Reconstruction

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RECONSTRUCTION 1863-1877

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The Civil War ended…….....……………………………………….…………………….. Slide 9 Reconstruction during the Civil War………………………………………………… Slide 17 Slavery ended….…………………………………………………………………………... Slide 30 The Freedmen’s Bureau………………………………………………………………… Slide 37 Presidential Reconstruction…………………………………………………………… Slide 56 Battle over Reconstruction…………….……………………………………………… Slide 86 Congressional elections of 1866…………………………………………………….. Slide 95 Presidential election of 1868…………………………………………………………. Slide 115 Counter Reconstruction………………………………………………………………… Slide 132 Black Americans during Reconstruction…………………………………………. Slide 152 Carpetbaggers and scalawags………………………………………………………. Slide 184 End of Reconstruction…………………………………………………………………. Slide 192 Constitutional amendments and Supreme Court cases……………………. Slide 206 Effects of Reconstruction…………………………………………………………….. Slide 215 Table of contents

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Northern states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Oregon, California, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky Southern states: Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina The two sides in the Civil War

Reconstruction Era: Summary:

Reconstruction Era: Summary The Reconstruction era, 1863-1876, was a time of political crisis and violence directed against the freed slaves. The majority of white Southerners believed there would be a quick reunion with the North with white supremacy continuing in the South. They were willing to accept a degree of freedom for African Americans with a few civil rights but no role in governing. Many Northerners including Vice-President Andrew Johnson, who became president after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, shared these views. Opposing this view were black Southerners and a majority of Northern Republicans who thought that before the Southern states were restored the federal government must secure the basic rights of former slaves. In several pieces of civil rights legislation and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, the Republican Congress wrote this policy into law. Unfortunately, violent opposition in the South and a retreat from the ideal of racial equality in the North meant Reconstruction would last less that ten years. When it ended, the ex-slaves found themselves at the mercy of white Southerners who did everything in their power to turn black Americans into second class citizens. It wouldn’t be until the middle of the 20th century that the promise of Reconstruction would be fulfilled.

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THE MAJOR ISSUES THAT FACED THE U.S. AT THE END OF THE WAR WERE: HOW SHOULD THE NATION BE REUNITED? WHAT SYSTEM OF LABOR SHOULD REPLACE SLAVERY? WHAT WOULD BE THE STATUS OF THE FORMER SLAVES? RECONSTRUCTION AFTER THE WAR WAS OVER THE NATION NEEDED TO REBUILD. THIS PERIOD WAS KNOWN AS RECONSTRUCTION. IT BEGAN DURING THE CIVIL WAR(1861-1865) AND ENDED IN 1877.

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The Civil War ended Surrender of the South Effects of the Civil War

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The Civil War ended in April of 1865 when Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. General Lee General Grant

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President Lincoln entered Richmond, Virginia, the former Confederate capital, on April 4, 1865.

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The United States after the Civil War 365,000 Union dead 265,000 Confederate dead 375,000 injured and wounded One in fifteen adult males in the U.S. were war casualties Large sections of the South were devastated, its railroads and industries destroyed Eleven former Confederate states needed to be restored to the Union Four million ex-slaves with no money, jobs or education were now free

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The Civil War saw the greatest number of deaths of any American war.

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Richmond, Virginia 1865

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The Civil War and its aftermath impoverished the South and dramatically decreased its share of the nation’s wealth between 1860 and 1870.

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Reconstruction during the Civil War 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865

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1861 The First Confiscation Act nullified owners' claims to fugitive slaves who had been employed in the Confederate war effort. General John C. Fremont, a well known abolitionist, invoked martial law in Missouri when he freed the slaves belonging to disloyal owners. President Lincoln asked, then ordered, Fremont to cancel the order. Civil War Reconstruction Timeline 1861-1865

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1862 March : Congress adopted an additional article of war that forbade members of the army and navy to return fugitive slaves to their owners. April 10 : At Lincoln's request, Congress pledged financial aid to any state that undertook gradual emancipation with compensation to owners. April 16 : Congress abolished slavery in the District of Columbia, with compensation to loyal owners, and appropriated money for the voluntary removal ("colonization") of former slaves to Haiti, Liberia, or other countries. June: Congress prohibited slavery in the territories. Five generations of a slave family

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July 1862 13 Freed the slaves of persons engaged in or assisting the rebellion and provided for the seizure and sale of other property owned by disloyal citizens. It also forbade army and navy personnel to decide on the validity of any fugitive slave's claim to freedom or to surrender any fugitive to any claimant, and authorized the president to employ "persons of African descent" in any capacity to suppress the rebellion. 17 Militia Act provided for the employment of "persons of African descent" in "any military or naval service for which they may be found competent," granting freedom to slaves so employed (and to their families if they belonged to disloyal owners). 22 President Lincoln announced to his cabinet his intention to issue a proclamation freeing slaves in the rebel states, but agreed to postpone it until after a suitable military victory. ( The needed victory came in September of 1862 at Battle of Antietam)

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1863 January Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it declared free all slaves in the Confederate states (except Tennessee, southern Louisiana, and parts of Virginia) and announced the Union's intention to enlist black soldiers and sailors. By late spring, recruitment was under way throughout the North and in all the Union-occupied Confederate states except Tennessee.

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Two pages from the Emancipation Proclamation announced by Lincoln September 22, 1862. It went into effect January 1, 1863.

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1863 December Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction issued by President Lincoln. This offered pardons and restoration of property (except slaves) to Confederates who took an oath of allegiance to the Union and agreed to accept emancipation. It also proposed a plan for loyal voters of a seceded state to begin the process of getting back into the Union.

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During the war, "rehearsals for Reconstruction" took place in the Union-occupied South. On the South Carolina Sea Islands, the former slaves demanded land of their own, while government officials and Northern investors urged them to return to work on the plantations. In addition, a group of young Northern reformers came to the islands to educate the freed people and assist in the transition from slavery to freedom. The conflicts among these groups offered a preview of the national debate over Reconstruction.

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1865 January General William T. Sherman issued Special Field Order No. 15 after meeting with black clergymen in Savannah, Georgia, to discuss the future of former slaves after emancipation. Special Field Order 15 set aside portions of coastal South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida exclusively for settlement by black people. Black settlers were to receive "possessory title" to forty-acre plots. “The islands from Charleston south, the abandoned rice-fields along the rivers for thirty miles back from the sea, and the country bordering the St. John’s River, Florida, are reserved and set apart for the settlement of the negroes now made free by the acts of war and the [Emancipation] proclamation of the President of the United States.” General Sherman

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THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT, 1865 Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 1865 The 13th Amendment was proposed in January. Ratification was completed in December of 1865.

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1865 March Congress approved a joint resolution that liberated the wives and children of black soldiers. Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (better known as the Freedmen's Bureau) to oversee the transition from slavery to freedom. “The condition of our emancipated slaves is such as to require the most faithful and intelligent care. The operation of the act is to attract them to our lines. They come in groups of utterly destitute men, women, and children. The most unfortunate of human beings, they yet do not find corresponding sympathy. Even the Government which has freed them, and which invites them to enlist as soldiers, does not treat them honorably, and pays them not the wages of the white soldiers, with whom they bravely fight and nobly fall, but only the ten dollars a month allowed by the law for the general employment of contrabands. Homeless, almost houseless, utterly destitute and dependent, this rapidly-increasing class of our population demand a peculiar care.” Editorial from Harper's Weekly, December 2, 1863

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Slavery ended Reactions by artists, political cartoonists, and musicians

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Celebration of the passage of the 13th Amendment.

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See explanation next slide A grand allegory of the reconciliation of North and South through the federal program of Reconstruction.

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Explanation of allegory    A grand allegory of the reconciliation of North and South through the federal program of Reconstruction. The work is a remarkable combination of religious and patriotic ideology. In "Bateman's National Picture" the government is represented as a colossal pavilion-like structure. It has a broad, flattened dome or canopy, on which is drawn a map of the United States, with a shallow drum with a frieze showing the Senate, House of Representatives, Supreme Court, and cabinet. The drum is supported by two systems of slender columns--the straight, outer ones representing the state governments, and the curved inner ones the people. Atop the dome is an eagle with flag and shield. The structure is literally undergoing "reconstruction." The bases of the columns of the former Confederate states are being replaced with new ones. The old bases are called "Foundations of Slavery." The new ones represent Justice, Liberty, and Education. Under the watchful supervision of the military, civilians carry the new columns and put them into place. The scene is teeming with other symbols and figures. The sky is filled with a multitude of faces--American statesmen, public figures, and other historical characters (among others, Joan of Arc and John Milton). Daniel Webster and John Calhoun are prominently featured. The aerial host surrounds the figure of Christ, who says, "Do to other as you would have them do to you." Flanking the group are Justice (left) and Liberty (right). Below, beneath the canopy, representatives of the North are reconciled with their Southern counterparts. Union generals Benjamin Butler and Ulysses S. Grant clasp hands with Confederates P. T. Beauregard and Robert E. Lee, respectively, and Horace Greeley embraces Jefferson Davis. Below in a small vignette two infants--one black and one white--lie sleeping in their baskets. Above them flies an eagle with a streamer reading "All men are born free and equal."

