Essential Concepts Part I

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PTA 150: Functional Anatomy and Kinesiology:

PTA 150: Functional Anatomy and Kinesiology Essential Concepts in Kinesiology


Kinesiology Kinesiology The study of movement


Kinesiology Biomechanics Study of how forces interact within the body Critical for development of effective treatment of musculoskeletal disorders Kinematics Motion of a body, without regard to forces or torques that produce motion. Osteokinematics , movement of bones Arthrokinematics , joint surface movements


Kinematics 2 Types of Motion Translation (measured in feet or meters) Linear motion,; all parts of a body move parallel to and in same direction as every other part Rectilinear , straight line Curvilinear , curved line Rotation (measured in degrees) Body moves in circular path about pivot point; All points simultaneously rotate in the same direction, across the same number of degrees .

Human Movement:

Human Movement Body as a whole , translation of center of mass COG, just anterior to S2 Powered by muscles that rotate limbs Muscles produce force around Axis of Rotation Pivot point for angular motion Point where motion of body is zero Typically located within or very near structure of joint

Human Movement:

Human Movement Active muscle Passive sources other than muscle (push, pull)


Osteokinematics Motion of bones relative to 3 cardinal planes of body (joint motion) 3 Cardinal Planes Saggital plane Divides body into right, left sections Frontal plane Divides body into front, back sections Horizontal or Transverse plane Divides body into upper, lower sections

Axis of Rotation:

Axis of Rotation Typically located through convex member of joint. Often shifts throughout range of motion Remains stationary only if joint a perfect sphere

Degrees of Freedom:

Degrees of Freedom Number of independent movements allowed at a joint Maximum, 3 (shoulder) represents number of permitted planes of angular motion Accessory movements not included in degrees of freedom of a joint passive, translatory movements not included in degrees of freedom of a joint necessary for normal joint mechanics, active movement to occur

Accessory Movements:

Accessory Movements Joint Play Involuntary Must have external force “wiggle room” Component Movements Occur simultaneously with other movements Upward rotation of scapula with glenohumeral movement


Joints Movement Proximal on distal (fixed) Most upper extremity movements Distal on proximal (fixed) Kinetic Chain Series of articulated, segmented links Open Kinetic Chain Distal segment is NOT fixed/ free to move Closed Kinetic Chain Distal segment is fixed


Arthrokinematics Motion that occurs between articular surfaces of joints ( joint surface motion) Convex-Concave Improves congruency Increases surface area Dissipates forces Guides motion between bones

Joint Movement:

Joint Movement Motion between joint surfaces, depends on shape of articular surface All joints either… Ovoid Sellar

Joint Shape:

Joint Shape Ovoid Concave on Convex Most synovial joints Sellar Each articular surface concave and convex Concave in 1 direction, convex in the other Saddle-like

Joint Movement:

Joint Movement 3 Fundamental Movements Roll Glide or Slide Spin


Roll/Slide Convex-on-Concave Convex surface rolls and slides in opposite directions Concave-on-Convex Concave surface rolls and slides in same direction

Joint Mobilization:

Joint Mobilization Knowledge of arthrokinematics necessary to perform joint mobilization/manual therapy techniques Inferior glide Posterior glide Anterior glide


Spin Elbow Radius on capitulum pronation, supination Shoulder Long bone intersects articular surface at right angle IR/ER at 90 0

Joint Movement:

Joint Movement Combination of roll, slide, spin Knee extension, closed chain Femur spins internally as femoral condyle rolls and slides on fixed tibia Increases stability of knee

Joint Congruency:

Joint Congruency Close-packed position end range of motion maximal congruency ligaments, capsule taut stable accessory movements minimal Loose-packed position ligaments, capsule on slack accessory movements less congruent slight flexion long-term immobilization

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