SP3H Grammar Book (final)

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SP3H Grammar Book By: Amata Leno

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Preterite & Imperfect Por & Para Stressed Possessive adjectives and pronouns Ud . & Uds . Commands Present subjunctive Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Subjunctive with verbs of emotion/doubt, disbelief, and denial Conjunctions

Preterite & Imperfect:

Preterite & Imperfect Yo É Í Tu aste iste El/Ella/ Ud . ó ió Nosotros amos imos Ellos / Ellas / Uds . aron ieron AR -aba - abas -aba - abamos - aban ER/IR - ía - ías - ía - íamos - íaron Imperfect Preterite Iba Era Veia Ibas Eras Veias Iba Era Veia Ibamos Eramos Veiamos Iban Eran Veian IR SER VER Car > yo > que Gar> yo > gue Zar > yo > ce Andar : anduve Etstar : estuve Poder : pude Poner : Puse Querer : Quise Saber : supe Tener : tuve Venir : vine Conducir : conduje Traducir : traduje Decir : dije Traer : traje -e - iste -o - imos - ieron

Por & Para:

Por & Para Destination / place Destination / person A future time limit Purpose / goal Use / function Comparisons Opinion POR PARA Motion/place Means/manner In exchange for/substitution Duration of an action Indefinite time period On behalf of

Stressed Possessive adjectives & Pronouns:

Stressed Possessive adjectives & Pronouns Stressed: Mi (s) Tu (s) Su (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Su (s) Unstressed: Mio (a) Tuyo (a) Suyo (a) Nuestro (a) Suyo (a) Mios (as) Tuyos (as) Suyos (as) Nuestros (as) Suyos (as) Must agree in # and gender Placement: Noun + Stressed Possessive Adjective Unstressed Possessive Adjective + Noun Definite Article Infinite Article Demonstrative Article Noun + Stressed Possessive Adjective [article] + [noun] + de + [subject pronoun]

Ud. & Uds. Commands:

Ud . & Uds . Commands Formal commands ( Ud . and Uds . ) Infinitive l impiar b arrer s audir d ecir (e- i ) p ensar (e- ie ) v olver (o- ue ) s ervir (e- i ) Present tense yo form l imp io b arr o s acud o d ig o p iens o v uelv o s irv o Ud . Command limpi e b arr a sacud a dig a piens e v uelv a s irv a Uds . Commands limpi en barr an sacud an dig an piens en vuelv an sirv an The usted and ustedes commands are formed by dropping the final –o of the yo form of the present tense. For – a r verbs, add –e or –en and – ir verbs, add –a or –an . dar > de estar > este ir > vaya saber > sepa ser > sea IRREGULARS

Present Subjunctive :

Present Subjunctive Present Subjunctive Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical Main clause + connector + subordinate clause - ar : e, es , e, emos , en - er /- ir : a, as, a, amos , an Irregulars: dar : de estar : este ir : vaya saber: sepa haber : haya ser : sea e s necesario que … es malo que … es triste que … es bueno que … es mejor que … es importante que … es urgente que … Impersonal Expressoins

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence :

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Verbs of will & influence rogar (o- ue ); to beg sugerir ( i-ie ): to suggest aconsejar : to advise importar : to matter insistir : to insist mandar : to order recomendar (o- ue ): to recommend prohibir : to prohibit

Subjunctive with verbs of emotion/doubt, disbelief, and denial :

Subjunctive with verbs of emotion/doubt, disbelief, and denial Common verbs & expression of emotion Expressions of doubt, disbelief, & denial - alegrarse (de) : to be happy - esperar : to hope, to wish - sentir (e- ie ) : to be sorry - sorprender : to surprise - temer : to be afraid - es triste : it’s sad - ojala ( que ) : I hope (that) - dudar : to doubt - negar (e- ie ) : to deny - es imposible : it’s impossible - es improbable : it’s improbable -no es cierto : it’s not true -no es seguro : it’s not certain -no es verdad : it’s not true

Conjunctions:

Conjunctions Conjunctions coordinate 2 or more words that have the same function. They can put sentences together. y: and e: and ni : neither, nor Conjunctions put together words or sentences to express different or conflicting alternatives. u: or o: or, either more conjunctions: que : that, which y: and como : like, as pero : but, yet o: or si : if, whether porque : because cuando : when