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???? ? ???? : 

???? ? ???? University of California San Diego School of Medicine, USA

??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? : 

??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? (?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ? ?? ??? ??? ??)?? ???? ????? ????? ?? (?? ???? ?? ??? ??)????? ???? ?? ?? (??? ??? ? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???)???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????(“??? ??”)? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??

Slide 3: 

??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? “??? ??”? ??? ?? ??. ??????? ????? ????? ????? ? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ? ??.

Slide 4: 

??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ? ??. ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???, ??? ??? ??? ??? ? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??.

????? ????? ?? ?? : 

????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??(fabrication), ??(falsification) ? ??(plagiarism) ? ?? ??? FF&P? ???? ? ? ??? ? ??

Fabrication (??) : 

Fabrication (??) The creation of a falsehood: Lies : a type of deception in the form of an untruthful statement with the intention to deceive Fiction :the telling of stories which are not entirely based upon facts. Fabrication (science), a form of scientific misconduct

Falsification (??) : 

Falsification (??) the act of producing something that lacks authenticity with the intent to commit fraud or deception

Plagiarism (??) : 

Plagiarism (??) Using someone else's ideas or phrasing and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness (?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??)

Plagiarism (??) – Con’t : 

Plagiarism (??) – Con’t ??? ???? ? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????, ? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ? ?? ????. ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ? ??? ??? ?????. ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?(?)? ? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????, ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ? ?? ????. ??? ??? ?? ??? ??, ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ? ??.

Plagiarism (??) – Con’t : 

Plagiarism (??) – Con’t ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ? ????. ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????, ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????. ????, ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ? ??.

Examples : 

Examples (The examples below were originally written by the writing center staff at an esteemed college; that institution has asked us to remove its name from this Web page.) The original text from Elaine Tyler May's "Myths and Realities of the American Family" reads as follows: Because women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage, single mothers rarely earn enough to support themselves and their children adequately. And because work is still organized around the assumption that mothers stay home with children, even though few mothers can afford to do so, child-care facilities in the United States remain woefully inadequate. Here are some possible uses of this text. As you read through each version, try to decide if it is a legitimate use of May's text or a plagiarism.

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Since women's wages often continue to reflect the mistaken notion that men are the main wage earners in the family, single mothers rarely make enough to support themselves and their children very well. Also, because work is still based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for child care remain woefully inadequate in the United States. Plagiarism: In Version A there is too much direct borrowing of sentence structure and wording. The writer changes some words, drops one phrase, and adds some new language, but the overall text closely resembles May's. Even with a citation, the writer is still plagiarizing because the lack of quotation marks indicates that Version A is a paraphrase, and should thus be in the writer's own language.

Slide 13: 

As Elaine Tyler May points out, "women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage" (588). Thus many single mothers cannot support themselves and their children adequately. Furthermore, since work is based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children, facilities for day care in this country are still "woefully inadequate." (May 589). Plagiarism: The writer now cites May, so we're closer to telling the truth about the relationship of our text to the source, but this text continues to borrow too much language.

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By and large, our economy still operates on the mistaken notion that men are the main breadwinners in the family. Thus, women continue to earn lower wages than men. This means, in effect, that many single mothers cannot earn a decent living. Furthermore, adequate day care is not available in the United States because of the mistaken assumption that mothers remain at home with their children. Plagiarism: Version C shows good paraphrasing of wording and sentence structure, but May's original ideas are not acknowledged. Some of May's points are common knowledge (women earn less than men, many single mothers live in poverty), but May uses this common knowledge to make a specific and original point and her original conception of this idea is not acknowledged.

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Women today still earn less than men — so much less that many single mothers and their children live near or below the poverty line. Elaine Tyler May argues that this situation stems in part from "the fiction that men earn the family wage" (588). May further suggests that the American workplace still operates on the assumption that mothers with children stay home to care for them (589). This assumption, in my opinion, does not have the force it once did. More and more businesses offer in-house day-care facilities. . . . No Plagiarism: The writer makes use of the common knowledge in May's work, but acknowledges May's original conclusion and does not try to pass it off as his or her own. The quotation is properly cited, as is a later paraphrase of another of May's ideas.

