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Nanotechnology – Science, Medical Applications, and IUPUI Resources Kody Varahramyan Vice Chancellor for Research :

Nanotechnology – Science, Medical Applications, and IUPUI Resources Kody Varahramyan Vice Chancellor for Research April 15, 2009

What is Nanotechnology :

What is Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems, through the understanding and control of matter at dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm), where new functionalities and properties of matter are observed and harnessed for a broad range of applications An engineered DNA strand Semiconducting metal junction formed by two carbon nanotubes pRNA tiny motor

History of Nanotechnology:

History of Nanotechnology ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nanoparticles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows 1959 – “There is plenty of room at the bottom” by R. Feynman 1974 – “Nanotechnology” - Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time 1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope 1985 – “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C 60 1986 – “Engines of Creation” - First book on nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig, Quate and Gerbe 1989 – IBM logo made with individual atoms 1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima 1999 – “Nanomedicine” – 1 st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas 2000 – “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched

What is Nanoscale :

What is Nanoscale 1.27 × 10 7 m 0.22 m 0.7 × 10 -9 m Fullerenes C 60 12,756 Km 22 cm 0.7 nm 10 millions times smaller 1 billion times smaller

Nanoscale Size Effect :

Nanoscale Size Effect Realization of miniaturized devices and systems while providing more functionality Attainment of high surface area to volume ratio Manifestation of novel phenomena and properties, including changes in: - Physical Properties (e.g. melting point) - Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity) - Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity) - Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength) - Optical Properties (e.g. light emission)

Nanotechnology Applications :

Nanotechnology Applications Information Technology Energy Medicine Consumer Goods Smaller, faster, more energy efficient and powerful computing and other IT-based systems More efficient and cost effective technologies for energy production Solar cells Fuel cells Batteries Bio fuels Foods and beverages Advanced packaging materials, sensors, and lab-on-chips for food quality testing Appliances and textiles Stain proof, water proof and wrinkle free textiles Household and cosmetics Self-cleaning and scratch free products, paints, and better cosmetics Cancer treatment Bone treatment Drug delivery Appetite control Drug development Medical tools Diagnostic tests Imaging

Nanotechnology Health and Environmental Concerns :

Nanotechnology Health and Environmental Concerns Human and the environment come under exposure to nanomaterials at different stages of the product cycle Nanomaterials have large surface to volume ratio and novel physical as well as chemical properties which may cause them to pose hazards to humans and the environment Health and the environmental impacts associated with the exposure to many of the engineered nanomaterials are still uncertain The environmental fate and associated risk of waste nanomaterials should be assessed – e.g. toxic transformation, and interactions with organic and inorganic materials Exposure of human and the environment to nanomaterials at different stages of product life cycle – US environmental protection agency, 2007 (

Nanoscale Materials :

Nanoscale Materials Nanoscale materials have feature size less than 100 nm – utilized in nanoscale structures, devices and systems Nanoparticles and Structures Silver nanoparticles – Northwestern Univ., 2002 A stadium shaped “quantum corral” made by positioning iron atoms on a copper surface – IBM Corp., 1993. A 3-dimensional nanostructure grown by controlled nucleation of Silicon-carbide nanowires on Gallium catalyst particles – Univ. of Cambridge, 2007 Gold nanoparticles – TU Dresden/ESRF, 2008

Nanoscale Materials :

Nanoscale Materials Nanowires and Nanotubes Lateral dimension: 1 – 100 nm Nanowires and nanotubes exhibit novel physical, electronic and optical properties due to Two dimensional quantum confinement Structural one dimensionality High surface to volume ratio Potential application in wide range of nanodevices and systems Nanoscale sensors and actuators Photovoltaic devices – solar cells Transistors, diodes and LASERs Nanowire Solar Cell: The nanowires create a surface that is able to absorb more sunlight than a flat surface – McMaster Univ., 2008

Nanoscale Materials :