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Post-Civil War engraving explaining the difficulty many white Southerners had in realizing that slavery was over.

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Sheet music celebrating emancipation.

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An 1866 cartoon commenting on the desegregation of city streetcars in Washington D.C. The black woman on the right is depicted as a lady of beauty, refinement, and wealth. On the left, the Irish-American woman is stereotyped with ape-like features and working-class attire. A servant or housewife, Mrs. McCaffraty has been to the market to purchase fresh produce and fish. Her basket also holds two bottles of alcohol, frequently associated with Irish Catholics.

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The Freedmen's Bureau Legislation introduced Official name and purpose Commissioner and tasks Schools Accomplishments Bureau attacked Dubois reflected on the Bureau

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Mr. President, the Senate only a short time ago was engaged for a week in considering how to open an iron way from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It is now to consider how to open a way from slavery to freedom. I regret much that only thus tardily we have been able to take up the bill for a Bureau of Freedmen. But I trust that nothing will interfere with its consideration now. In what I have to say, I shall confine myself to a simple statement. If I differ from others I beg to be understood that it is in no spirit of controversy, and with no pride of opinion. Nothing of this kind can enter justly into any such discussion. I shall not detain the Senate to expose the importance of this measure. All must confess it at a glance. It is at once a charity and a duty. By virtue of existing acts of Congress, and also under the proclamation of the President, large numbers of slaves have suddenly become free. These may now be counted by the hundred thousand. In the progress of victory they will be counted by the million. As they derive their freedom from the United States, under legislative or executive acts, the national Government cannot be excused from making such provisions as may be required for their immediate protection and welfare during the present transition period. The freedom that has been conferred must be rendered useful, or at least saved from being a burden. Reports, official and unofficial show the necessity of action. In some places it is a question of life and death. It would be superfluous to quote at length from these reports, while all testify alike. Mr. SUMNER Original Freedmen's Bureau legislation

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The Freedmen's Bureau, officially known as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, was established under the War Department in March of 1865. The Freedmen’s Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and medicine. The Bureau also assumed custody of confiscated lands and property in the former Confederate states, border states, District of Columbia, and Indian Territory. The bureau kept records and documented the progress of the ex-slaves as well as the outrages committed against them by white Southerners. The Freedmen’s Bureau distributed rations, clothing, and medicine.

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The Freedmen’s Bureau Act, March 1865 The Freedmen’s Bureau was implemented under the War Department, with Major General Oliver O. Howard as its commissioner. The ex-slave states were divided into 10 districts, and an assistant commissioner was appointed to each. At first, some of the freed population settled on 850,000 acres of abandoned and confiscated Southern land; but this was stopped and the land given back to its former white owners. The Bureau then concentrated on negotiating contracts between freed people and plantation owners on a wage labor basis. The contract labor system quickly evolved into various sharecropping and tenancy arrangements as most freedmen refused to work in conditions that reminded them of slavery. Oliver O. Howard, Commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau Howard University is named after him.

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The Freedmen’s Bureau was assigned the following tasks: To aid refugees and freedmen by furnishing food giving medical care establishing schools supervising labor contracts managing abandoned and confiscated land arbitrating in court disputes between freedmen

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The Freedmen’s Bureau kept records like these from all the Southern states. List of Murders in the Dist. of Alabama 1866. Freedman killed in Sumter County, January. Freedman killed in Russell County, February. Freedman killed near West Point, March. Freedman killed with an axe in Butler County. Three freedmen killed by two brothers in Shelby County, April. Freedman killed in Montgomery County, April. Freedman & freedwoman killed, thrown into a well in Jefferson Co., April. Freedman killed for refusing to sign a contract, Sumter Co., May. Freedman killed in Butler Co., clubbed, April. Freedman found hung by a grapevine in woods near Tuscaloosa, May. Freed girl beaten to death by two white men near Tuscaloosa, July. Freedman murdered between Danville & Somerville. Freedman shot dead while at his usual work, near Tuscaloosa, Sept. Freedman killed in Pike County, Sept. Negro murdered near Claiborne, Alabama, June. Freedman brought to hospital in Montgomery, shot through the head by unknown parties - died in few hours, Dec. Freedman murdered in Montgomery City, Jan. '67.

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Symbolic portrait of the Bureau acting as a buffer between racist whites and ex-slaves.

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The Freedmen’s Bureau set up schools for ex-slaves and their children who had been forbidden education under slavery. Dedicated men and women came from the North to teach the newly freed slaves. Booker T. Washington said, "It was a whole race going to school. Few were too young and none were too old."

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Schools from the elementary level through college provided a variety of opportunities, ranging from reading and writing, various types of basic vocational training to classics, arts, and theology. This Richmond, Virginia, school taught advanced sewing.

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Freed slaves were eager to learn reading and writing, as these had been forbidden under slavery.

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Humorous cartoon portraying a 71-year-old ex- slave woman who had determined to learn how to read and write. She was kept in at playtime for missing a lesson.

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A Freedmen’s Bureau school

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Inside a Freedmen’s Bureau school

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1864 Freedmen’s Bureau school rules for teachers

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Freedmen’s Bureau accomplishments in education from 1865-1870 4,239 elementary schools were established 9,307 teachers employed 247,333 pupils taught 74 high and normal schools were built 61 industrial schools were built

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Accomplishments of the Freedmen’s Bureau Gave away more than 21 million food rations to both black and white Southerners. Established 45 hospitals and treated 450,000 persons. Settled over 30,000 displaced persons. Negotiated hundreds of thousands of labor contracts between freedmen and employers. Served as an arbiter and mediated disputes between freedmen and others. Set up 4,300 schools that educated over a quarter million ex-slaves.

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The Freedmen’s Bureau was attacked.

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President Johnson was against the Bureau and twice Congress had to override his vetoes to keep it functioning. Most Southerners hated the Bureau, seeing it as a “foreign government” forced on them by the North’s military. By 1869, Congress had ended all the Freedmen’s Bureau's work except for education, which ended in 1870. Black Civil War veterans received assistance until 1872.

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“Such was the dawn of Freedom; such was the work of the Freedmen's Bureau, which, summed up in brief, may be epitomized thus: For some fifteen million dollars, beside the sums spent before 1865, and the dole of benevolent societies, this Bureau set going a system of free labor, established a beginning of peasant proprietorship, secured the recognition of black freedmen before courts of law, and founded the free common school in the South. On the other hand, it failed to begin the establishment of good-will between ex-masters and freedmen, to guard its work wholly from paternalistic methods which discouraged self-reliance, and to carry out to any considerable extent its implied promises to furnish the freedmen with land. Its successes were the result of hard work, supplemented by the aid of philanthropists and the eager striving of black men. Its failures were the result of bad local agents, the inherent difficulties of the work, and national neglect.” W. E. B. Dubois. "Of the Dawn of Freedom" Dubois was born free in 1863 in Massachusetts and became an important black activist.

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PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION Three plans for Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan Lincoln assassinated Johnson’s plan Black Codes Former Confederates elected Ku Klux Klan

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LINCOLN PROPOSED HIS PLAN IN 1863: HE OFFERED A PARDON TO ALL SUPPORTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY IF THEY SWORE ALLEGIANCE TO THE UNION AND PLEDGED TO ACCEPT THE END OF SLAVERY. WHEN 10% OF THE MEN ELIGIBLE TO VOTE IN 1860 DID THIS THE STATE QUALIFIED FOR REENTRY INTO THE UNION NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS HAD TO OUTLAW SLAVERY NO PROTECTION FOR FREED AFRICAN AMERICANS JOHNSON PROPOSED HIS PLAN AFTER LINCOLN WAS ASSASSINATED AND HE ASCENDED TO THE PRESIDENCY: AMNESTY TO WHITES WHO SIGNED LOYALTY OATHS STATES MUST ABOLISH SLAVERY STATES MUST PAY WAR DEBTS NO ROLE FOR FREED BLACKS NO VOTE FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS RADICAL REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS PROPOSED THEIR PLAN: EQUAL RIGHTS FOR FREED AFRICAN AMERICANS MILITARY OCCUPATION OF THE SOUTH TO OVERSEE CHANGES VOTING RIGHTS FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES 13 TH , 14 TH , 15 TH AMENDMENTS THREE PLANS FOR RECONSTRUCTION

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Lincoln

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Lincoln's second inaugural address closed with these words: “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan...to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”

LINCOLN’S RECONSTRUCTION PLAN:

LINCOLN’S RECONSTRUCTION PLAN 1. Offered amnesty and pardons to any Confederate who would swear to support the Constitution and the Union. 2. High Confederate officials and military leaders were to be temporarily excluded from the process. 3. When one-tenth of the number of voters who had participated in the 1860 election had taken the oath within a particular state and abolished slavery, that state could launch a new government and elect representatives to Congress. 4. Free all slaves.