???? : 

???? 1. Committee on the Responsible Conduct of Research (1989) The Responsible Conduct of Research in the Health Sciences. Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Sciences Policy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.2. Friedman, P.J. (1992) Mistakes and fraud in medical research. Law, Medicine & Health Care 20: 17-25.3. Douglas, J.D. (1993) Deviance in the practice of science. Academic Medicine 68: S77-S83.4. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service (1991) Policies and procedures for dealing with possible scientific misconduct in extramural research procedures. Federal Register 56: 27383-27394, July 13.5. Eagler, R.L., Covell, J.W., Friedman, P.J., Kitcher, P.S. & Peters, R.M. (1987) Misrepresentation and responsibility in medical research. New England Journal of Medicine 317: 1383-1389.6. Kassirer, J.P. & Angell, M. (1991) On authorship and acknowledgments [editorial]. New England Journal of Medicine 325: 1510-2.7. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (1988) Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Annals of Internal Medicine 108: 258-265.ibid (1993) Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. 4th ed. JAMA(Journal of the American Medical Association) 269: 2282-2286.

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8. Friedman, P.J. (Chair) (1993) Standards for authorship and publication in academic radiology. Report of the Association of University Radiologists Ad Hoc Committee on Standards for the Responsible Conduct of Research. Radiology 189: 33-34.9. Fields, K.L. & Price, A.R. (1993) Problems in research integrity arising from misconceptions about the ownership of research. Academic Medicine 68: S60-S64.10. Commission on Research Integrity (1995) Integrity and Misconduct in Research: Report of the Advisory Commission on Research Integrity. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.11. Kalichman, M.W. & Friedman, P.J. (1992) A pilot study of biomedical trainees' perceptions concerning research ethics. Academic Medicine 67: 767-773.12. Research trainees panel discussion (1990) Research Integrity in the 90's. Conference at the University of California, San Diego.13. Panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research, National Academy of Sciences (1992) Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.14. National Science Foundation (1991) Misconduct in science and engineering: final rule. Federal Register 56: 22286-22290, May 14.15. Pritchard, I.A. (1993) Integrity versus misconduct: learning the difference between right and wrong. Academic Medicine 68: S67-S71.

`?? ??? 6?? ??' : 

`?? ??? 6?? ??' ?? 1 : ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? 2 : ?? ?? ?? ??? ??. ?? 3 : ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??. ?? 4 : ????? ????. ?? 5 : ???? ??? ???. ?? 6 : ??? ??? ?? ???? ???.

???? ?? ?? 10??: : 

???? ?? ?? 10??: “???? ??(??)?? ????                                    ??(??)?? ????.” 1  ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???. 2  ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??. 3  ???? ?? ? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????.4  ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? (??, ??? ?? ??) ? ?? ??? ????. 5  ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????.

Slide 20: 

6  ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???. 7  ??? ?? ? ??? ???  ??? ??? ?? ???  ? ??? ??? ? ??.8  ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????. 9  ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???. (???)10. ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??.

??? ?? ?? ?? 5?? : 

??? ?? ?? ?? 5?? 1. ??? Email? ?? (??? ??? ??) ??? ? ?? ????.2. ?? ? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????.3. ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ? ????. 4. ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????.5. ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????(8??)? ????.

??? ?? ?? 5??: : 

??? ?? ?? 5??: 1. ???: ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????.2. ???: ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????, ???? ? ????? ?? ???????.  ??? ??????  ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????.3. ???: ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????. 4. ???: ??? ???? ?? ???? ? ????? ????.5.?? ??: ?????, ??? ????, ???, ???, ????, ??? ???? ??? ????? ???.

CTO? ??? Perot Systems? CTO Richard Schroth : 

CTO? ??? Perot Systems? CTO Richard Schroth ??? ??? ??? ? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???. ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??. ?? ?? ??? ? ??? ??? ???(integrity)? ??? ???, ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???. CTO? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ? ??? ???? ??? ???. ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???. ?? ???? CTO?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??. ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??.

??????? ??? BMC Software? ????? ? CTO Kirill Tatarinov : 

??????? ??? BMC Software? ????? ? CTO Kirill Tatarinov CTO?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???. ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????. CTO? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???.

Corporate R&D ??? 3M??? : 

Corporate R&D ??? 3M??? Knowledge? ??? ??? ?? Innovation?? ?? ?? ??? Knowledge? ???? ?? Research?? ??. ‘Creativity? ?? ??? ?? ??? Innovation? ? ??? ??? practical ?? solution? ?? ?’??? ????. Innovation? ?????? ??? ?? ????    ?? “?(vision)”? ??? ?? ??? “?(foresight)", “?(stretch goals)”, "?(empowerment)", ?(risk taking), "?(communication, networking)", "?(recognition)"? ??? ???.

