LEARNING--theories and applications

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LEARNING:

LEARNING

Overview of the chapter:

Overview of the chapter Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Cognitive-social learning The Biology of Learning Using conditioning and learning principles

Slide 3:

WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND ABOUT LEARNING?

Important definition:

Important definition Learning -relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience Conditioning - process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses. Conditioning is the most basic form of learning

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING:

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Have you noticed that when you’re hungry and see a large slice of chocolate cake, your mouth starts to water? Why is this happening?

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING:

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is a Russian physiologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the role of saliva in digestion The initial aim of his experiment is to show that more saliva is produced when food is present in the mouth

Slide 7:

After several pairings of tone and food, the dog would salivate on hearing the tone alone

TERMS BEHIND THE PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT:

TERMS BEHIND THE PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT Unconditional stimulus (UCS) - Stimulus that generate the response automatically without any previous training - In Pavlov’s experiment, food is a type of UCS - Elicits an unconditional response

Slide 9:

Unconditional response (UCR) Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that occurs without previous conditioning In this experiment, UCR is the salivation of the dog when the food is placed in the mouth

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Neutral stimulus (NS) A stimulus that before the conditioning does not naturally bring about the response of interest The sound of tuning fork When NS is regularly paired with UCS, it will become conditioned stimulus (CS) which gives conditioned response (CR)

Slide 11:

Conditioned stimulus (CS) Previously natural stimulus that, through repeated pairings with unconditional stimulus (UCS), now causes a conditioned response (CR) Conditioned response (CR) - Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that occurs because of the previous repeated pairings with unconditional stimulus (UCS)

Conditioned Emotional Response (CER):

Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus (NS). Albert, a 11-month-old child was allowed to play with white rats to find out if he was afraid of the rats

In this experiment, the white rat (NS) was paired with immediate loud noise (UCS) for seven times before the white rat alone produced conditioned emotional response (CER), fear of rats:

In this experiment, the white rat (NS) was paired with immediate loud noise (UCS) for seven times before the white rat alone produced conditioned emotional response (CER), fear of rats

Principles of classical conditioning:

Principles of classical conditioning Stimulus Generalization: learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli (CS) I’M AFRAID OF EVERYTHING IN WHITE!

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Stimulus Discrimination: learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli Now I know that not all white objects are rats 

Principles of classical conditioning:

Principles of classical conditioning Extinction : gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response (CR) Spontaneous Recovery : reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response (CR)

Higher-order conditioning:

Higher-order conditioning A neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) after repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS)

OPERANT CONDITIONING:

OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant Conditioning: learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences

Thorndike’s Contribution :

Thorndike’s Contribution Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) examine how voluntary behaviors are influenced by the consequences Law of Effect: the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence

Skinner’s Contribution :

Skinner’s Contribution B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) conducted systematic research using a Skinner box Skinner proposed that: Behavior is due to conscious choice Understanding reinforcing and punishing

Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles:

Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles Reinforcement: strengthening a response and make it more likely to occur Primary Reinforcers : normally satisfy an unlearned biological need (e.g., food) Secondary Reinforcers : learned value (e.g., money, praise)

Slide 24:

Positive Reinforcement: adding a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., praise) Negative Reinforcement: taking away a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., headache removed after taking an aspirin)

Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles:

Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles Shaping: reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response Application- eating with fork, playing musical instruments, playing sports

Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles:

Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles Punishment: weakening a response of undesirable behavior Positive Punishment: adding a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., shouting) Negative Punishment: taking away a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., restriction)

SIDE EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT:

SIDE EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT

Using Conditioning and Learning Principles:

Using Conditioning and Learning Principles Classical Conditioning can be seen in: Marketing Prejudice Medical Treatments Phobias

Using Conditioning and Learning Principles:

Using Conditioning and Learning Principles Operant Conditioning can be seen in: Prejudice (stimulus generalization) Superstitions (from accidental reinforcement)

THE END:

THE END Thank you for paying attention 

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES Huffman, Karen (2009). Living Psychology. Danvers,MA : Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated Lutz, John (1994). An Introduction To Learning And Memory. Pacific Grove,CA : Brooks/Cole Publishing Company Brembs.net- Research on Learning, Memory and Evolution. Basic Concept In Classical Conditioning . Retrieved on 25 th February 2011. http://www.brembs.net/classical/classical.html

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