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Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction clashed with the radical Republicans’ ideas. Motivated by a desire to build a strong Republican party in the South and to end the bitterness engendered by war, in December of 1863 Lincoln issued a proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction for those areas of the Confederacy occupied by Union armies. Lincoln's plan aroused the sharp opposition of the radicals in Congress, who believed it would simply restore to power the old planter aristocracy. In July 1864 they passed the Wade-Davis Bill, which required 50% of a state's male voters to take an “ironclad” oath that they had never voluntarily supported the Confederacy. Lincoln's pocket veto kept the Wade-Davis Bill from becoming law, and he implemented his own plan. By the end of the war it had been tried, but with little success, in Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Virginia. Congress, however, refused to seat the senators and representatives elected from those states, and by the time of Lincoln's assassination the president and Congress were at a stalemate.

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President Lincoln shot, April 14, 1865 Murdered by John Wilkes Booth, a loyal Confederate Southerner who believed that he was avenging the South when he assassinated the president.

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Birth of a Nation (1915) Film clip of the assassination of President Lincoln.

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President Lincoln died on April 15, 1865

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The conspirators were caught and hung. Derringer used by Booth to kill Lincoln

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Lincoln’s funeral train

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Vice-President Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency.

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Andrew Johnson took up Lincoln’s Reconstruction philosophy of “Let them in easy.” Lincoln believed the people of the Southern states had never legally seceded; they had been misled by some disloyal citizens into defiance of federal authority. Since the war was the act of individuals, the federal government would have to deal with these individuals and not with the states. Johnson, a Southerner who had remained loyal to the Union, was determined to carry out Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan. Southern states quickly took advantage of this easy approach. Former Confederate officials took the reigns of state government, disenfranchising freedmen and imposing strict racial policies. Southern whites controlled Reconstruction 1865-1867

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President Johnson called his Reconstruction policy “Restoration.” The focus of Restoration was leniency toward the former Confederate states. When 10% of enfranchised Southerners in each former Confederate state took a loyalty oath, the state was readmitted to the Union. Certain former Confederate leaders were temporarily disenfranchised. Most of the ex-Confederate states took advantage of the Lincoln-Johnson “easy” plan.

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Johnson’s soft approach did not include oversight in the South, which led to the passage of a series of racist laws known as the Black Codes. The Black codes were passed for two main purposes: 1. To control and inhibit the freedom of ex-slaves.  These laws controlled almost all aspects of life for African Americans and prohibited them from exercising their freedoms that had been won in the Civil War.  White Southerners needed a stable labor force since slavery was abolished. Although the codes differed from state to state, there were some common provisions: Blacks were required to enter into annual labor contracts, with penalties if they tried to quit early. Dependent children were forced into compulsory apprenticeships, and the use of corporal punishments by “masters” was sanctioned. Unemployed blacks and “vagrants” could be sold into private service if they could not pay designated fines.

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Mississippi Black Codes of 1865 were passed as "Civil Rights of Freedmen" or “Apprentice Law." Be it enacted, ...That it shall not be lawful for any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any white person to intermarry with any freedman, free negro, or mulatto and any person who shall so intermarry, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof shall be confined in the State penitentiary for life; and those shall be deemed freedman, free negro, or mulatto who are of pure negro blood, and those descended from a negro to the third generation, inclusive, though one ancestor in each generation may have been a white person. That all contracts for labor made with freedman, free negroes, or mulattoes for a longer period than one month shall be in writing, and if the laborer shall quit the service of the employer before expiration of his terms of service, without good cause, he shall forfeit his wages for that year, up to the time of quitting. ... That every civil officer shall, and every person may arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any freedman, free negro, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer before the expiration of his or her term of service without good cause. ... That it shall be the duty of all sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other civil officers of the several counties in this State, to report to the probate courts of their respective counties semi-annually, at the January and July terms of said courts all freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes, under the age of eighteen, in their respective counties, beats or districts, who are orphans or whose parents have not the means or who refuse to provide for and support said minors; and thereupon it shall be the duty of said court to apprentice said minors to some competent and suitable person, on such terms as the court may direct, having a particular care to the interest of said minor; Provided that the former owner of said minors shall have the preference, when, in the opinion of the court, he or she shall be a Suitable person for that purpose.

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Excerpt from a Mississippi Black Code law, 1865 Section 10. It shall be lawful for any freedman, free negro, or mulatto, to charge any white person, freedman, free negro or mulatto by affidavit, with any criminal offense against his or her person or property, and upon such affidavit the proper process shall be issued and executed as if said affidavit was made by a white person, and it shall be lawful for any freedman, free negro, or mulatto, in any action, suit or controversy pending, or about to be instituted in any court of law equity in this State, to make all needful and lawful affidavits as shall be necessary for the institution, prosecution or defense of such suit or controversy. Excerpt from a Louisiana Black Code law, 1865 Sec. 2.  Be it further enacted, &c., That persons who have attained the age of majority, whether in this State or any other State of the United States, or in a foreign country, may bind themselves to services to be performed in this country, for the term of five years, on such terms as they may stipulate, as domestic servants and to work on farms, plantations or in manufacturing establishments, which contracts shall be valid and binding on the parties to the same. Examples of Black Code laws in Louisiana and Mississippi

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Example of the Black Codes in practice: Selling a free black man in Florida in 1867 to pay his “fines.”

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Chained Black Code “vagrants” forced to work for no wages (slavery).

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“Slavery is dead?” The left panel shows a slave being sold as punishment for a crime; the right panel shows an African American being whipped as punishment for a crime in 1866.

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Views of Southerners punishing freedmen and women under Johnson’s home rule governments.

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Many former Confederate officials were elected to Congress and state level positions. 4 ex-Confederate generals elected 6 ex-Confederate cabinet officers elected 58 ex-Confederate congressmen elected Former vice- president of the Confederacy Alexander Stephenson, the former vice-president of the Confederacy, was elected to Senate from Georgia in December of 1865.

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A critical look at Johnson’s reconstruction policy allowing former rebels back into Congress while allowing the mistreatment of freed slaves.

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Cartoon showing man with belt buckle "CSA" (Confederate States of America) holding a knife "the lost cause," a stereotyped Irishman holding club "a vote," and another man wearing a button "5 th Avenue" and holding wallet "capital for votes," with their feet on an African American soldier sprawled on the ground. In the background, a "colored” orphan asylum and a southern school are in flames; African American children were lynched near the burning buildings. “This is a White Man’s Government.”

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Cartoon expressed the outrage many Northerners felt at how white Southerners were treating ex-slaves. Only soldiers could protect the freedmen from abuse.

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In December of 1865, the same month that Congress passed the 13 th Amendment abolishing slavery, a group of ex-Confederate soldiers in Tennessee formed a secret society of white men, dedicated to resisting laws giving blacks the same rights as whites. The society grew rapidly and soon the KKK and similar groups were spreading terror throughout the former Confederate states. The Ku Klux Klan

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The KKK was one of many white supremacist organizations. Other racist groups that sprang up after the Civil War were the White Brotherhood, the Men of Justice, the Constitutional Union Guards and the Knights of the White Camellia. Their main objective was to stop black people from voting and exercising their newly won civil rights. Members wore white robes with hoods to hide their faces. Playing on the idea that African Americans were superstitious, Klan members sometimes claimed to be ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers. Using terror tactics, they came out at night in white robes carrying fiery torches. Klan members beat and murdered people whom they opposed. Hanging by the neck from a tree was a common method of lynching opponents. The first Grand Wizard of the KKK was former Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest.

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Their targets also included whites who supported rights for African Americans.

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Clips from “Birth of a Nation,” a 1915 movie by D.W. Griffith that glorified the post-Civil War KKK. Griffith’s film was condemned as promoting racism by liberal and progressive groups. Click on the images above to play

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The battle over Reconstruction began between President Johnson and Congress Thaddeus Stevens Congressional Reconstruction, December 1865-November 1866 Riots in 1866

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Thaddeus Stevens, a leading radical Republican Congressman from Pennsylvania, said of the defeated South, "hang the leaders – crush the South – arm the Negroes – confiscate the land… Our generals have a sword in one hand and shackles in the other… The South must be punished under the rules of war, its land confiscated…these offending states were out of the Union and in the role of a belligerent nation to be dealt with by the laws of war and conquest ."

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Southern congressman-elect telling the clerk of the House of Representatives that he would like to secure his old seat. The clerk replies that he is very sorry, but we can not accommodate you because all the old seats were broken up and are being Reconstructed.

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Wendell Phillips was a radical abolitionist from Boston. He dedicated his life to several reformist movements. This letter helped spark the battle between Congress and the president over who would control Reconstruction.

