORMATS Application for Employments can be divided into the following categories: Application letters,or letter- style applications Application enumerating the particulars of the applicant’s qualifications,etc Application in the form of covering letters accompanying resume’s Applications on prescribed forms

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Letters of Application Essential points to be kept in mind are: The job you are applying for Age, nationality and marital status Educational background and standards reached Any professional training, higher studies and relevant Diplomas and certificates acquired or being studied for at the time of applying Any special qualities Reasons for wanting to leave the present employment

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2. APPLICATION WITH ENLISTED PARTICULARS Such an application is a letter and a C.V. combined in one written communication. It is not so popular as the letter style application or the C.V. 3. THE COVERING LETTER The covering letter accompanying the resume is as important as the application Letter. A well drafted covering letter reflects the personality of the writer Detail, communication skills and enthusiasm. The style of the covering letter should be formal. It must be mentioned that the resume and other papers, if any, are enclosed.

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4. THE CURRICULUM VITAE/RESUME Following details should be mentioned: Personal particulars Academic qualification Additional qualifications Experience Languages known References (if asked)

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6. APPLICATION ON PRESCRIBED FORM/FORMAT Most companies or Govt. undertakings invite applications on a prescribed form or format published in the advertisement. Only asked information should be given.

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A letter enables a business firm to maintain contents with it customer, suplier investors etc. Letters reflects the image of an organizations where they originate.

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IMPORTANCE OF LETTERS to provide a convenient and inexpensive means of communication without personal contact. to seek or give information. to furnish evidence of transactions entered into. to provide a record for the future reference.

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LETTER LAYOUTS The layout of a business letter contains : HEADING : The heading contains the name, address, telephone number, e-mail address of the firm or company.Most company use printed letterheads for correspondence. DATE : It’s a necessary thing to have a date mentioned on the letter because it may become a material fact in a suite filed in a court of law.The date should be typed in the right hand corner including the year and the month.

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3. REFERENCE : It serves to identify the department or section from which the letter is being sent or the particular file in which the letter of copy has to be found. It is typed on the left margin. 7/ MA/04 in this 7 denotes the number of letter, MA denotes that the letter is originated from marketing department and 04 stands for year 2004. 4. INSIDE ADDRESS : It contains the name and the full address of the company. Inside address should be written two spaces below the reference. 5. SALUTATION : The salutation is the greeting to the addressee. It should be written two spaces below the inside address.

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6 . BODY OF THE LETTER : This part contains the message which the letter has to convey.A subject line should be there which helps to link up the correspondence and adds to the clarity of the letter. Then the opening paragraph is there to make the reader more clear about the purpose of the letter. 7. COMPLEMENTARY CLOSE : It’s a polite way of closing a letter like a good bye. Complimentary close should be used with a special care. 8. SIGNATURE : Signature lends authenticity to the letter and without letter a letter has no value. Its just below the complimentary closure and the name of the person is printed below the signatures.

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9. IDENTIFICATION MARKS : In this part initials of the person dictating the letter and of the person typing are giving on the left hand margin. 10. ENCLOSURE : When some important document such as cheque, prospectus etc are attached with the letter then the mention of this enclosure has to be made so as to ensure that the document is attached. 11. POST SCRIPT : When the writer forgets to include something in the body of body of letter he can add the message in this part.

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FORMS OF LETTER There are five types of letter: THE INDENTED FORM :This the oldest form of the letter. In this the date line is on the top right hand, inside address is in the block form, there is two or three space form the left margin before the starting of every paragraph. .

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2 . THE FULL BLOCK FORM : All parts of the letter are aligned with the left margin except the heading which is printed in the centre. Open punctuation is used except the body of the letter. It saves time and energy and its very famous due to its pleasant and informal look

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3.THE MODIFIED BLOCK FORM : The date, complimentary close and the Signature are aligned with the right margin. Parts and paragraph in the body of the letter are divided by double spacing. Open punctuation is used. This is the modern and popular form.

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TYPES OF LETTER : INQUIRY LETTER : These letters are written when the sender wishes to make a inquiry either about a issue or a policy. The sender should be very clear about the purpose for which he is writing the letter. The letter should be polite. 2 . LETTER OF REFERENCE : The name of an individual should not be used as reference until the permission is granted. Details like resume and the job you wish to apply for, should be enclosed .

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DIRECT REQUEST : It needs to be persuasive in nature. The letter needs to be drafted very carefully as he is making a request. All sentences and ideas should be linked to each other in a coherent manner. It should be short and to the point so that the interest of the reader is maintained through out. COMPLAIN LETTER: These letters should be written in such a way that the future relations are not spoiled. When Complaint is made all the point should be described logically and courteously.

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MEMOS Memos, which is an abbreviation of memorandum, forms part of inter and intra departmental correspondence. Derived from Latin word ‘ ’memorare ’’, change to ‘’ memorandus ’’, it literally means to provide information . A memo is a written statement that provide information by a person or a committee to other people.

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THE MEMO FORMAT A memo is a form of written communication, but it is not a letter. Its format therefore, is also different from that of a letter. Most companies have their own printed memoranda sheets with a main company heading and also the heading of the department or section and often one or two coloured sheets attached which can be torn off as copies for filing. A typical headed memorandum sheet might look like this:

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THREE MOST IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF A MEMO ARE: Heading. Subject and date. Message. Heading :- This would include reference to the sender and the receiver. Date and subject :- It is important from the point of view of future reference and it should be brief and should be able to communicate the basic intent of message. Message :- It is direct and brief and is phrased in short and simple sentence.

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PROPOSAL An important exercise in business communication is proposal writing. It is a persuasive offer to complete a task, submitted either voluntarily or in response to a request or an advertisement. Basically, it is like a report, and like a report it may be long or short, running into just a few pages. TYPES OF PROPOSAL:- Research proposal. Business proposal. Here we propose to discuss business proposals. While drafting a business proposal we must be thoroughly familiar with requirement of the solicitor, regarding the problem, needed solution, specific work to be done or equipment to be installed, no of copies required, deadlines and so forth.

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A short business proposal has the following parts:- Letter of transmittal or prefatory notes. Body of proposal with information on project team, scope of services, cost of equipment etc.