Nanoscale Materials Bionanomaterials Biological materials utilized in nanotechnology - Proteins, enzymes, DNA, RNA, peptides Synthetic nanomaterials utilized in biomedical applications - Polymers, porous silicon, carbon nanotubes Bone cell on porous silicon – Univ. of Rochester, 2007 Cross-linked enzymes used as catalyst – Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs , 2007 Human cell on PSi Porous silicon (PSi) Protein Enzymes are used as oxidation catalysts

Nanoscale Processes and Fabrication :

Nanoscale Processes and Fabrication Top -down Approaches Bottom -up Approaches Optical and x-ray lithography Layer -by-layer s elf assembly E-beam and ion-beam lithography Molecular self assembly Scanning probe lithography Direct assembly Atomic force microscopic lithography Coating and growth Material removal and deposition (Chemical, mechanical, or ultrasonic) Colloidal aggregation Printing and imprinting

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems :

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Currently available microprocessors use resolutions as small as 32 nm Houses up to a billion transistors in a single chip MEMS based nanochips have future capability of 2 nm cell leading to 1TB memory per chip A NEMS bacteria sensor – Nano Lett., 2006, DOI: 10.1021/nl060275y Nanochip Nanoelectromechanical System (NEMS) Sensors A MEMS based nanochip – Nanochip Inc., 2006 NEMS technology enables creation of ultra small and highly sensitive sensors for various applications The NEMS force sensor shown in the figure is applicable in pathogenic bacteria detection

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems :

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Nanophotonic Systems A silicon processor featuring on-chip nanophotonic network – IBM Corp., 2008 Nanophotonic systems work with light signals vs. electrical signals in electronic systems Enable parallel processing that means higher computing capability in a smaller chip Enable realization of optical systems on semiconductor chip Fuel cells use hydrogen and air as fuels and produce water as by product The technology uses a nanomaterial membrane to produce electricity Schematic of a fuel cell – Energy solution center Inc. Fuel Cells 500 W fuel cell –

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems :

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Lab on chip gene analysis device – IBN Singapore, 2008 Lab on Chip Drug Delivery Systems Targeted drug delivery – ACS Nano 2009, DOI: 10.1021/nn900002m Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery systems: Targeted drug delivery Improved delivery of poorly water soluble drugs Co-delivery of two or more drugs Imaging of drug delivery sites using imaging modalities A lab on chip integrates one or more laboratory operation on a single chip Provides fast result and easy operation Applications: Biochemical analysis (DNA/protein/cell analysis) and bio-defense

Medical Nanotechnology or Nanomedicine :

Medical Nanotechnology or Nanomedicine Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology in medicine, including to cure diseases and repair damaged tissues such as bone, muscle, and nerve Key Goals for Nanomedicine To develop cure for traditionally incurable diseases (e.g. cancer) through the utilization of nanotechnology To provide more effective cure with fewer side effects by means of targeted drug delivery systems

Nanotechnology in Health Care :

Nanotechnology in Health Care Video Journey into Nanotechnology National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer –

Nanotechnology in Health Care :

Nanotechnology in Health Care Thermal ablation of cancer cells assisted by nanoshells coated with metallic layer and an external energy source – National Cancer Institute Thermal ablation of cancer cells Nanoshells have metallic outer layer and silica core Selectively attracted to cancer shells either through a phenomena called enhanced permeation retention or due to some molecules coated on the shells The nanoshells are heated with an external energy source killing the cancer cells

Nanotechnology in Health Care :

Nanotechnology in Health Care Treatment Targeted drug delivery Nanoparticles containing drugs are coated with targeting agents (e.g. conjugated antibodies) The nanoparticles circulate through the blood vessels and reach the target cells Drugs are released directly into the targeted cells Targeted drug delivery – Targeted drug delivery using a multicomponent nanoparticle containing therapeutic as well as biological surface modifying agents – Mauro Ferrari, Univ. of Cal. Berkley