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Congressional Reconstruction: December 1865 to November 1866 December 1865: the states ratified the 13 th Amendment. February 1866: Congress increased the power of the Freedmen’s Bureau by allowing it to try people who victimized freedmen. This bill was passed over President Johnson’s veto. April 1866: Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, also over Johnson’s veto. This law spelled out the rights of citizens, including the right to enter into contracts, sue, give evidence in court, and full property rights. June 1866: Congress submitted the 14 th Amendment to the states for ratification. President Johnson encouraged Southern state legislatures to vote against the amendment.

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Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, June 20, 1866 I. That the States lately in rebellion were, at the close of the war, disorganized communities, without civil government, and without constitutions or other forms, by virtue of which political relations could legally exist between them and the federal government. II. That Congress cannot be expected to recognize as valid the election of representatives from disorganized communities, which, from the very nature of the case, were unable to present their claim to representation under those established and recognized rules, the observance of which has been hitherto required. III. That Congress would not be justified in admitting such communities to a participation in the government of the country without first providing such constitutional or other guarantees as will tend to secure the civil rights of all citizens of the republic; a just equality of representation; protection against claims founded in rebellion and crime; a temporary restoration of the right of suffrage to those who had not actively participated in the efforts to destroy the Union and overthrow the government, and the exclusion from positions of public trust of, at least, a portion of those whose crimes have proved them to be enemies to the Union, and unworthy of public confidence. W. P. FESSENDEN (of Maine), United States Senate JAMES W. GRIMES (of Iowa), United States Senate IRA HARRIS (of New York), United States Senate J. M. HOWARD (of Michigan), United States Senate GEORGE H. WILLIAMS (of Oregon), United States Senate THADDEUS STEVENS (of Pennsylvania), House of Representatives ELIHU B. WASHBURN (of Illinois), House of Representatives JUSTIN S MORRILL (of Vermont), House of Representatives JNO. A. BINGHAM (of Ohio), House of Representatives ROSCOE CONKLING (of New York), House of Representatives GEORGE S. BOUTWELL (of Massachusetts), House of Representatives Committee members

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White rioting in New Orleans and Memphis convinced many in the North that the federal government must do more to protect the freedmen. This had an important impact on the congressional elections of 1866.

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WHAT HAPPENED IN MEMPHIS? The black population in Memphis had quadrupled, and racial tensions were high. The riot was sparked on May 1, 1866, when the wagons of a black man and a white man collided. When a group of black veterans tried to intervene to stop the arrest of the black man, a crowd of whites gathered at the scene. Fighting broke out, then escalated into three days of racially-motivated violence, primarily pitting the police (mainly Irish-Americans) against black residents. In the end, 46 blacks and two whites were killed, five black women were raped, and hundreds of black homes, schools, and churches were broken into or destroyed by arson. Along with the New Orleans riot three months later, the Memphis riot helped undermine the viability and support of President Andrew Johnson’s lenient Reconstruction program and led to the radical Republicans increasing their number in Congress in the 1866 congressional elections.

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Examples of how African Americans were treated in 1866: the burning of a freedmen's schoolhouse and shooting down of “Negroes” on the morning of May 2, 1866, in Tennessee.

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Congressional Elections of 1866 Struggle between critics and supporters of Johnson Who were the radical Republicans? Reconstruction Acts Impeachment of President Johnson States readmitted to the Union

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A broadside attacking President Johnson’s lenient policy toward former rebels and his lack of concern for freedmen in the South.

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In August of 1866 a convention of both Northern and Southern politicians was held in Philadelphia to create a political party that would back President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction program and elect a new Congress that would back his policies. This cartoon is a savage satire showing the attendees as muzzled dogs and cats. Andrew Johnson is portrayed as the “dead dog of the White House” lying in the road.

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From August 27 to September 15, 1866, President Johnson made his "Swing Around the Circle" tour to Chicago, St. Louis and other cities, to drum up election support for Democratic candidates. His crude remarks, coupled with the rumors that he was often drunk, hurt the other Democratic candidates, as this contemporary newspaper cartoon shows.

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Examples of racist political ads put out by the supporters of Andrew Johnson in the 1866 congressional elections.

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In the fall elections of 1866, Republicans won majorities in every northern legislature and a two-thirds majority in both houses of Congress, assuring the party enough votes to override any presidential veto. RADICAL REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS TAKE CONTROL OF RECONSTRUCTION

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Who were the radical Republicans and what did they want? The postwar radical Republicans were motivated by three main factors: Revenge —a desire among some to punish the South for causing the war. 2. Concern for the freedmen — some believed that the federal government had a role to play in the transition of freedmen from slavery to freedom. 3. Political concerns —the radicals wanted to keep the Republican Party in power in both the North and the South. Thaddeus Stevens Edwin M. Stanton Salmon B. Chase

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Congress and the president battled over Reconstruction. When Congress convened in December of 1865, President Johnson claimed Reconstruction was over. Radical Republicans disagreed and fought to deny newly-elected Southern members, most of whom were former Confederate officers, their seats in congress. A joint committee on reconstruction proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which gave African Americans equal rights under the law nationwide, and an extension of the Freedmen’s Bureau Act. President Johnson vetoed both laws, which created a showdown between the president and Congress. For the first time in history the congress overrode the president's veto on major legislation. REPRESENTATIVE THADDEUS STEVENS SENATOR CHARLES SUMNER

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Radical Reconstruction Began FIRST RECONSTRUCTION ACT PASSED OVER JOHNSON'S VETO MARCH 1867 This act divided the former Confederate states into five military districts under the supervision of army generals and subject to martial laws. Each Southern state had to ratify the 14 th Amendment. Each state had to adopt a new constitution disqualifying former Confederate officials from holding public office. Each state had to guarantee black men the right to vote.

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Over 700,000 black men were registered to vote. In several states registered black voters were in the majority.

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In March 1867 Congress passed the second Reconstruction Act over Johnson’s veto. This act gave the military commanders of the five districts instructions on holding state constitutional conventions. In July 1867 Congress passed the third Reconstruction Act, overriding Johnson’s veto, granting military district commanders the power to remove state officials from office. In March 1868 Congress passed the fourth Reconstruction Act which allowed proposed state constitutions to be ratified by a simple majority in each state.

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Johnson vs Congress

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The impeachment of President Johnson March 1867 Congress passed the Tenure of Office act over Johnson’s veto. This act restricted presidential power. August 1867 Johnson fired Secretary of State Edwin Stanton, deliberately violating the Tenure of Office Act. February 1868 the House voted to impeach Johnson on a 126-47 vote. In May the Senate rejected the removal of Johnson, acquitting him by a single vote.

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Actual ticket allowing admission into the Senate impeachment debate.

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The impeachment documents being served on the president.

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The last speech on impeachment - Thaddeus Stevens closing the debate in the House - March 2, 1868.

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Horace Greeley, newspaper editor and opponent of the president. Johnson celebrating his acquittal with a liquor bottle.

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Seven former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union under the Republican Reconstruction plan by June 1868 . Arkansas

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In September of 1868 the new state government of Georgia expelled all black representatives from the state legislature. Angered, the Republicans in Congress re-imposed military rule in Georgia.

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The Presidential Election of 1868 Bitter election Cartoons and campaign posters Seymour versus Grant Election results Major scandals under President Grant Major Reconstruction events under President Grant

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See explanation on next slide

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The strongly racist character of the Democratic presidential campaign of 1868 is displayed in this elaborate attack on Reconstruction and Republican support of black rights. Horses with the heads of Democratic candidate Horatio Seymour and running mate Francis P. Blair, Jr., pull an ornate carriage in a race with a rude wagon drawn by donkeys with the heads of Republican candidates Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax. The U.S. Capitol is visible beyond. In the carriage are four allegorical figures: Liberty, holding the Constitution and a banner which reads "Our Glorious Union Distinct, like the Billows, One, Like the Sea' This is a White Man's Government!"; Navigation, holding a miniature ship; Agriculture, holding sheaves of wheat and a scythe; and Labor, represented by a bearded man with a hammer and flywheel. In contrast to the Democratic vehicle, the Republican wagon has stalled before a pile of rocks and a cemetery strewn with bones representing "100,000,000 White Lives, the Price of Negro Freedom!" Other stones represent "Ruined Commerce," "$30,000,000 stolen from the Treasury," and "Negro Supremacy." In the wagon are the grim reaper, Pennsylvania representative and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, an unidentified man, a black woman, and an idle black man. Stevens: "Colfax pulls like the d----l but old tangleleg [i.e., Grant] ain’t worth a d----n! Push at the tailboard, Ben!" Massachusetts representative and former Civil War general Benjamin F. Butler, pushing the wagon from the rear, replies, "I am pushing, Thad! but we are stuck. Seymour is a mile ahead now." The black man asks, "War's dis wagon gwine wid dis member ob Congress. I'd jes like to know?" The unidentified man remarks, "The Democracy would not take me so I thought I'd come back & stick by you Uncle Thad, and we'll all go to H-ll together!" Death announces, "My friends 1,000,000 slaughtered soldiers block the wheels--you fooled them, and they now impede your progress!" At left New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley invites abolitionist preacher Henry Ward Beecher to play the thimblerig. Nearby a black couple in rags express their desire to return to their former master. At top right, next to the U.S. Capitol, a group of black youths in striped outfits dance and tumble about.

