Grammar Book- Spanish

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Libro de gramatica:

Libro de gramatica Alexa Giglio 7 th periodo

Table of Contents :

Table of Contents Imperfect Preterite Por and Para Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Los Mandatos Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence

PowerPoint Presentation:

Imperfect Uses of the imperfect tense: Ongoing action Repeated action No definite beginning or end Time/date/age Interrupted activity Trigger Words: todos los dias a menudo a veces siempre cada dia los lunes generalmente mientras de vez en cuando muchos veces frecuentamente AR ER/IR Aba ia Abas ias Aba ia Abamos iamos Ablais iais Ablon ian Ir Ser Ver Iba Era Veia Ibas Eras Veias Iba Era Veia Ibamos Eramos Veiamos Ibais Erais Veiais Iban Eran Veian Irregulars

Preterite:

Preterite hacer Spock Verbs dar / ver ir / ser Car, Gar, Zar - Only changes in the yo form. -car  yo - que -gar  yo - gue - zar  yo - ce Andar - Anduv Estar - Estuv Poder - Pud Poner - Pus Quere - Quis Saber- Sup Tener - Tuv Venir - Vin Conducir - Condu j Producir - Produ j Traducir-Tradu j Decir - Di j Traer- Tra j E imos Iste O ieron e i aste iste o io a mos imos aron ieron Stem Changers Dormir - Dormi Dormimos Dormiste Durmio Durmieron Y Changers Leer- Lei Leimos Leiste Leyo Leyeron Regular Preterite

Por vs. Para:

Por vs. Para Por Para *Hint* Always think going through something. Por is used for motion, duration of an action, measurement, and substitution. Por aqui (around here) Por eso (therefore) Por fin (finally) When using an exact time use de, instead of por. *Hint* Always think pointing to something. Para is used for a time in the future, comparisons, a goal, and a deadline.

Stressed Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

Stressed Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Long Form- Singular Mio(a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Suyo (a) Suyos (as) Long Form- Plural Mios (as) Nuestros (as) Tuyos (as) Suyos (as) Suyos (as) Short Form Mi (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Tu (s) Su(s) Su (s) Forming a Possessive Pronoun- Take the long form of the possessive adjective. Add el, la, los, or las based on the gender of the noun you are modifying. Attach the pronoun to a reflexive when needed.

Los Mandatos- Usted/Ustedes:

Los Mandatos - Usted / Ustedes To form a formal command you must- Put the verb in the yo form. Comer  Como Drop the “O” ending, and switch to these. Ar  E or En, Er / Ir  A or An Com e/en

Present Subjunctive:

Present Subjunctive Four things you need to know when using the present subjunctive- - Verb “especial” - The word “ que ” - Two subjects - Two clauses Forming the present subjunctive- Put the verb in the yo form. Drop the “o” Add whichever ending goes with the verb based on who you are talking to Ar  e, es , e, emos , en Er  a, as, a, amos , an Comer  Com o Com a/as/a/ amos /an

Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence:

Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence Segurir (e- ie ) To suggest Aconsejar To advise Importar Important, to be important Insistir (en) To insist on Mandar To order Prohibir To prohibit Recomendar (e- ie ) To recommend Rogar (o- ue ) To beg and plead

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion:

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion Alegrarse de To be happy Esperar To wish or to hope Sentir ( e ie ) To regret or to be sorry Soprender To surprise Temer To fear or to be afraid Es triste It’s sad Ojalá ( que ) To hope (that) To wish (that)

Subjunctive with Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial:

Subjunctive with Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Dudar To doubt Negar ( e ie ) To deny Es imposible It’s impossible Es improbable It’s improbable No es cierto It’s not true, or not certain No es seguro It’s not certain No es verdad It’s not true

Conjuctions:

Conjuctions A menos que Unless Antes de que Before Con tal de que Provided that En caso de que In case that Para que So that Sin que Without Cuando When Despues de que After En cuanto As soon as Hasta que Until Tan pronto como As soon as