problem- solving- decision making

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this presentation for solution of appointment delay in outpatient clinics in riyadh


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Problem solving- decision making (appointments delay at outpatient clinics in security forces hospital in Riyadh):

Problem solving- decision making (appointments delay at outpatient clinics in security forces hospital in Riyadh) Presented by Ateeq Ali Almotiry 430911099

The process by which managers solve problems includes:- :

The process by which managers solve problems includes:- 1- selecting and analyzing situations that requires a decision (problem identification) 2- developing and evaluating alternative solutions to address the situation. 3- choosing an alternative ( this step is sometimes called decision analysis) 4- implementing the alternative. 5- evaluating the results after implementation .

1-Problem identification:- :

1-Problem identification:- Recognizing the presence of problem by gathering information . problem can be identified and brought to light in various ways . usually businesses do various forms of planning and goal setting , when plans and goals are not reached , this can signify a problem and it can be brought to the management by employees, some problems can be hidden and may be employees do not want them to come to the light. Some problems are routine and are likely to come up ,these problems are usually easier to solve than complex problems.

2- Developing and evaluating alternative solution that address situation:-:

2- Developing and evaluating alternative solution that address situation:- In this step includes identifying alternative solution, collecting data / information and evaluating the merits of each alternative for an initial accept – reject decision. The initial accept – reject decision uses general criteria such as whether alternative is unethical or illegal ,is inconsistent with organization values, mission, vision, and culture, has unacceptable financial or political costs. Identifying alternative solution is very important because it consumes more resources than any other problem activity.

3- choosing alternative solution (ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE):-:

3- choosing alternative solution (ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE):- The alternative solutions that meet general criteria should be developed by managers that allow alternative solutions to be evaluated and compared The decision criteria include those in the desired outcomes ,individual and organizational work results ,objectives, standards and expectations. At least three other decision criteria usually are applied which are 1- effectiveness of the alternative in solving problem 2- feasibility of implementation 3- acceptability of the alternative based on objective and subjective analysis. The alternative must be effective in solving problem , if not rejected . The alternative should be chosen based on objective analysis means the effective use of the resources including quantitative and subjective means cost – benefit analysis and assessment of non-quantitative plus advantages and disadvantages.

Choosing alternatives cont’d:

Choosing alternatives cont’d There are methods for decisions criteria to differentiate them , one method rank orders decision criteria using decision maker judgments. Another method divides criteria into mandatory (must be met ) and wanted ,where a solution does not meet a mandatory criteria is discarded ,wanted criteria are weighted by degree of desirability. Another method assumes that all decision criteria are equally important and judges how closely or well each alternative meets them and assigns a numerical value . The highest total determines which alternative is chosen Some times , there is only one solution and a yes – no ,accept – reject decision must be made . other times there are no alternatives and the decision maker must decide how to accomplish a desired result. .

4- implementing the alternative and evaluate the results after implementation:- :

4- implementing the alternative and evaluate the results after implementation:- Once the manager selects the alternative he makes a decision and implements it This does not end problem solving however the effects of intervention ( change) must be monitored to determine whether they are consistent with desired results. Baron(2000) suggests that the best decisions are those that yield the best consequences for achieving people’s goals. However, evaluating decisions by their outcomes can be misleading as a measure of quality (Pauker & Pauker 1999, Sox 1999), as the outcome may have occurred by chance, although the decision was the ‘best’ one for the individual at the time. Another alternative to measuring decisions is to evaluate the process by which the decision has been made (Pauker & Pauker1999) However, this is also problematic, as it ignores the outcome of the decision and raises the issue of what makes a ‘good’ decision process. If the problem is not solved the problem solving cycle begins again through reconsidering alternatives previously rejected or developing new ones . further more ,solving one problem often causes others.

Case study:-:

Case study:- I chose case related to course subjects which is problem solving – decision making ,there is problem and I want to apply the principle learnt in class Problem is appointment delay at outpatient clinics in security forces hospital in Riyadh First of all lets identify problem by collecting much information about it , and determine causes behind it then we try to solve it through choosing the best alternative among other alternatives that meet to the criteria ,after this step we will take the decision and see if the problem solved or still remaining through feedback technique.

1- Identifying problem:- :

1- Identifying problem:- Problem is appointment delay at appointment clinics , let start with questions What are causes behind problems? Is it due to lonely hospital for ministry of interior or due to the big numbers of patients ? Are there certain procedures or regulation at hospital for accepting the cases and giving the priority for critical ones? Does the hospital suffer from any shortage in medical staffs like physicians? Is it need for opening other buildings or expanding the hospital to make it enough for serving the big number of patients? The answers for the above questions will add advantages and give more information about this problem. In fact the reasons behind delay in appointment as the hospital director said to media : the patients find difficulties to reach the hospital because it is sole hospital for minestry staff in the current time as well as big numbers of patients who look for services either for clinics or surgery that leads to this delay.

2- Generate alternatives and evaluate them:-:

2- Generate alternatives and evaluate them:- Here, I set numbers of solutions that may solve this problem. 2-1: enhance the medical services in the polyclinics centers which are distributed in the regions by establishing new buildings and improve the services quality through providing them by professionals and facilities. 2-2: the visitor doctors role must be considered through they work temporarily in the polyclinics centers from Riyadh that they will cover shortage in some services

Generate alternative cont’d:

Generate alternative cont’d 2-3: establish the family medicine center in Riyadh that will lead to decrease load on the outpatient clinics in hospital and make referral for the needed cases only. 2-4: make expansion for the outpatient clinics building that will maximize the clinics number leading to minimize the waiting time for the patient's appointment. 2-5: establishing the new hospital in the main region like western and eastern .

Generate alternative cont’d:

Generate alternative cont’d Really , the previous alternatives solve problem partially and there is decrease in waiting time which is lesser than ever. The fourth alternative , it may be there is no enough area to start in expansion and this leads to the work stoppage may create another problem through increasing waiting time For appointments. The fifth and last alternative through creating the new hospital it will add advantage but it takes too much time and consuming high cost and it is not ideal solution in the present time. This alternative in the future will solve the problem effectively. Now the general directorate has two projects for establishing new hospitals ,one in the Dammamin the eastern and other in Makkah in the western province where the work will start soon.

The alternatives evaluations:-:

The alternatives evaluations:- The first three alternatives which are improvement of polyclinics centers in the regions, provide the polyclinics centers by visitor doctors and establishment of family medicine center in Riyadh . These solutions are exactly what the general directorate of medical services in the ministry of interior has done ,where now all poly clinics centers in the regions are modern and new. Also the general directorate always compensates the shortages in the professionals through visitor doctors by sending them to working in those polyclinics centers. And now we observe the family medicine centers which is located beside main hospital in Riyadh . This center provided by specialist and receives the patient, introduces the medical services to them and makes referral for cases need to be seen by consultant in the main hospital.

3- choosing the alternative and taking the decision:_:

3- choosing the alternative and taking the decision:_ I chose three solutions which lead to solve problem partially , these solutions are:- 3-1: enhancement and improvement of the services in the polyclinics centers in the regions in all aspects. 3-2: participating the specialists and consultants in the visitor doctors programs 3-3: establish the family medicine center in Riyadh which is already done.

4- Implementation and feed back technique:-:

4- Implementation and feed back technique:- Here, in this step we will apply the previous mentioned above solutions and there after we will measure the results and outcomes of these solutions through feedback technique

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