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Racist Democratic party brochure advertising for sale a badge proclaiming white supremacy.

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Ulysses S. Grant was immensely popular and could have had the nomination from either party. His love of money and luxury, acquired in the postwar period when he was given gifts, attention, houses and cash, led him to accept the Republican nomination in 1868. Grant had no strong political convictions, but went along with the party platform that pledged a continuation of radical reconstruction. The campaign of 1868 was bitter. Grant, a legitimate war hero, was accused of being a drunkard and a “Negro-lover.” The Republican campaign consisted mainly of “waving the bloody shirt,” a tactic reminding the voters that the Democrats did not support the effort to restore the Union in the Civil War and could even be considered traitors.

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Campaign posters

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Anti- Democrat political cartoon using “waving the bloody shirt” in an attempt to link the Democratic party with secession and the failed Confederate rebellion.

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Democratic candidate Seymour’s official campaign song: “THE WHITE MAN’S BANNER”

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Republican campaign poster portraying Democratic candidates as rioters, butchers, pirates and hangmen.

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1868 ELECTION RESULTS

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Grant won the popular vote by only 300,000. Over 700,000 votes were cast by freedmen in the former Confederate states. The conclusion was clear: Republicans needed to ensure that blacks could vote in Southern elections. stereotyped Irishman

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Excerpt from Grant’s inaugural address: "The responsibilities of the position I feel, but accept them without fear. The office has come to me unsought; I commence its duties untrammeled. I bring to it a conscious desire and determination to fill it to the best of my ability to the satisfaction of the people."

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President Ulysses S. Grant and his wife Julia

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Grant’s administration was marked by scandals and poor leadership. Historians agree that, although he was personally honest, many of his associates and appointees were dishonest and attempted to profit from government service. Major scandals during Grant’s two terms: Black Friday Scandal involving James Fisk and Jay Gould (1869) Credit Mobilier Scandal (1872) Whiskey Ring Scandal (1875) Belknap Bribery Scandal (1876)

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Key Reconstruction events during the Grant Administration “Redeemer” governments reestablished in many Southern states. These replace the Republican governments. 15 th Amendment became part of the Constitution. First Enforcement Act passed to enforce the 14 th and 15 th Amendments. Second Enforcement Act passed to supervise congressional elections. Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act. Grant, using the KKK Act, suspended writ of habeas corpus in South Carolina. Grant reelected for a second term. Democrats won control of both houses of Congress. Civil Rights Act of 1875 was passed by the lame duck Republican Congress. It outlawed discrimination in public places, but was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1883.

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After the passage of the 14 th Amendment all the ex-Confederate states granted blacks the right to vote, while sixteen loyal Union states still denied black citizens suffrage. A federal amendment to guarantee universal black male suffrage would apply to all states and would remedy the inequity while helping to strengthen Southern radical Republican Reconstruction regimes. The 15 th Amendment to the Constitution was proposed in February 1869. "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It did not guarantee blacks the right to hold office, which many congressmen felt should be included. Many states, North and South, required payment of poll taxes, property ownership, or literacy as a condition of voting. The 15th Amendment did not address any of those stipulations. Some feminists fought against the amendment because women were not included in the guarantee of suffrage. The main force behind the 15th Amendment was the Republican wish to cement its power in both the North and the South. Black Republican voters would help accomplish that goal.

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Women’s suffrage and Reconstruction Many women’s suffrage advocates were disappointed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, since they didn’t give women the vote. Women had been active in the Abolitionist movement and helped gather petitions to secure equal rights for black people. Frederick Douglass believed in the women’s movement but believed that it was now “the Negro’s hour.” Prominent suffragists like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony campaigned against the 14th and 15th Amendments because, for the first time, the word male was inserted into the U.S. Constitution.

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COUNTER-RECONSTRUCTION Redeemer governments Racist ideologies Ku Klux Klan terror Federal government reaction 1872-1874 events in Louisiana

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Redeemer Governments Starting in 1869, “redeemer” Democrat (party) governments were elected across the South. These governments were characterized as being white-only, opposed to racial equality, and made up of many former Confederate supporters. They replaced the Republican state governments set up under congressional reconstruction. Redeemer state governments essentially meant that Reconstruction was over in that state and ex-slaves could not count on the federal government for protection.

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“This is a white man’s government” Racism, hostility and the resentment of many Southern whites to Reconstruction policies showed itself in the replacement of Republican Reconstruction governments with Democratic “redeemer" governments. Aiding this change was the intimidation and violence against blacks and their white allies. The groups responsible were paramilitary groups like the Ku Klux Klan, the White League, and the Red Shirts. One Vote Less stereotyped Irishman

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Attitude of many Southern whites toward the freedmen: "The white men of the South and the Negroes learned to live together in peace while the Negro was in slavery. They can continue to live together so long as the latter is content to remain in subjection, so long as he recognizes the white as the master race. Under no other conditions is he fit to live in a civilized country...His proper place is that of the white man's servant in a white man's country. The white man and the Negro cannot live together in peace under existing conditions. The white man must rule, the Negro must submit. This is a white man's country, a white man's government, a white man's civilization."

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Winslow Homer's cartoon criticizing the postwar attitudes of many Southern whites toward freed people depicts a leisured white planter admonishing his former slave, "My boy, we've toiled and taken care of you long enough - now, you've got to work!"

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  Cartoon showing sailor raising flag with skull and crossbones reading, “This is a white man's government. CSA slavery" on ship, “The New Alabama.” (The Alabama was a famous Confederate commerce raider warship that destroyed hundreds of Union ships during the Civil War)

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The next two slides contain excerpts from this book.

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“We can only give illustrations of horrid deeds and samples of inhuman enactments, which were done and made to create fear in the hearts of persons disposed to help the black man, and render it impossible for him to make progress. For several years a reign of terror existed, and in a short time several thousand murders were committed, and plunder and slaughter were effected the like of which has not been seen in any civilized country. It was stated in the Senate that the following outrages and murders had been done. In Mississippi, twenty-three murders and seventy-six cases of outrage. In Alabama, two hundred and fifty murders, and one hundred and sixteen outrages. In Florida, one hundred and fifty-three cases of murder. In Louisiana in one year there were over one thousand murders. Who committed all these crimes? A society called the Ku Klux Klan, sometimes, The Pale Faces, and, Knights of the White Camelia, which was formed for the purpose of punishing Northern men and putting the "Negro" in his proper place. Who the fiends were was never known, or never officially known, because witnesses dared not tell what they knew; to tell was to sign their own death warrant.”

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“At the village of Cross Plains, Calhoun County, four colored men and a white school-master were put to death by hanging and shooting. They were in charge of the officers of the law at the time, but very little evidence was forthcoming against them; in fact no evidence could be produced, and it was certain they would be set at liberty. The White Faces, however, had decided they should die, and proceeded forcibly to take them from the authorities, and murdered them. This case was investigated, and nine persons were arrested, but the grand jury refused to indict a single one of them.         Teachers of colored children were warned to stop their schools, and were told that, if they should refuse, they would have to choose between shooting, hanging, or whipping to death. In Aberdeen, Monroe County, Mississippi, twenty-six schools were closed in a short time, and even the state superintendent of schools was beaten by armed men. They called upon him and said: "Our rule is, first, warning; second, whipping; third, death." They left him in a state of unconsciousness, having said they would next time call for his life. Nothing was too wicked for this society, which embraced all the Southern States, to do, and nobody who had sympathized with the North or helped the Negro in his necessity was safe.”

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Letter from a “carpetbagger” judge, Albion Tourgee, to a senator in Washington. It was published in the New York Tribune in 1870. “Men and women come scarred, mangled, and bruised, and say: “The Ku-Klux came to my house last night and beat me almost to death, and my old woman right smart, and shot into the house, 'bust' the door down, and told me they would kill me if I made complaint;" and the bloody mangled forms attest the truth of their declarations. and I am satisfied that another hundred would not cover the work done in that time. …These crimes have been of every character imaginable. Perhaps the most usual has been the dragging of men and women from their beds, and beating their naked bodies with hickory switches, or as witnesses in an examination the other day said, “sticks” between a "switch" and a "club." From 50 to 100 blows is the usual allowance, sometimes 200 and 300 blows are administered. Occasionally an instrument of torture is owned. Thus in one case two women, one 74 years old, were taken out, stripped naked, and beaten with a paddle, with several holes bored through it. The paddle was about 30 inches long, 3 or 4 inches wide, and 1/4 of an inch thick, of Oak. Their bodies were so bruised and beaten that they were sickening to behold. They were white women and of good character until the younger was seduced, and swore her child to its father. Previous to that and so far as others were concerned her character was good.”