Slide 26: 

?: Need to know where you want to go?: Need to know where the rest of the world is going?: 35% of sales from 4-year products?: The First Principle is the Promotion of Entrepreneurship and Insistence Upon Freedom in the Workplace to Pursue Innovative Ideas?: have the freedom to spend 15% of their working time to devote to ideas of their own invention?: Technology Transfer?: Awards ??? 3M???

Slide 27: 

3M? ?? 50? ?? R&D ??? dual system?? ????. ??? R&D?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? T1, T2, T3? ????. ??? T3?? 4? ?? ?? ?? ??? career path? ??? ??. ??? technical ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? management job? ??? ???. ??? ??? technical? talent? ??? ???? ??? career? ??? ??. ??? corporate scientist? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???. - ??? 3M???

??? ???? - ??? - : 

??? ???? - ??? - ?? ??? ?? ?? ? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ? ????? ??? ? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ? ??? ????? ????? ? ??? ??? ????. This Is To Have Succeeded

?? ?? : 

?? ?? ??  1?? ??? ?? ?? 1?? ??.?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???.??? ??? ?? ???? ??.??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???. ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??  ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???.  “?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???. ??? ? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???. ??? ??????. ?? ???? ??? ??? ???.”

Slide 30: 

????? ????? ??? ???, ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????. ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????. ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???. ??? ???? ???? ??? ??? ? ? ??. ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ? ? ??.

Slide 31: 

?????? ?? “There are only two ways to live your life – first as if nothing is a miracle, second as if everything is a miracle. ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ? ??? ??. ??, ??? ??? ???? ?? ???, ??, ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???.”

Slide 32: 

"You don't get any credit for 95 percent of the job."                      - Donald O. Pederson, U.C.Berkeley ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ? ? ?? ???, ?? ?? ??? ???? ?  -???

Slide 33: 

You see things and say "why"? but I dream things that never were and say, "why not?" -Geore Bernard Shaw ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???. ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????.  ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??.  - ?? ??? -

Slide 34: 

??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????. - ? ??? ## Believe that the aim of life is to have a nice  time,  go  to  nice places and meet nice people. - Mikes

Slide 35: 

# Criticism is a study by which men grow important and formidable  at  every small expense. - S. Johnson???, ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????. ## Don't answer back if you're out to make money, but do if you're out  for enjoyment.  - Barry Pain?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??. ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??.

Slide 36: 

## Don't put off till tomorrow what can be enjoyed today. - Josh Billings?? ?? ? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??. ## Early to rise and early to bed makes a male healthy and wealthy and  dead. - J. Thurber?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??, ??? ???, ??? ?? ??.

Slide 37: 

## Every rose has its thorns : you never find a woman without pins and  needles.  - Douglas Jerrold?? ???? ??? ??. ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???. ## Everything comes to him who waits except a loaned book.                                      -- Kin Hubbard???? ????? ?? ?? ????. ??? ?? ?????.

Slide 38: 

## Few parents nowadays pay any regard to what their children  say  to  them ; the old-fashioned respect for the young is fast dying out.  - Oscar Wilde????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??. ????? ?? ? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???. ##  Genius  is  one  percent  inspiration  and   ninety-nine   percent  perspiration.   - Thomas Edison??? 1???? ??? 99???? ???? ?????.

BIBLICAL PRINCIPLES OF LIVING : 

BIBLICAL PRINCIPLES OF LIVING God created man in his own image. (Genesis 1:27) For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16) For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) While we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8)

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For it is by grace that you are saved through faith, and not of yourselves; for this is the gift of God; not of works, lest any man should boast. (Ephesians 2:8-9) But as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord. (Josuha 24:15) But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. (Matthew 6:33)

Slide 41: 

Trust in the Lord with all your heart; and lean not on your own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths. (Proverbs 3:5-6) Be not conformed to this world: but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God. (Romans 12:2)

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All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness. (II Timothy 3:16) Love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. And the second is like it, namely, love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. (Mark 12:30-31)

Slide 43: 

But let your communication be, Yea, yea; and Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. (Matthew 5:37) But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint. (Isaiah 40:31) Whatsoever you do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men. (Colossians 3:23)

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For to whom much is given, of him much shall be required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more. (Luke 12:48) I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me. (Philippians 4:13) But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance: against such there is no law. (Galatians 5:22-23) Whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. (I Corinthians 10:31)

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