MINERAL lec bsn 2

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

MINERAL : 

MINERAL Are non caloric and remain as ash when food organic compound is completely burned REGULATORY FUNCTION OF MINERAL Maintenance of acid base balance Some mineral are acid base like chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus Others are base forming like calciun sodium, potassium and magnessium

Slide 2: 

SODIUM – EXTRACELLULAR POTASSIUM – INTRACELLULAR TRANSMISSION OF NERVE IMPULSES A NERVE IMPULSE IS AN ELECTRICAL STIMULUS THAT PASSES THROUGH THE NERVE FIBER. DURING THE EXCITATION OF THE NERVE FIBER SODIUM AND POTASSIUM EXCHANGE WITH ONE ANOTHER ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE AND THIS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF A NERVE IMPULSE. IS CALCIUM

Slide 3: 

REGULATORY OF CONTRACTILITY OF THE MUSCLES RELAXANT SODIUM POTASSIUM MAGNESIUM CONTRACTION CALCIUM

MACRO-MINERAL : 

MACRO-MINERAL CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM SODIUM MAGNESIUM CHLORINE

CALCIUM : 

CALCIUM BONE AND TEETH FORMATION MUSCULAR CONTRACTION BLOOD COAGULATION NERVE TRANSMISSION ABSORPTION BETTER IN GROWTH, PREGNANCY AND LACTATION LESS IN OLD AGE LOW GASTRIC Ph (acidic) FAVORS THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM

Slide 6: 

High protein increase excretion of calcium in the urine Lack of exercise may cause loss of bone calciumand reduced ability to replace it Mental stress decrease in absortption and increase in excretion. medication like anticonvulsant can exert a depressing effect on calcium absorption source

sources : 

sources Dairy products and green leafy vegetables are good sources of calcium. You can also find many foods fortified with calcium such as juice, cereal, and soy milk.

deficiency : 

deficiency Osteoporosis – decrease bone mass Brittle, fragile OSTEOMALACIA

Phosphorus : 

Component of bones and teeth METABOLIC TWIN OF CALCIUM ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) ADP (ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE) IMPORTANT TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF THE CELL. Phosphorus

Slide 10: 

SOURCES CHEESE, MILK, DAIRY PRODUCTS, MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, EGGS DEFICIENCY osteomalacia

TETANY : 

TETANY Abnormal muscle twitching, cramps and sharp biteral spasm of joins in the wrists and ankles. -Defected bones. -Retarded growth. -In infant dentition and closing of the fontanelles are delayed. -pelvic joints are enlarged

POTASSIUM : 

POTASSIUM Maintains fluid and electrolyte Have been used to lean body mass PRINCIPAL CATION PRESENT WITHIN THE CELL MAINTAIN FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE PLAYS ROLE SKELETAL AND CARDIAC MUSCLES MUSCLE RELAXANT

SOURCES : 

SOURCES MEAT LEGUMES, MILK BANANA, ORANGE

SULFUR : 

SULFUR Maintain protein structure Activate enzyme CYTOPLASM FOUND IN HIGHEST CONCENTRATION IN THE NAIL AND SKIN, HAIR Sources Animal protein

SODIUM : 

SODIUM CATION OF THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID, MAINTAINING FLUID BALANCE Sources Processed food SALT, CARROT, SPINACH, CELERY,

chlorine : 

chlorine MAINTAINING FLUID BALANCE COMPONENT OF HCL of the gastric juice Sources Table salt

MAGNESIUM : 

MAGNESIUM INCREASE STABILITY OF CALCIUM IN TOOTH ENAMEL IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR CELLULAR METABOLISM SOURCES NUTS, SOY BEANS, MEAT MILK, COCOA

Micro-mineral : 

Micro-mineral IRON ZINC SELENIUM MANGANESE COPPER IODINE COBALT FLUORINE

IRON : 

IRON CONSTITUENT OF THE HEMOGLOBIN AND MYOGLOBIN OXYGEN CARRIER NECESSARY FOR HEMOGLOBIN FORMATION

TYPES OF IRON : 

TYPES OF IRON HEME IRON- FOUND IN MEAT NON-NEME IRON – IRON CONTAINING FOOD LIKE CEREAL, VEGETABLE AND EGG

FACTORS AFFECTING THE IRON ABSORPTION : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE IRON ABSORPTION BODY NEEDS – growth, pregnancy,lactation BULK IN THE DIET – high fiber diet interferes the absorption of iron SIZE OF DOSE High intake of iron at anytime cause less absorption than giving iron in small divided doses Presence of tannins- tea causes reduction of iron absorbed in the body

FACTORS AFFECTING THE IRON ABSORPTION : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE IRON ABSORPTION Intake of coffee Iron absorption is reduced. esp. stronger coffee GOOD ABSORPTION OF IRON WHEN TAKEN WITH ASCORBIC ACID.

Slide 23: 

SOURCES PORK LIVER, MEAT, DRIED BEANS, SEAWEEDS DEFICIENCY ANEMIA HEMORRHAGIC PERNICIOUS IDA

ZINC : 

ZINC HUMAN CELLS, EYES, HAIR, LIVER REGULATOR OF ENZYME ACTIVITY WOUND HEALING NORMAL SENSE OF TASTE IMPORTANT FACTOR OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Slide 25: 

MILK MEAT LIVER OYSTER EGG NUTS AND LEGUMED SLOW GROWTH DELAYED WOUND HEALING LACK OF APETITE

SELENIUM : 

SELENIUM COMPONENT OF GLUTHATIONE PEROXIDASE SOURCES ORGAN MEATS, CEREAL, DAIRY PRODUCT deficiency MUSCLE PAIN TENDERNESS

MANGANESE : 

MANGANESE CATALYST OF ENZYME FOR GLUCOSE AND FAT METABOLISM SOURCES NUTS, WHOLE GRAIN,TEA DEFICIENCY WEIGHT LOSS, DERMATITIS

COPPER : 

COPPER ESSENTIAL FORMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN PROMOTE ABSORPTION OF IRON PLAYS AN UNEXPLAINED ROLE IN BONE FORMATION SOURCES ORGAN MEATS NUTS, OYSTER, MILK, COCOA WHOLE GRAIN

COPPER : 

COPPER DEFICIENCY HYPOPROTEINEMIA DEPIGMENTATIOPN OF THE HAIR AND SKIN, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

IODINE : 

IODINE PARTICIPATE IN THE SYNTHESIS OF THYROXINE A hormone that regulates the metabolism and growth. Sources Seafoods

DEFICIENCY : 

DEFICIENCY Goiter Cretinism- hypothyroidism- physically dwarfed Mentally retarded, thick and pasty skin Myxedemia- low intake coarse and sparse dry yellowish skin Poor tolerance to cold low and husky voice

COBALT : 

COBALT RED BLOOD CELL FORMATION CONSTITUENT OF VIT. B12 SOURCES LIVER KIDNEY, OYSTER, DEFICIENCY PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

FLOURINE : 

FLOURINE BONES AND TEETH FORMATION REDUCE DENTAL CARRIES MINIMIZE BONE LOSS EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS SOURCES FLOURINATED WATER

DEFICIENCY : 

DEFICIENCY DENTAL CARIES DENTAL FLUOROSIS

TOXICITY OF TRACE MINERAL : 

TOXICITY OF TRACE MINERAL LEAD POISONING- child mental development Retarded handicapped CADMIUM- hypertension,-food smoking-inhalation, MERCURY- industrial waste- neurologic damage ALUMINUM – ALZHEIMERS DISEASE