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VISIT OF THE KU KLUX KLAN

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Excerpts from the Congressional Ku Klux Klan hearings “For instance, a colored man was placed astride of a log, and an iron staple driven through his person into the log. In another case, after a band of them had in turn violated a young negro girl, she was forced into bed with a colored man, their bodies were bound together face to face, and the fire from the hearth piled upon them. The K.K.K. rode off and left them, with shouts of laughter. Of course the bed was soon in flames, and somehow they managed to crawl out, though terribly burned and scarred. The house was burned.” “I could give other incidents of cruelty, such as hanging up a boy of nine years old until he was nearly dead, to make him tell where his father was hidden, and beating an old negress of 103 years old with garden partings because she would not own that she was afraid of the Ku-Klux. But it is unnecessary to go into further detail. In this district I estimate their offenses as follows, in the past ten months: Twelve murders, 9 rapes, 11 arsons, 7 mutilations, ascertained and most of them on record. In some no identification could be made.” “Four thousand or 5,000 houses have been broken open, and property or persons taken out. In all cases all arms are taken and destroyed. Seven hundred or 800 persons have been beaten or otherwise maltreated. These of course are partly persons living in the houses which were broken into.”

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Mississippi experiences “The riflemen staged torchlight processions, made nocturnal raids against notorious carpetbaggers, and whipped Negroes who were politically conspicuous. They put the state under a kind of martial law. Even in the capital of Jackson, Governor Ames's wife reported, "the crack of the pistol or gun is as frequent as the barking of the dogs." The governor tried to organize his Negro supporters into militia companies, but he found that they had "not the courage or nerve-whatever it may be called-to act the part of soldiers." "In the dozen or so cases over the state when Negroes did resist, there occurred a race riot. In each instance the result was the same. Trained bands of white men were able to defeat the badly led Negroes; dozens of Negroes were killed, few if any whites were injured. So demoralized were Mississippi Republicans that the actual elections were unusually quiet. As one observer said, the Negroes were afraid to make any trouble and the whites did not need to. Virtually all the counties now passed under the control of native white administrations, and the Democrats gained heavy majorities in both houses of the legislature.”

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The federal government passed acts to stem the wave of racist violence sweeping the former Confederate states endangering the success of Reconstruction. First Enforcement Act, May 1870, was designed to enforce the 14 th and 15 th Amendments. This law made the bribing, intimidation of or racial discrimination against voters a federal crime. It also outlawed conspiracies preventing the exercise of constitutional rights. A second Enforcement Act was passed in February of 1871 but had little effect in the South. In April of 1871, at the request of President Grant, the Ku Klux Klan Act was passed. This gave the president the right to suspend habeas corpus and use the army against any group attempting to deny citizens civil rights.

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Congress urged President Grant to take action against the Ku Klux Klan. In 1870 Grant began an investigation into the Klan and the following year a grand jury reported that: "There has existed since 1868, in many counties of the state, an organization known as the Ku Klux Klan, or Invisible Empire of the South, which embraces in its membership a large proportion of the white population of every profession and class. The Klan has a constitution and bylaws, which provides, among other things, that each member shall furnish himself with a pistol, a Ku Klux gown and a signal instrument. The operations of the Klan are executed in the night and are invariably directed against members of the Republican Party. The Klan is inflicting summary vengeance on the colored citizens by breaking into their houses at the dead of night, dragging them from their beds, torturing them in the most inhuman manner, and in many instances murdering." The Ku Klux Klan Act became law in April of 1871. This law gave the president the power to intervene in troubled states with the authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus (this allowed him to arrest people without due process) in counties where disturbances occurred. Unfortunately although Grant used this power several times against the Ku Klux Klan, it was too little too late. The Klan faded away as conservative “redeemer” governments took control of each state.

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The 1872 state election results in Louisiana were disputed between the radical Republicans and a coalition of liberal Republicans and Democrats, with each side inaugurating their own governor and legislature. A federal district judge ruled that the radical Republicans were the victors, so newly-reelected President Ulysses S. Grant sent federal troops to ensure compliance with the judicial decree. Many whites in Louisiana refused to accept that decision. They established a shadow government and used paramilitary units known as the White League to intimidate and attack blacks and white Republicans. The worst incident of violence was the Colfax Massacre of April 13, 1873. The fighting left two white men and 70 black men dead, with half of the latter killed after they surrendered. Federal officials arrested and indicted over 100 white men. They were later freed, however, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the basis for their prosecution (part of the 1870 enforcement act) was unconstitutional. Cartoon depicts the Colfax massacre. Caption reads: “The Louisiana murders - Gathering the dead and wounded.”

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Race Riots "Battle Of Liberty Place" September 14, 1874 President Grant did little to end white abuse against freedmen. A vigilante group of 14,000 mostly ex-Confederate soldiers in Louisiana organized in the spring and summer of 1874. They called themselves the White League, and were dedicated to a "white man's government" and the suppression of "the insolent and barbarous African." Emboldened by the federal hands-off policies, 3,500 armed White Leaguers assembled in New Orleans on September 14, 1874, and demanded that carpetbag Republican Gov. William Kellogg resign. Opposing the White League were 3,600 policemen and black militia troops under the command of ex-Confederate General James Longstreet. Supported by two Gatling guns and a battery of artillery, Longstreet's force formed a battle line from Jackson Square to Canal Street, guarding the Customs House, in which the governor and other Republican officials were hiding. The White Leaguers charged the line, captured Longstreet, and pushed his men to the river, where they either surrendered or fled. The attackers occupied the city hall, statehouse, and arsenal. Total casualties in the one-hour fight that has become known as the Battle of Liberty Place were 38 killed and 79 wounded. The white supremacists deposed Kellogg, installed John McEnery as governor, and ran the state government for three days. By the end of that time, Grant ordered federal troops to New Orleans. Upon the arrival of the U.S. Army, the White Leaguers withdrew, Kellogg was reinstated as governor, and Longstreet was released. It became clear that without the presence of the federal army, Louisiana's carpetbag government would not survive.

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Newspaper scenes from the battles in New Orleans in 1874

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Black American experiences during Reconstruction Activism Search for family members Marriages Southern economy Churches Colleges Political life

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In 1865 and 1866 African Americans held mass meetings and conventions throughout the South demanding equality and the right to vote. The majority took place in locations occupied by Union troops.

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Families separated under slavery were desperate to find their loved ones. The family was a major source of strength and comfort in the postwar black community. Freed people made remarkable efforts to locate loved ones - a Northern reporter in 1865 encountered a former slave who had walked more than 600 miles searching for his wife and children, from whom he had been sold away during slavery.

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Under slavery formal marriages were not allowed. In the first days after the war thousands of African Americans married under the authority of the Freedman's Bureau. Bureau records indicate that some marriages involved young men and women marrying for the first time, while others legalized slave unions made years before.

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The South's economy declined during the Reconstruction Era.

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How would the ex-slaves earn a living? Their dream was to buy land and become independent farmers. Ex-slaves had few skills, no education, no money, food or supplies. They had to work to survive. White planters were convinced that blacks could not work without supervision. They insisted on maintaining a slave plantation “gang system” that now paid wages. Blacks resisted the “gang” work model and a sharecropping and share tenancy system of agricultural labor developed. Freed slaves received little help from the federal government in their quest for farm land, so their only option was to work for their former owners.

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Sharecropping and tenant farming An 1868 sharecropping agreement that gave the freedmen 2/5 of the crop. Sharecropping gave black and poor white farmers half of the crop after the harvest. In order to pay for needed supplies, they would borrow money, leveraging their crop share as collateral. Tenant farming is similar to sharecropping but differs in that the tenant might pay the landowner rent in cash, rather than just with crops, for usage of the land. These systems forced African Americans to rely upon the honesty of white landowners and creditors. Unstable prices also led this system to be referred to by many as “modified slavery” since it offered no real economic advancement for blacks.

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Harvesting cotton

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In 1880 few black agricultural workers owned their own land. Most were dependent on whites for their income.

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Southern cotton production in millions of bales produced per year.

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Black Churches One of the first institutions freed people set up were separate churches that were not under white control. Blacks withdrew from white-controlled religious institutions. In 1860 in South Carolina there were 42,000 black Methodists who attended biracial churches. In 1876 only 600 black worshippers remained. Churches became more than just places to worship. Churches also housed schools, social events and political gatherings and sponsored benevolent and fraternal societies. Black ministers also came to play a major role in Reconstruction politics.

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Examples of black churches built after the Civil War Black churches were targeted by racists and often burned down.

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The role of pastors In many African American communities the social, political, and economic life of the people centered around the church. The pastor served in many roles as community leader, teacher, and business consultant. Families would spend many hours at church each week.

