Chapter 03 HRD

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Learning and HRD : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 1 Learning and HRD Chapter 3

Agree or Disagree? #1 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 2 Agree or Disagree? #1 For learning to take place, the most important variable to consider is whether or not the individual learner has sufficient ability to learn what is being taught.

Agree or Disagree? #2 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 3 Agree or Disagree? #2 In general, people learn best and remember the most when they can spread out the time spent on learning new material.

Agree or Disagree? #3 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 4 Agree or Disagree? #3 Learning something to the point of “overlearning” is generally a waste of time, and should be avoided.

Agree or Disagree? #4 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 5 Agree or Disagree? #4 If training has been effective, then it really doesn’t matter whether there is support in the work environment or not.

Agree or Disagree? #5 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 6 Agree or Disagree? #5 Trainers should always seek to match the type of training delivery methods to the characteristics of the individuals being trained.

Agree or Disagree? #6 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 7 Agree or Disagree? #6 Adult learners typically respond best to a lecture-style approach to training.

Learning : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 8 Learning Focus is upon change Change must be long-lasting The focus of learning can be cognitive, behavioral, or affective Results from the individual’s interaction with the learning environment

Learning Outcomes : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 9 Learning Outcomes Outcomes can be: Cognitive (Knowledge) Psychomotor (Skill- or behavior-based) Affective (Attitude)

Basic Learning Principles : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 10 Basic Learning Principles Contiguity – things taught together become associated with each other Law of Effect – a behavior followed by pleasurable experience is likely to be repeated Practice – repetition increases association and knowledge

Limitations in the Foregoing : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 11 Limitations in the Foregoing Based on strictly controlled tests (“lab studies”) Practice doesn’t always make perfect

Improved Training Design : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 12 Improved Training Design Task Analysis Component Task Achievement Task Sequencing

Task Analysis : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 13 Task Analysis Break each task down into a series of distinct component tasks Keep breaking tasks down to the simplest level possible Remember “K.I.S.S.”

Component Task Achievement : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 14 Component Task Achievement Each task must be completed fully before the entire task may be performed correctly You have to specify what is to be done, under what conditions, and how it is to be evaluated

Task Sequencing : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 15 Task Sequencing Each component task should be arranged in the proper sequence Some are serial tasks Some can be done in parallel

Instructional Psychology : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 16 Instructional Psychology What must be done before learning can take place Describe the learning goal to be achieved Analyze the initial state of the learner Identify the conditions allowing the learner to gain competence Assess and monitor the learning process

Maximizing Learning (Training) : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 17 Maximizing Learning (Training) Trainee Characteristics Training Design Transfer of Training

Trainee Characteristics : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 18 Trainee Characteristics Trainability – Motivation Ability Perception of the work environment Personality and attitudes

Training Design Issues : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 19 Training Design Issues Conditions of practice Retention of what is learned

Conditions of Practice : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 20 Conditions of Practice Active practice Spaced versus massed practice Whole versus part learning Overlearning Knowledge of results (feedback) Task sequencing

Retention of What is Learned : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 21 Retention of What is Learned Meaningfulness of the material Degree of original learning Interference Knowledge before training Changes after training

Transfer of Training : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 22 Transfer of Training Does training make it to the job? Positive transfer – Job performance improves after training Zero transfer – No measurable changes Negative transfer – Performance becomes worse after training

Other Types of Transfer : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 23 Other Types of Transfer Near Transfer Ability to directly apply back to the job Far Transfer Expanding upon or using in new and creative ways

Baldwin & Ford’s Transfer of Training Model : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 24 Baldwin & Ford’s Transfer of Training Model By Permission: Baldwin & Ford, 1988

Maximizing Transfer : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 25 Maximizing Transfer Identical elements Physical fidelity Psychological fidelity

Identical Elements : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 26 Identical Elements The closer the training is to the job, the easier it is to achieve transfer Direct relationship to the job Example: Customer service and angry customers Role playing, business games, etc.

