HISTORY - FRENCH REVOLUTION

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Slide 1:

LIBERTY, EQUALITY & FRATERNITY

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

CAUSES OF FRENCH REVOLUTION:

CAUSES OF FRENCH REVOLUTION Ideas of liberty and equality from the American Revolution (note: Constitution was signed 2 yrs before in 1787) Enlightenment ideas of John Locke

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Vast majority of people were broke and hungry. Vast majority were in the lowest estate

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THE THREE ESTATES Before the revolution the French people were divided into three groups: The first estate: the clergy The second estate: the nobility The third estate: the common people (bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants).

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Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation.

TAX PAYERS :

TAX PAYERS The Third Estate bore the entire tax burden . Clergy and Nobility enjoyed at their cost.

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* TITHE - 1/10 th of the agricultural produce. * TAILLE - Tax paid to the state.

THE FRENCH ROYALTY:

THE FRENCH ROYALTY The royal family lived in luxury at the Palace of Versailles. Hall of Mirrors

THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES:

THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES The King and Queen of France lived in luxury and splendor at the magnificent Palace of Versailles outside of Paris.

KING LOUIS XVI:

KING LOUIS XVI His grandfather Louis XIV was the ultimate “absolutist” king. He king was weak He had so little control, he called for the French congress to fix some problems

MARIE ANTOINETTE:

MARIE ANTOINETTE Marie Antoinette , in her early years as Queen, was flighty and irresponsible. She spent huge amounts on clothes, buying a new dress nearly every other day. Being Austrian, she was terribly unpopular in France and had few friends.

Growing Middle Class-political Philosophers:

Growing Middle Class-political Philosophers JOHN LOCKE ROUSSEAU MONTESQUIEU

BREAD RIOTS:

BREAD RIOTS People were hungry; the country was broke. This picture is from an all-woman bread riot. Marie Antionette said “let them eat cake”

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CALLING THE ESTATES GENERAL Meeting of the estates general may 5, 1789

THE TENNIS COURT OATH:

THE TENNIS COURT OATH The delegates agreed and all but one of the 578 delegates signed it. Their oath is known as the Tennis Court Oath. "The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom... decrees that all members of this assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established on firm foundations..."   June 20, 1789

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY:

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

WOMEN’S MARCH TO VERSAILLES:

WOMEN’S MARCH TO VERSAILLES On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women, demanding bread for their families, marched toward Versailles. When they arrived, soaking wet from the rain, they demanded to see "the Baker," "the Baker's wife," and "the Baker's boy". The King met with some of the women and agreed to distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd.

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WOMEN'S MARCH TO VERSAILLES

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THE FALL OF THE BASTILLE!!

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Liberated prisoners parading later in the day

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Burning chateaux as the peasants riot in the countryside

DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN:

DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN "Men are born free and equal in their rights....These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression. The fundamental source of all sovereignty resides in the nation. The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part personally, or through representatives, in the making of the law."

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THE APPREHENSION OF LOUIS XVI AT VARENNES

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The Parisian Mob

THE SAN-CULOTTES-JACOBIN CLUB:

THE SAN-CULOTTES-JACOBIN CLUB At the beginning of the revolution, the working men of Paris allowed the revolutionary bourgeoisie to lead them. But by 1790 the sans-culottes were beginning to be politically active in their own right. They were called sans-culottes (literally, without trousers) because the working men wore loose trousers instead of the tight knee breeches of the nobility. Eventually sans culottes came to refer to any revolutionary citizen.

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THE SANS CULOTTES THE BOURGEOISIE

ATTACK ON THE TUILERIES :

ATTACK ON THE TUILERIES The royal family was living under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace. An angry mob got into the building on June 20, 1792, and found their way to the King.  The crowd shouted insults and was in an ugly mood. The King remained calm and obediently put on the red cap of liberty (a symbol of revolution) at the mob's insistence.

THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI:

THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI The constitutional monarchy put in place by moderate revolutionaries gave way to a radical republic. The National Convention decided to put Louis on trial for his crimes. Although his guilt was never an issue, there was a real debate in the Convention on whether the king should be killed. They voted for his execution. On January 23, 1793 Louis Capet went to the guillotine in the Place de la Concorde, where a statue of his predecessor, Louis XV, once stood.  At the scaffold he said "I forgive those who are guilty of my death."

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THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI

THE RISE OF THE JACOBINS:

THE RISE OF THE JACOBINS When the constitutional monarchy fell and he King was put on trial for treason in December, the Girondins argued against his execution. The Jacobins thought he needed to die to ensure the safety of the revolution. When the Jacobins were successful the tide turned against the Girondins . The Jacobins in the National Convention had 22 Girondin leaders arrested and executed. The Jacobins had won.

THE REIGN OF TERROR:

THE REIGN OF TERROR After the death of Louis in 1793, the Reign of Terror began. Marie Antoinette led a parade of prominent and not-so-prominent citizens to their deaths.  The guillotine, the new instrument of egalitarian justice, was put to work . Public executions were considered educational. Women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal ordered the execution of 2,400 people in Paris by July 1794. Across France 30,000 people lost their lives.

THE DIRECTORY :

THE DIRECTORY People had grown tired of the instability and bloodshed of the revolution and were ready for something more moderate. By 1795, the republic was gone, and 5 men with business interests had the executive power in France. This new government was called The Directory. It was far more conservative than the Jacobin republic had been. It was also ineffectual.

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE:

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION:

EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Both the King and Queen were beheaded French monarchy no more In addition to the Royal family, 17,000 people were executed with the guillotine.

EFFECTS CONTINUED. . .:

EFFECTS CONTINUED. . . Napoleon Bonaparte was elected leader, then appoints himself emperor of France. Sold Louisiana to TJ

Slide 37:

THANK YOU !!! - ABDUL IX ‘C’

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