ajay kumar singh

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GINSENG Ajay Kumar Singh B. Pharm 4th year KIPM – college of Pharmacy Gorakhpur :

GINSENG Ajay Kumar Singh B. Pharm 4 th year KIPM – college of Pharmacy Gorakhpur


Ginseng Ginseng is the dried root of various species of Panax, like P. ginseng , P. japonica , P. notoginseng belonging to family Araliaceae. Angiosperm 13 species of Panax are considered to be ginseng Considered to be a cure-all Found in Asia and North America Two important species: P. ginseng (Asian) and P. quinquefolius (American)

More General Facts…:

More General Facts… Root is the medicinal part of the plant Root can live for 100+ years Can be taken in form of tea or as a tonic, stimulant, & adaptogen Number of users estimated in the millions & growing annually

Geographical Sources:

Geographical Sources It grows widely in Korea, China and Russia. Presently, ginseng is commercially cultivated in Korea, China, Japan, Russia, Canada and United states of America. An international symposium was arranged at Lugano in 1975 to discuss the analytical, pharmacological and clinical aspects of ginseng, which was sponsored by World Health Organization.

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Ginseng is derived from Chinese words shen sang, which stands for manroot , because the shape of the root resembles the human body. It increases non-specific resistance and defence mechanism of the body. 19 th Century

Physical Description:

Physical Description Smooth perennial herb Large, fleshy, slow-growing root Spindle shaped & heavily annulated Color ranges from pale yellow to a brownish color Stem is simple, bearing three leaves A few small, yellowish flowers Fruit is a cluster of red berries

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Chemical Constituents Contains 25+ triterpenoid saponin glycosides Ginsenosides (Ro, Ra, Rb, etc.) Also contains Flavonoids Glycans Peptides Vitamins A & B6 Volatile oils Sugars Lipids Phenolic substances

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Ginseng contains a mixture of several saponin glycosides, belonging to triterpenoids group They are grouped as follows : # Ginsenosides # Panaxosides # Chikusetsusaponin Red & white ginseng Red Asian ginseng contains greater amounts of Rg 2 , Rg 3 , & Rh 1 Different species vary in composition of saponins American ginseng does not contain Ra, Rf, Rh 1 , & Rh 2.

Therapeutics Uses:

Therapeutics Uses Blood Conditions Brain & Nervous system Cardiovascular Immune system Gastrointestinal Glandular Respiratory tract Menstruation

Blood Conditions:

Blood Conditions Blood diseases Hemorrhages

Brain & Nervous System:

Brain & Nervous System Stress Drug & Alcohol Abuse Depression Enhances memory Concentration & cognitive abilities Physical & mental activity Insomnia Alzheimer’s disease Stimulates CNS


Cardiovascular Aids in prevention of CV disease Cures pulmonary complaints Cardiac arrhythmia Heart attack & heart failure Increases blood circulation Regulates blood pressure Palpitations Long term debility & neurosis May raise HDL levels & lower total cholesterol Regulates basal metabolic rate May decrease endothelial cell dysfunction

Immune System:

Immune System Stimulates the immune system Improves resistance to infection Increases natural cell killer activity Increases resistance to stress & disease Glandular Conditions Benefits the endocrine system Pituitary glands Adrenal glands

Respiratory Tract:

Respiratory Tract Asthma Colds Cough Dyspnea Various chest problems Improved respiratory functions in severe chronic respiratory diseases: Chronic bronchitis Emphysema

Male & Female Conditions:

Male & Female Conditions Enhances blood flow May increase sperm count and motility Eases childbirth Increases estrogen levels Normalizes menstruation Menopause Balances hormones Improves mood Regulates hot flashes Rejuvenates the system


Others Aids recovery from disease or surgery Boosts energy levels May reduce risk of certain cancers Diabetes Dissolves tumors Helps in sugar & fat metabolism

Side Effects:

Side Effects GINSENG IS A STIMULANT!! Hypertension Insomnia Irritability Decreased sexual function Euphoria Headaches Menstrual abnormalities Palpitations Skin eruptions Tremors

Should NOT Be Used If You Have…:

Should NOT Be Used If You Have… Acute asthma Acute infections Hypertension

Or If You Take…:

Or If You Take… Caffeine or other CNS stimulants Morphine Haloperidol MAO inhibitors Blood thinning medication Aspirin Warfarin

Clinical Studies:

Clinical Studies Sorenson & Sonne Type 2 diabetic study Anti-influenza study Numerous other studies ranging from physical performanc enhancement to anticarcinogenic activities

World wide trade of Ginseng :

World wide trade of Ginseng Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. Since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. The republic of Korea, China, and the USA are the main producers of ginseng.

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four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng ( Taekuksam ), red ginseng and the related products, etc. The world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million.

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Ginseng has been one of the most important trade goods for health care and treatment of diseases in Asia including Korea and China, and is currently distributed to 35 countries around the world. Ginseng has been one of the most important trade goods for health care and treatment of diseases in Asia including Korea and China, and is currently distributed to 35 countries around the world.  Due to its growth characteristics, ginseng needs specific climate and soil conditions and is cultivated in countries such as South Korea, China, US, Canada, etc.

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