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Learning Processes : 

Learning Processes Behaviorism Classical conditioning Operant conditioning

Adaptation to the Environment : 

Adaptation to the Environment Learning - any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time

Behaviorism : 

Behaviorism The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses John B. Watson (1913) B.F. Skinner (1938)

Classical Conditioning : 

What’s this about LEARNING? Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s Dogs : 

Pavlov’s Dogs Digestive reflexes and salivation Psychic secretion

Classical Conditioning : 

Classical Conditioning

Neutral Stimulus--Bell : 

Neutral Stimulus--Bell Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself A bell ringing A color A furry object

Unconditioned Stimulus--Food : 

Unconditioned Stimulus--Food Always elicits a reflex action: an unconditioned response Food Blast of air Noise

Unconditioned Response--Salivation : 

Unconditioned Response--Salivation A response to an unconditioned stimulus--naturally occurring Salivation at smell of food Eye blinks at blast of air Startle reaction in babies

Conditioned Stimulus--Bell : 

Conditioned Stimulus--Bell The stimulus that was originally neutral becomes conditioned after it has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus Will eventually elicit the unconditioned response by itself

Conditioned Response : 

Conditioned Response The original unconditioned response becomes conditioned after it has been elicited by the neutral stimulus

Classical Conditioning vs. Association by Contiguity : 

Classical Conditioning vs. Association by Contiguity

Classical Conditioning Phenomenon : 

Classical Conditioning Phenomenon Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination training

John B. Watson and Little Albert : 

John B. Watson and Little Albert Conditioned emotional responses Generalization Extinction

Conditioned Drug Reactions : 

Conditioned Drug Reactions Opposite the drug effect

Early Operant Conditioning : 

Early Operant Conditioning E.L. Thorndike (1898) Puzzle boxes and cats

B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning : 

B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Did not like the term “satisfying” Invented a better appartus--the Skinner box

Operant Conditioning Terms : 

Operant Conditioning Terms Shaping Consequences positive and negative reinforcement positive and negative punishment

Reinforcement Schedules : 

Reinforcement Schedules Continuous: 1 to 1 ratio, a prize every time Ratio fixed: 1 to ?, a prize every ? time variable: ? to ?, maybe a prize, maybe not! Interval fixed: announced examination variable: pop quiz

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning : 

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning CLASSICAL Stimulus precedes the response and elicits it Elicited responses Learning as a result of association Pavlov OPERANT Stimulus follows the response and strengthens it Emitted responses Learning as a result of consequences Skinner

The Basic Concepts of Learning Theory : 

The Basic Concepts of Learning Theory Classical conditioning elicits response as a result of associating unconditioned stimulus neutral stimulus Operant conditioning emitted response learning is a result of consequences reinforcers punishment

Observational Learning : 

Observational Learning Specific skills and general behavioral styles Bandura’s cognitive theory

The Ecological Perspective : 

The Ecological Perspective Alternative to general-process perspective Learning what to eat

Alternative Perspective : 

Alternative Perspective Role of environment Components of learning

Learning What to Eat : 

Learning What to Eat Food-aversion learning Food-preference learning Food-selection experiment with human infants Social learning and food selection Summary of rules

Food-Aversion Learning : 

Food-Aversion Learning Classical conditioning or not?

Food-Preference Learning : 

Food-Preference Learning Experiments with rats and thiamin

Food Selection Experiment : 

Food Selection Experiment Infants’ ability to choose a nutritionally balanced meal

Summary of Rules : 

Summary of Rules When possible, eat what your elders eat. When you eat a new food, remember its taste and smell

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