Health problems

Category: Education

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Health problems:

Health problems

Objectives of today's class :

Objectives of today's class Classification of Health problems Urban vs Rural Developing countries vs developed countries


Classification Communicable disease problems Non-communicable disease problems Nutritional problems Environmental sanitation problems Medical care problems Population problems

Communicable disease problems :

Communicable disease problems Malaria TB Diarrhoeal diseases ARI Filaria AIDS Others-Kala- azar , meningitis, viral hepatitis, JE, enteric fever and helminthic infestations

The epidemiologic transition :

The epidemiologic transition Change in the balance of disease in the population from communicable diseases to non-communicable disease

Non-communicable disease problems :

Non-communicable disease problems Diabetes mellitus CVDs Cancer Stoke Chronic lung diseases

Nutritional problems:

Nutritional problems PEM(food gap) Nutritional anaemia Low birth weight Xerophthalmia IDD Others-lathyrism, endemic fluorosis

Environmental sanitation:

Environmental sanitation Lack of safe water (available only to 96% of urban and 84% rural) Primitive methods of excreta disposal(adequate facilities for waste disposal available to 54% urban and 21% rural population New problems resulting from population explosion, urbanization and industialization -hazards to human health in the air, water and food chain

Medical care problems:

Medical care problems No national health service Inadequate financial resources Urban 80% of health facilities concentrated in urban areas Uneven distribution of doctors Rural 72% of population Lack of modern curative and preventive health services Indigenous system of medicine

Population problem:

Population problem 1.21 billion(2011 census) Inevitable consequences on all aspects of development, especially employment, education, housing, health care, sanitation and environment




Most of the poorest people in the world live in countries that are in the “Global South”: developing (growing, but below developed standards), less-developed (may or may not be growing and below developed standards) or underdeveloped (stagnated and below developed standards) Developed country: High living standards generally distributed Highly technical infrastructure Complex and productive economy

Poverty and basic human needs:

Poverty and basic human needs Basic Human Needs: Food Clean water Shelter Clothing Medical care Education (particularly literacy) Problems: Children in Global South: 1 in 4: malnutrition 1 in 5: no safe drinking water 1 in 7: no access to adequate health care 1 in 3: no access to education


1 in 7 people don’t have access to safe drinking water 40% have no access to sanitation 30% of worlds doctors for 75% of world’s population 5% of medical research conducted on problems that affect less developed areas Lack of immunization against deadly disease despite availability of vaccines General lack of resource expenditures on these problems despite the fact that most (education, basic immunization) are very cheap per capita




Urbanization due to migration Is a reality Has reached to considerable proportions Leading to increased growth of slums Will increase further to greater proportions in the foreseeable future Slums lack infrastructure in basic amenities like safe drinking water, sanitation, housing etc At increased risk of both communicable and non communicable diseases

Significance of Urban Health:

Significance of Urban Health The World Health Day theme for 2010 “Urbanization and Health”

Urbanization: Trends and Patterns:

Urbanization: Trends and Patterns Movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration A double edged sword On one hand- Provides people with varied opportunities and scope for economic development On the other- Exposes community to new threats Unplanned urban growth is associated with Environmental degradation Population demands that go beyond the environmental service capacity, such as drinking water, sanitation, and waste disposal and treatment


Migration-causes Increased family size-limited agricultural property -Land use Pattern -Irrigation facilities Better income prospects Better educational facilities Better “Life style” Basic amenities – health, transport,water , electricity. Victims of natural/manmade calamities-Refugees


Migration-consequences Overcrowding Mushrooming of slums Unemployment Poverty Physical & mental stress Family structure-Nuclear families -Single males

Urban Vs Rural health:

Urban Vs Rural health Is urban health better than rural health? Almost all health indicators are better for urban when compared to rural When the urban slums are taken many are worser than rural !!!

Double Burden of Diseases:

Double Burden of Diseases Overcrowding and related health issues Rapid growth of urban centers has led to substandard housing on marginal land and overcrowding Outbreaks of diseases transmitted through respiratory and faeco -oral route due to increased population density It exacerbates health risks related to insufficient and poor water supply and poor sanitation systems Lack of privacy leading to depression, anxiety, stress etc


Air pollution and its consequences Due to increase in the numbers of motorized vehicles and industries in the cities of the developing world Problems of noise and air pollution Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects Short-term air pollution can aggravate medical conditions like asthma and emphysema Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to other vital organs


Water and sanitation problems Due to increasing urbanization coupled with existing un-sustainability factors and conventional urban water management Nealy 1.1 billion people worldwide who do not have access to clean drinking water and 2.6 billion people i.e. over 400 million people, lack even a simple improved latrine Can lead to increased episodes of diarrhea and economic burden


Upsurge of Non-communicable diseases The rising trends of non-communicable diseases are a consequence of the demographic and dietary transition Decreases in activity combined with access to processed food high in calories and low in nutrition have played a key role Urbanization is an example of social change that has a remarkable effect on diet in the developing world