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Reconstruction saw the creation of the nation's first black colleges, including Howard University in Washington, D.C., Fisk University in Tennessee, Hampton Institute in Virginia, and later Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. At first, these institutions emphasized the training of black teachers. By 1869, blacks outnumbered whites among the nearly 3,000 men and women teaching the freed people in the South. Before the Civil War, only North Carolina among Southern states had established a comprehensive system of education for white children. During Reconstruction, public education came to the South. Black Colleges

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Howard University students, 1870

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A history class at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1902

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Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee Andrew Carnegie at Tuskegee

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Mechanical Drawing, Hampton Institute, 1899

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Finish carpentry class

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With the passage of the Reconstruction Acts in March of 1867, former slaves were granted the right to vote, hold political office and otherwise participate in the political life of the former Confederate states. Ebenezer Don Carlos Bassett was appointed minister to Haiti in April 1869, the first black American diplomat and the first black American presidential appointment. For many years thereafter, both Democratic and Republican administrations appointed African Americans as ministers to Haiti and Liberia. Political life

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Black voters in Richmond, Va. in 1871

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Black political office holders during Reconstruction Francis L. Cardozo…South Carolina State Treasurer Robert B. Elliot… United States Congressman J.J. Wright…South Carolina Supreme Court Justice James Rapier…South Carolina Congressman Jonathan V. Gibbs…Florida’s Secretary of State James W. Hood...North Carolina Superintendent of Public Instruction Henry M. Turner…Georgia Legislature Hiram Revels…U.S. Senator from Mississippi Robert Smalls…House of Representatives from South Carolina John Roy Lynch…Speaker of the Mississippi House Jefferson Long…Congressman from Georgia Joseph H. Rainey… U.S. Representative from South Carolina Jefferson Long… U.S. Representative from Georgia Oscar J. Dunn… Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana

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Composite of three plantation scenes and portraits of Benjamin S. Turner, Rev. Richard Allen, H.R. Revels, Frederick Douglass, Josiah T. Walls, Joseph H. Rainy, and William Wells Brown. From the Plantation to the Senate.

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The Forty-First and Forty-Second Congress (1869-1873) included black members for the first time in American history. A total of sixteen blacks served in Congress during Reconstruction. This commemorative print issued at the time portrays Senator Hiram Revels of Mississippi and representatives Robert DeLarge of South Carolina, Jefferson Long of Georgia, Benjamin Turner of Alabama, Josiah Walls of Florida, and Joseph Rainey and Robert B. Elliott of South Carolina.

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Hiram Rhodes Revels was born in North Carolina in 1827 and attended various schools and seminaries. He became an ordained minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1861; assisted in recruiting two regiments of African American troops in Maryland and served in Vicksburg, Mississippi, as chaplain of a Negro regiment; and organized African American churches in that state; established a school for freedmen in St. Louis, Missouri; in 1863 he moved to Mississippi and was elected alderman in 1868 and state senator in 1869. In 1870 he was elected as a Republican to become the first African American member of the U.S. Senate, where he served from February 23, 1870 until March 3, 1871. America’s first black senators were from Mississippi. Blanche K. Bruce was born a slave in Virginia in 1841. He was tutored by his master’s son but left his master at the beginning of the Civil War. He taught school in Hannibal, Missouri; attended Oberlin College in Ohio. After the war he became a planter in Mississippi, member of the Mississippi Levee Board, sheriff and tax collector of Bolivar County from 1872-1875. He was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1881. He was the first African American to serve a full term in the United States Senate. He was appointed Registrar of the Treasury by President James Garfield in 1881, and later Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia.

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Political cartoon showing Jefferson Davis, ex-president of the Confederacy, amazed that a black man (“Moor”)--Hiram Revels--occupied his former Senate seat.

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John Hayne Rainey was the first black congressman from South Carolina. He took a conciliatory approach to white Southerners. Jonathan Jasper Wright was born in Pennsylvania and became a successful lawyer. During Reconstruction he moved to the South Carolina where he became a state supreme court justice. Robert Elliott was a lawyer who was elected to the South Carolina legislature in 1868. In 1869 he was appointed assistant adjutant-general, making him the first black commanding general of the South Carolina National Guard. He led the fight against the Ku Klux Klan. He served as a congressman from 1871 to 1874. In 1876, Elliott was elected state attorney general, but with the withdrawal of federal troops and the subsequent end of Reconstruction, he was forced out of office a year later.

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Poster from South Carolina displayed the “RADICAL MEMBERS OF THE FIRST LEGISLATURE AFTER THE WAR.”

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Poster depicting black members of the 1868 Louisiana Convention and Assembly. They included Oscar J. Dunn, the state's lieutenant governor, and P.B.S. Pinchback, who became lieutenant governor and later, for one month, the nation's first black governor.

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Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Democrats versus Republicans Terms defined State rule under new governments

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The overall goal of the Republicans in Congress was the creation of a two-party system in the South where Republicans could compete against Democrats for votes, offices and influence. To accomplish this, they were forced to employ radical methods against a hostile South which desired a Democrat-dominated political system where blacks would be prevented from voting. A strong Southern Republican Party was crucial in order to accomplish this goal. Immediately after the war former Confederate military and political leaders were prohibited from voting and running for office. Republican governments quickly took over and were able to remain in power with the votes of the newly enfranchised freedmen. Democrats versus Republicans Capitol building in Washington D.C.

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Black Republicans Blacks could be a powerful voting bloc if they were allowed to vote. Various amendments and civil rights acts were passed to ensure that they could cast ballots. Blacks outnumbered whites in only three states, so it would be necessary to get Southern white Republican voters as well. A political discussion.

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Carpetbaggers and scalawags Both terms originated with Southern whites who resented intrusion by the federal government in the post-Civil War South. Carpetbaggers was the term used to describe Northerners who came South during Reconstruction. Many Northerners were motivated by profits to be made, but others went to help rebuild the Southern economy. Many were ex-Union soldiers who stayed in the South after the war. Although their numbers were few, many were elected as Republicans to state and local office under radical Republican rule in the South. Carpetbags were cheap suitcases. Southerners said carpetbaggers came with empty bags and went home having filled them with money taken from Southerners. Scalawags were white Southerners who “disgraced” the South by joining with the Republican party to enact reforms. Most white Southerners hated scalawags and saw them as a group of traitors who deserted their countrymen for their own material gain. Former Confederate General James Longstreet Former Confederate Cavalry Officer John S. Mosby

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The Union League (also known as the Loyal League) was a society formed during the Civil War to increase Union morale and support for the war effort. After the war some members went South to participate in Reconstruction. They worked for radical reconstruction of the Southern states, punishment of the Southern leaders, confiscation of property and black suffrage. They became the main spokesmen for the Republican party among the emancipated blacks. After the Freedmen's Bureau agents and other Northern whites took command of the League, it was accused of being a political machine to control the votes of African Americans. Carpetbaggers

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James L. Alcorn was Mississippi's most prominent “scalawag” and the first Republican governor of the state. He was a man of wealth, and the pro-business stand of the Republicans appealed to him. Realizing that the black vote was necessary to keep the Republicans in power, he advocated black suffrage. This position cost him support from white Southerners. Alcorn wrote an explanation of his view, concluding with this statement about blacks: "All that Congress has given him I accept as his with all my heart and conscience, I propose to vote with him, to discuss political affairs with him; to sit, if need be, in political counsel with him, and from a platform acceptable alike to him, to me, and to you, to pluck our common liberty and our common prosperity out of the jaws of inevitable ruin." Scalawags

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At the constitutional conventions set up under military rule, blacks were often in the majority and contributed to the new state governments. The new state constitutions, modeled on those in the Northern states, provided for education, civil rights and taxation. However, the post-Civil War era was a time of massive fraud and corruption throughout the U.S., and the Southern “carpetbag” state governments were prime examples. They voted huge sums of money for public works projects, many of them needed, but often corrupted by kickbacks to the legislators or their friends. Much money was raised by taxing and borrowing to construct railroads to attract investment. Unfortunately, the major result of railroad spending was huge debts and bankruptcies. The majority of Southern whites were hostile to the carpetbag governments, especially because blacks were members. It was commonly said that the new governments and constitutions would last only as long as there were Northern soldiers to protect them. None of the new Republican governments outlasted the end of Reconstruction in 1877. “Colored” Rule in a Reconstructed State, 1874 (Thomas Nast)

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Print attacking black legislators

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The End of Reconstruction Northern interest waned Depression Native American wars Presidential candidates, 1876 Compromise of 1877

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Northern interest in Reconstruction began to decline as the years passed. Northerners were tired of Reconstruction. In the early days of Reconstruction people believed they were performing a constructive activity. This changed when Northerners realized that white Southerners would never change without many more years of expensive Reconstruction effort. Northerners were also unhappy that the U.S. Army still had to occupy parts of the South. The economic depression of 1873 limited funds available for the Reconstruction effort. The North thought it could no longer afford the costs of Reconstruction. By 1876 only three states were still under Republicans. All the other states were back under “home rule” of Southern white conservatives. The North's attention was focused on other issues and Reconstruction was moved to the “back burner.”

