motivation

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MOTIVATION:

MOTIVATION © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 1

Defining Motivation:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 2 Defining Motivation Key Elements Intensity: how hard a person tries Direction: toward beneficial goal Persistence: how long a person tries

Theories of motivation:

Theories of motivation Content theories Examines motives or needs of individuals that influence their behavior Process /cognitive theories How people rationally assess work situations and make rational decisions as to whether and to what extent they ought to engage in work behavior. Reinforcement theories. Behaviors as response to stimuli to which individuals are exposed. Idea that by changing the cues or stimuli in the environment, people’s behavior can be moulded ,shaped ,changed or eliminated. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 3

Content theories:

Content theories © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 4

Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 5 Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6-1

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 7 ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence : provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness : desire for relationships. Growth : desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.

David McClelland’s Theory of Needs:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 8 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff

Matching Achievers and Jobs:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 9 Matching Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6-5

Equity Theory [Stacy Adams 1963,65]:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 10 Equity Theory [Stacy Adams 1963,65] Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside

Equity Theory (cont’d):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 11 Equity Theory (cont’d) E X H I B I T 6-7

Equity Theory (cont’d):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 12 Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: Change inputs (slack off) Change outcomes (increase output) Distort/change perceptions of self Distort/change perceptions of others Choose a different referent person Leave the field (quit the job)

Equity Theory (cont’d):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 13 Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay: Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees

Equity Theory (cont’d):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 14 Equity Theory (cont’d)

From Concepts to Applications:

From Concepts to Applications Skill-based Pay Plans – ERG / Reinforcement / Equity Theories © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 15

Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory[1964]:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 16 Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory[1964] E X H I B I T 6-8

Elements:

Elements Expectancy Anticipated probability that a given level of work effort leads to a specific level of performance. Instrumentality Refers to the out comes for each level of performance If through a high level of effort ,high performance is achieved ,what will be the resultant outcomes or instrumentalities. Valence Extent of attraction of an outcome to the recipient © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 17

From Concepts to Applications:

From Concepts to Applications Variable Pay Programs – Expectancy Theory Flexible Benefits – Expectancy Theory © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 18

Performance Dimensions:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 19 Performance Dimensions E X H I B I T 6-9

Slide 20:

Recognize individual differences Use goals and feedback Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 20

Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 21 Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)

Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 22 Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers E X H I B I T 6-3 Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction

Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 23 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6-4 Presence Absence

Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 24 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

From Concepts to Applications:

From Concepts to Applications Employee involvement – Theory Y Participative management Representative participation Work councils Quality Circles Employee Stock Ownership Plans © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 25

Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke):

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 26 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)

From Concepts to Applications:

From Concepts to Applications Management by Objectives – Goal Setting theory © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 27

Goal setting theory:

Goal setting theory Goal specificity Goal difficulty MBO © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 28

Reinforcement Theory:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 29 Reinforcement Theory Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.

From Concepts to Applications:

From Concepts to Applications Employee Recognition Programs – Reinforcement theory © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 30

Cognitive Evaluation Theory:

© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6 – 31 Cognitive Evaluation Theory

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