Nanotechnology in Health Care :

Nanotechnology in Health Care The microfluidic channel with nanowire sensor can detect the presence of altered genes associated with cancer – J. Heath, Cali. Insti. of Technology The nanoscale cantilever detects the presence and concentration of various molecular expressions of a cancer cell – A. Majumdar , Univ. of Cal. at Berkeley Nanotechnology offers tools and techniques for more effective detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases Detection and Diagnosis Lab on chips help detection and diagnosis of diseases more efficiently Nanowire and cantilever lab on chips help in early detection of cancer biomarkers

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI:

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Driving Forces at IUPUI Growing expertise and resources in nanoscience and engineering Desire by researchers to develop nanotechnology-based systems for biomedical, energy, and other targeted applications Participation Open To All Interested Faculty, Centers, Departments & Schools Current Participating Faculty from: Biology, Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Physics Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Orthopedic Surgery, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine Current Partnering Centers: Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine Lugar Center for Renewable Energy Transportation Active Safety Institute Center for Sensor and Ubiquitous Networking Nanoscale Imaging Center

Integrated Nanosystems :

Integrated Nanosystems Definition: Systems which may consist of integrated micro-, meso-, and/or macro-scale parts, and have their core components realized by nano-scale materials, processes, and devices.

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI:

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Vision: To be a world-class resource for the realization of nanotechnology-based miniaturized systems that contribute to the economic growth and social advancement of Indiana and the nation and benefit humanity as a whole. Mission: 1) to enable, through innovative interdisciplinary research and educational programs, the development of nanotechnology-based systems for biomedical, energy, environmental, information technology and other applications, and 2) to provide solutions which, through translation of research into practice and technology transfer, contribute to social well being and economic growth.

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI:

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Current Research Projects: Magnetic Nanostructured Materials and Devices for Sensing Applications Spectroscopic Investigation of Quantum Systems Transport in Graphene for Nanodevice Applications Quantum Dot Imaging Probes Bionanomaterials for Biomedical Applications Polymer Nanocomposites for Orthopedic and Dental Applications Development of Nano-rod Array for Li-ion Battery Pt Nanoparticles Catalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Interaction of Pt Nanoparticle and Carbon/Metal Oxide Support Macro Scale to Micr/Nano Scale Machining Thermoelectric Materials for Nanodevice Applications Wireless Sensor Network Systems Chip-Based Signal Conditioning System for ECG Application VLSI circuits for 3D Imaging Applications

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI:

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Current Processing and Measurement Resources: Micro/Nanoelectronics Laboratory Sputtering systems Thermal evaporator systems Solution-based nanocrystal fabrication Membrane ion transport workstation Combined atomic force and fluorescence microscope Fluorescence correlation spectrometer Wide-field single molecule fluorescence microscopy Room temperature near-field scanning optical microscope Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscope FTIR spectrometer Spectrofluorometer Ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope Small angle X-ray scattering system Particle sizing instrument Atomic force microscope Combined atomic force-scanning tunneling microscope Transmission electron microscope Scanning electron microscope Low vacuum scanning electron microscope with electron dispersion spectrometer Electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersion capabilities Two photon absorption microscope Confocal microscopes

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI:

Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Current Computational Resources: Access to IU’s Supercomputer systems Clusters of workstations Nanostructure Builder and Visualization Materials Studio NanoEngineer Density Functional Theory codes FLEUR VASP Dmol3 ABINIT Molecular Dynamics simulators Materials Studio DLPOLY MPSIM LAMMPS CHARMM Electrical Circuit design Menter Graphics Synopsis L-Edit, Layout Editor CAD LabView , PSPICE Code development Matlab , Mathematica , Maple In-House codes

Nanotechnology – Science, Medical Applications, and IUPUI Resources:

Nanotechnology – Science, Medical Applications, and IUPUI Resources Thank You!