Physical Fidelity : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 27 Physical Fidelity Same physically Same procedurally Example: Flight and submarine simulators

Psychological Fidelity : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 28 Psychological Fidelity Trainee experiences same stresses and conditions as he/she is being trained for Example: MS Flight Simulator

Support in Work Environment : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 29 Support in Work Environment Transfer of training into workplace is supported A continuous learning environment Supervisors support and help develop training Training leads to promotion/better pay Trainee has opportunity to perform

Individual Differences : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 30 Individual Differences Rate of Progress Learning charts/curves Chart learning proficiency against time Measure proficiency with standardized tests Charts show plateaus in learning as well as progress

Some Learning Curves : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 31 Some Learning Curves

Cognitive Resource Allocation Theory (How Brain is Used) : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 32 Cognitive Resource Allocation Theory (How Brain is Used) How well you pay attention determines how much you learn. How well you pay attention determines how well you perform. The greater your intelligence, the more you pay attention. If you’re motivated, you pay attention.

Three Phases of Learning a Skill : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 33 Three Phases of Learning a Skill Declarative knowledge Forming a mental picture of the task Knowledge compilation Integrating knowledge and motor skills Procedural knowledge Ability to perform task automatically, paying little attention to it

Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 34 Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Adults are self-directed Adults already have knowledge and experience Adults are ready to learn relevant tasks Adults are motivated to learn Adults expect to apply learning immediately

How to Assess Trainee Differences : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 35 How to Assess Trainee Differences Instrumentality Does trainee think training is applicable? Skepticism Degree trainee questions and demands facts. Resistance to Change How well is change accepted?

How to Assess Trainee Differences – 2 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 36 How to Assess Trainee Differences – 2 Attention Span How long can trainee focus on the lesson? Expectation Level What does trainee expect from the trainer/training? Dominant Needs What drives/motivates the trainee?

How to Assess Trainee Differences – 3 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 37 How to Assess Trainee Differences – 3 Absorption Level How fast is new information accepted? Topical Interest How interested is trainee in topic? Self-Confidence Degree of independence and self-regard Locus of Control Can trainee implement training on job?

Gerontology : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 38 Gerontology Working with older people Older people can and do develop Older people should not be excluded from training Training must be geared for adults, not children Organizations must reward training Look at overall career patterns

Learning Styles : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 39 Learning Styles Lots of research in this area Many different tests are available to measure: Learning ability Individual learning preferences It’s NOT all psychobabble!

Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 40 Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory Among most popular tests used Proposes four modes of learning: Concrete Experience (CE) Abstract Conceptualization (AC) Reflective Observation (RO) Active Experimentation (AE)

Kolb’s Learning Styles : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 41 Kolb’s Learning Styles Convergent Thinking and Doing Divergent Feeling and Watching Assimilation Thinking and Watching Accommodative Feeling and Doing

Kolb’s Learning Styles : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 42 Kolb’s Learning Styles CE Accommodative Divergent AE RO Convergent Assimilation AC

Five Learning Strategies : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 43 Five Learning Strategies Rehearsal strategies Elaboration strategies Organizational strategies Comprehension monitoring strategies Affective strategies

Another Strategy : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 44 Another Strategy Identify assumptions Test assumption validity Generate and test alternatives Decrease likelihood of errors

Perceptual Preferences : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 45 Perceptual Preferences Print Reading and writing Visual Graphs, charts, pictures Aural Listening Interactive Discussing, asking questions

Perceptual Preferences – 2 : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 46 Perceptual Preferences – 2 Tactile/manipulative Hands-on, touching Kinesthetic/psychomotor Role playing, physical activity Olfactory Smell, taste - cf. VARK questionnaire (Exercise 2)

Actual Preferences : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 47 Actual Preferences Adults – generally prefer visual Females – all sources Males – selected sources Young Adults – interactive, visual CONCLUSION: Tailor your method to your audience.

Expert Performance : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 48 Expert Performance Definition: Consistently superior performance on a specified set of representative tasks for a domain

Gagne’s Theory of Instruction : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 49 Gagne’s Theory of Instruction Verbal information Intellectual skills Cognitive strategies Motor skills Attitudes ALL ARE LEARNED IN DIFFERENT WAYS!

Instructional Events (Table 3-6) : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 50 Instructional Events (Table 3-6) Gain attention. State the learning objective. Stimulate recall of earlier lessons. Present new material. Provide learning guidance. Have student perform. Provide feedback. Assess performance. Enhance retention and training transfer.

Summary : 

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 51 Summary Without learning, there would be no field of human resource development To increase learning, we must consider: Trainee characteristics/individual differences Training design issues Retention and transfer of training issues