Grammar Book 2- SP3H

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Grammar Book 2- SP3H:

Grammar Book 2- SP3H Alexa Giglio

Subjunctive in adjective clauses:

Subjunctive in adjective clauses The subjunctive will be used in adjective clauses when the antecedent, what is being described, is not definite. When the antecedent is definite or known, the indicative is used. Tengo un perro que   ladra   mucho- INDICATIVE, because there is a dog that exists . Quiero un perroque ladre mucho .- SUBJUNCTIVE, because it is not definite that such a dog exists . Example

Tu Commands:

Tu Commands Tu commands are used just like the usted commands, drop the s, for affirmative, keep the vowel the same, but for the negative, you change the vowel and keep the s. AR  E ER A Examples Compra ( tú ) el anillo . Escribe ( tú ) la tarea . No cuentes tus beneficios . No hables más lentamente.

Nosotros commands:

Nosotros commands COMMAND FORMS OF -AR VERBS Drop the - ar ending of the infinitive form of the verb, and add – emos COMMAND FORMS OF -ER AND -IR VERBS Drop the - er or - ir ending of the infinitive form of the verb, and add - amos Infinitive verb tomar ( to take/drink ) trabajar ( to work ) NOSOTROS command tom emos  trabaj emos Examples : Affirmative NOSOTROS Estudi emos ( Let's study ) Camin emos ( Let's walk ) Negative NOSOTROS No estudi emos No camin emos AR Infinitive verb comer leer NOSOTROS command com amos le amos Examples : Affirmative NOSOTROS Com amos las frutas ( let's eat the fruits ) Escrib amos un poema ( let's write a poem ) Negative NOSOTROS No com amos las frutas No escrib amos  un poema ER 

Past participle used as adjectives:

Past participle used as adjectives If dealing with an “ ar ” ending, drop it and add “ado to the end. If dealing with an “ er ” ending, drop it and add “ ido ” to the end. * ALWAYS USE THE CORRECT GENDER. * PARTICIPLES DO NOT FOLLOW THE RULE OF NOT HAVING TWO CONJUGATED VERBS TOGETHER.

Present perfect:

Present perfect What someone HAS done Auxilary Verb  haber , haber and the past participle can not be separated. Hay ha abido  there has been. * The present perfect is used to describe past actions or past actions that still effect the subject. * Ellos acab an de salir . He Hemos Ha Has Han

Past perfect:

Past perfect Used to talk about what someone had done or what had occurred before the past action. The past perfect is formed by using the imperfect form of the auxilary verb “ haber ” with the past participle. Haber Past Participle Habia Habiamos Habias Habia Habian Ella ya habia empazado cuando llamaron . She had already begun when they called. +

Future tense:

Future tense The future tense is used when discussing when something “will” happen. To form the future tense, take the infinitive and add the endings. The endings are the same for all types of verbs. Decir Dir - Hacer Har - Poder Podr - Poner Pondr - Querer Querr - Saber Sabr - Salir Saldr - Tener Tendr - Venir Vendr - Ire al cine I will go to the cinema. Tendre un postre . I will have dessert.

Conditional tense:

Conditional tense To make polite requests. To express the future in relation to a past actions/state of being. Conditional of probability- I wonder if, probably, would be. Podrias llamar al gerente , por favor. Would you call the manager, please? Would Coul d Should ia Iamos Ias Ia ian

Past subjunctive:

Past subjunctive The past subjunctive is formed by dropping the – ron ending from the preterite and adding the past subjunctive endings. * Any irregular verbs or stem changers use the same changes in the past subjunctive that you would change in the infinitive form of the verb. Caminar ( Caminaron ) Perder ( Perdieron ) Vivir ( Vivieron ) Caminara Perdiera Viviera Caminaras Perdieras Vivieras Caminara Perdiera Viviera Caminaramos Perdieramos Vivieramos Caminaran Perdieran Vivieran