Abortion in bovines 7

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Abortion in bovines : 

Abortion in bovines Amit saini 2006v7b

abortion : 

abortion Abortion is the termination of pregnancy after organogenesis is complete but before the expelled fetus can survive  pregnancy ends before organogenesis, it is called early embryonic deat  A dead full-term fetus is a stillbirth

Causes of abortion : 

Causes of abortion Infectious Bacteria Brucella abortus Campylobacter fetus Bacillus licheniformis Arcanobacterium pyogenes Leptospirosis Listeriosis Protozoa Neospora caninum Tritrichomonas foetus

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Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Viral Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) virus Bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1) Non-infectious Stress Toxins plant toxins Endotoxin Glucocorticoids Nitrate

Brucellosis : 

Brucellosis Brucella abortus Signs in dam inconsistent Abortion typically after 5th month Fetuses usually retained 48-72 hours Fetus autolyzed Placentitis: edematous, brownish exudate on surface, necrosis, cotyledons yellow to brown Bronchopneumonia common

Brucellosis : 

Brucellosis Metritis and retained placenta common Orchitis in bulls Cause of undulant fever in humans Diagnosis: Isolation from calf, uterine fluid, Milk , animal innoculation test. Serology always important-palte agglutination , milk ring test

Campylobacter infection : 

Campylobacter infection C. fetus subspecies venerealis Primarily causes embryonic death and infertility Occasional fetal death and abortion at 4-8 months Venereal transmission Obligate parasite of bovine reproductive tract Females not sterile: fertility returns after 4-8 months Bulls can be infected for life or recover

Campylobacter infection : 

Campylobacter infection Gross lesions usually absent Placentitis—most consistent finding Can see fibrinous pericarditis, pleuritis, peritonitis Fetuses fresh or autolyzed Diagnosis: isolate organism from fetus, fetal fluids, or uterine fluids darkfield exam of stomach contents shows typical organisms Control: vaccination, AI Treatment: antibiotic treatment usually effective in bulls, less so in cows

Leptospirosis : 

Leptospirosis Leptospira hardjo bovis and L. pomona are most important Usually in 3rd trimester; can be at any stage Abortion and/or weak calves Cows healthy or icteric, hemoglobinuria, anemia, agalactia, mastitis, fever Usually no gross lesions in calves can be icteric fresh or autolyzed

Leptospirosis : 

Leptospirosis Diagnosis Isolation difficult and impracticable FA, PCR on fetal kidney, lung or placenta, urine from dam Serology--difficult to interpret Control and treatment: vaccination, tetracycline

Listeria monocytogenes : 

Listeria monocytogenes Abortion, stillbirths, perinatal mortality in cattle, sheep,and goats Sporadic or multiple Dams often have fever, anorexia, retained placenta,metritis, but rarely CNS disease Often eating poorly preserved silage Fetuses autolyzed; can have placentitis, pneumonia,peritonitis, pleuritis Diagnosis: isolate organism

Neospora caninum : 

Neospora caninum The most common cause in dairy cattle; also important in beef Protozoal disease Fetuses typically 4-6 months & autolyzed - Can be mummified Some born alive and infected -Many clinically normal - A few with congenital CNS disease Canines are definitive host Vertical transmission far more important

Neospora caninum : 

Neospora caninum Diagnosis Microscopic lesions in brain, heart, muscle IHC identification of organisms Presuckling antibodies in fetuses or newborn Serology Treatment- Vaccine available

Tritrichomonas foetus : 

Tritrichomonas foetus Infertility is typical Pyometra Occasional abortion (usually < 5 months), retained placenta common No specific lesions in fetus Venereal transmission Diagnosis: -demonstration of parasite in abomasal contents, fetal tissues, or uterine discharge - isolation

Bovine Diarrhea Virus (BVD) : 

Bovine Diarrhea Virus (BVD) Pestivirus Infertility; mummification; abortion; stillbirth, weak calves congenital anomalies Stage of gestation affects outcome - < 125 days: fetal death with infertility, abortion, congenital anomalies; or immunotolerent persistently infected calves - After day 125: fetal death, weak calf, or the immune system can clear the virus and the calf is healthy

Infectious Rhinotracheitis Virus(IBR) : 

Infectious Rhinotracheitis Virus(IBR) Bovine herpesvirus 1 Most abortions after 4 months gestation Fetuses typically retained 48-72 hours -almost always autolyzed Microscopic: focal necrosis in liver Abortions usually occur 1-2 months after initial infection of cow—vaccination in face of outbreak will not help Control - Vaccination is effective

Mycotic abortion : 

Mycotic abortion Common causes of abortion in cattle Usually sporadic, but can reach 10% in a herd Most common genera: Aspergillus, Absidia, Rhizopus, Mucor, Mortierella. Dams healthy Placentitis is consistent, pneumonia in about half of fetuses, dermatitis in a few Fetuses fresh (Aspergillus sp) or autolyzed (nonseptate) Diagnosis: demonstrate fungal hyphae in placenta

Epizootic Bovine Abortion(foothills abortion) : 

Epizootic Bovine Abortion(foothills abortion) Late term abortions, fetuses fresh Generalized swollen lymph nodes Cause is unknown Spread by ticks—Ornithodorus coriaceus

Noninfectious Causes : 

Noninfectious Causes Plants--Pine needles, Locoweed , Ergot fungus , TobaccoMoldy sweet clovers Heat Stress-Fever probably more important than environmental temperature Hypoxia— -carbon monoxide toxicity occasionally seen in swine or other -animals housed in heated buildings Mycotoxins-Aflatoxin—abortions in animals acutely ill

management : 

management Abortion can not be treated,but it can be prevented Prevention depends on early diagnosis of causal factors &there treatment. If abortion occur before 3 months –no treatment required If abortion occur later- Removal of remaining material from uterus-by mifex, 20 iu oxytocin at 4 hr interval , methargin 6ml.

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2.Intrauterine boluses-cleanex,uron 3.Oral ayurvedicuterine cleansers-exaper,explanta,utrasafe,uterigaurd 4.Parenteral antibiotics- Ceftriaxone+sulbactum(vetaceph plus)-3-4g Ceft.+tazobactum(intacef-tazo)-3-4g Ciprofloxacin’ Enro.+pfloxacin(enrostrong PZ)

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Thank you

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