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The Panic of 1873 began a depression that lasted until 1878. A financial downturn in Europe spread to the U.S. causing great hardships. The New York Stock Exchange was closed for 10 days. Credit dried up, foreclosures were common and banks failed. Factories shut down, throwing thousands out of work. The number of homeless and hungry people soon overwhelmed the abilities of charities to function.

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American Indian wars caught the attention of the American people.

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The two candidates in the 1876 presidential election. The Democrats chose Samuel Tilden, the reform governor of New York who had crushed Boss Tweed's bribery ring. The Republicans chose Rutherford B. Hayes, who led a successful political career making few enemies. At a time when many others were considered corrupt, he was seen as an honest man.

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Two pieces of Tilden campaign literature stressed that he was honest compared with the corrupt Republicans he wanted to replace.

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Candidate Hayes kissing admirers’ babies. Rutherford B. and Lucy Webb Hayes 1847 wedding daguerreotype Hayes during the Civil War

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Propaganda from the campaign trail

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“ Every thing points to a Democratic victory this fall.” Widespread intimidation of Southern blacks before the election caused many to flee to remote areas for safety. “Negroes hiding out in a Louisiana swamp.”

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“Of course he wants to vote the Democratic ticket.”

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THE IGNORANT VOTE--- HONORS ARE EASY 1876 election cartoon showed stereotyped black and Irish (white) “ignorant” voters balancing each other out, resulting in a tie.

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Tilden won the popular vote, but lacked one electoral vote to earn a majority in the electoral college. There were 22 disputed electoral votes from the states of Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon. Each state sent two sets of election returns. Republicans made deals with Southern Democrats which gave Hayes the presidency. The Southern politicians gave their support to Hayes in return for his promise to pull all the remaining troops out of the former Confederate states. The South also wanted the appointment of at least one Southerner to Hayes's cabinet and support for Southern railroad construction. The Compromise of 1877 is often called the deal that ended Reconstruction. The Electoral Commission that was formed to decide the disputed election Compromise of 1877

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Federal soldiers were important in the South to aid the freedmen. Fight between a black and a white legislator in Louisiana in 1875. Conservative whites illegally seized power. Only the quick intervention of federal troops restored the Republican government. After 1877 there were no federal troops; the white conservative “redeemer” governments replaced the Republican “carpetbag” governments, and blacks were removed from office.

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During Reconstruction it was evident that Southern governments would only comply with reforms when the military was present. Since the troops were removed by the Compromise of 1877, it became harder to protect African Americans.

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Constitutional Amendments and Supreme Court cases during Reconstruction 13 th , 14 th , 15 th Amendments Major Supreme Court cases throughout the era

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Reconstruction amendments to the U.S. Constitution , 1865-1870. Amendment number Date passed by Congress Main Provision Date when ¾ of states ratified 13 th January 1865 Prohibited slavery in the U.S. December 1865 14 th June 1866 Citizenship for all persons born or naturalized in the U.S.A. July 1868 15 th February 1869 Prohibited denial of suffrage because of race, color or previous condition of servitude. March 1870

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Original 13 th Amendment

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Original 14 th Amendment

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14 th Amendment The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 28, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbid states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws.” By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment.

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15 th Amendment

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1868 Supreme Court

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The Supreme Court and Reconstruction Strauder v. West Virginia ( 1880), the Court ruled that restriction of juries to whites only was unconstitutional and violated the rights of blacks as stipulated by the 14th Amendment. Virginia v. Rives (1880), the Court upheld the conviction of two black men by an all-white jury. This decision nullified the Strauder case, and opened the door for whites to find legal ways to discriminate on the base of color without violating federal law. In 1883 the Supreme Court ruled the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional.

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Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) marked the beginning of a 58-year period in which Jim Crow racist laws went unchallenged and were accepted by the federal government. Homer Plessy, a black man who tried to board a white-only train in Louisiana (the car designated for blacks was full), claimed the Louisiana segregation laws violated both his 13th and 14th Amendment rights. Once Plessy boarded the white-only train, he was forcibly removed and jailed. The Supreme Court, by a vote of 8-1, ruled that equal rights did not mean co-mingling of the races, effectively legalizing and facilitating "separate but equal" access for blacks. Cumming v. County Board of Education (1899) stated that separate schools were valid even if comparable schools for blacks were not available. Taking advantage of these Supreme Court decisions, Southern states passed laws that restricted African Americans’ access to schools, restaurants, hospitals, and other public places. Soon signs that read "Whites Only" or "Coloreds Only" were posted at entrances and exits, water fountains, waiting rooms, and restrooms. Laws were enacted that restricted black citizens’ rights in all aspects of life.

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The effects of Reconstruction Loss of political power for African Americans in the south Methods of disenfranchisement Promises and failures of Reconstruction “Bloody Chasm” Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s

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African Americans after 1876 The white “redeemer” governments that came to power after Reconstruction immediately acted to eliminate any African American political power. One of the first actions was gerrymandering voting districts to reduce black voting strength and minimize the number of black elected officials.

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African Americans were disenfranchised In 1890, Mississippi adopted several measures that effectively ended voting by black citizens. These measures came to be known as the Mississippi Plan . They used literacy and "understanding" tests to disenfranchise black American citizens. Similar laws were passed by South Carolina (1895), Louisiana (1898), North Carolina (1900), Alabama (1901), Virginia (1901), Georgia (1908), and Oklahoma (1910). These disfranchising laws included poll taxes, literacy tests, vouchers of "good character," and disqualification for "crimes of moral turpitude." These laws were "color-blind" on their face, but were designed to exclude black citizens disproportionately by allowing white election officials to apply the procedures selectively. Other laws and practices, such as the "white primary," attempted to evade the 15th Amendment by allowing "private" political parties to conduct elections and establish qualifications for their members. As a result of these efforts in the former Confederate states, nearly all black citizens were disenfranchised and removed from the voting rolls by 1910. The process of restoring the rights taken by these tactics would take many decades.

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Poll taxes Literacy tests “Grandfather clauses” Suppressive election procedures Black codes and enforced segregation Gerrymandering White-only primaries Physical intimidation and violence Restrictive eligibility requirements Rewriting of state constitutions Methods used to stop blacks from voting after reconstruction included:

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Voter registration for African Americans in Louisiana in 1896 was 130,000. In 1904 it dropped to 1,342.

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In June of 1890, Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican congressman from Massachusetts, introduced a bill into the House of Representatives which would have provided supervision of federal elections by the government to protect African American voting rights in the South. After Reconstruction, many Southern states had passed local laws that, in effect, denied blacks suffrage despite constitutional guarantees. Critics of Lodge's "Force Bill" saw it as a way for Republicans to retain a majority in the House in the upcoming November elections, since most African Americans would vote Republican. The bill passed the House, but not the Senate.

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“Bloody Chasm” refers to the bitterness and hard feelings that divided the North and South after the Civil War.

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“Let Us Clasp hands Over the Bloody Chasm.”

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The promises of Reconstruction End to slavery: 13 th Amendment Citizenship and equal treatment under the law: 14 th Amendment Suffrage: 15 th Amendment Healthcare, job training, and education: Freedmen’s Bureau Safety and security: military occupation Social mobility

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The failures of Reconstruction No hope for economic advancement due to tenant farming and sharecropping Lack of funding for assistance programs Failure to bridge the racial divide between whites and blacks No long term protection of civil rights of African Americans

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The failures of Reconstruction in the 1860s and 1870s meant that the struggle of African Americans for equality and freedom would be deferred until the middle of the 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, it would no longer be seen as a Southern problem, but rather as an issue to be faced by the whole country.

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United States history series: Colonization to Reconstruction: Early U.S. Review Colonial Era American Revolution The New Nation: Washington to J.Q. Adams Slavery Westward Movement Expansion and Reform: 1820-1860 Causes of the Civil War Civil War Reconstruction Rise of Industrial America Response to Industrialism Immigration and Urbanization America becomes a world power: Imperialism The Progressive Era The U.S. and World War One 1920’s Great Depression and New Deal: 1930’s Causes of World War Two World War Two 1950’s 1960’s Civil Rights Movement Cold War: Truman to Kennedy Cold War: Johnson to the fall of the Berlin Wall Vietnam Late History Overview: 1970s, 1980s, 1990s World History titles: Kingdoms and Empires in the Fertile Crescent: Sumer to Persia Ancient Egypt: Neolithic to Roman Conquest Aegean Civilizations India, and Southeast Asia History of Africa Mesoamerican and Andean Civilizations Islamic Civilization China: Ancient Civilization to the Communist Revolution Ancient Rome The Conquest of Mexico Black Death and other great pandemics European Imperialism 1800-1914 French Revolution Nationalism in Europe 1830-1914 Please visit our website as we continually publish new titles: www.multimedialearning.org HMS Historical Media, a division of Multimedia Learning, LLC, has 26 classroom ready historical simulation games available on various topics.

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