rdt introduction

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By: sweta sahay M.S.Ramaiha college bangalore

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RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

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Recombinant DNA technology: It is a technology where a gene of interest is cloned into a suitable organism and expressed in order to get the desired product in large quantities. Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Laboratory manipulation of DNA in which DNA, or DNA fragments from different sources, are cut and recombined using enzymes. Examples of biotechnology, there are traditional applications such as making bread, cheese, wine and beer, as well as modern applications such as cell culture, genetically modified foods and the cloning of plants and animals.

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Recombinant molecules: Molecules which are obtained through RDT are called Recombinant molecules. Products include organism, nucleic acid or protein generated by genetic engineering Its applications include Agriculture, Medicine, industries, research labs, Pharmaceuticals etc Making genetic modifications using recombinant DNA technology techniques allows us the freedom to move a single gene whose functions we know from one organism to another.

Applications : 

Applications By changing this information, genetic engineering changes the type or amount of proteins an organism is able to produce and allows it to create new substances or to provide new functions. The aim of genetic engineering is to produce desired characteristics and to eliminate those that are undesirable.

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Steps involved in Recombinant DNA technology The first step is to select the gene of interest. Then a suitable vector like phage or plasmid is selected. Then the gene of interest and vector is cut using the same restriction endonuclease enzyme. REN creates either blunt end or sticky ends depending on the enzyme used. The gene of interest is now inserted into the vector.

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The vector with the gene of interest is called as chemeric vector. Chemeric DNA is now put into a suitable host. Thus the recombinant molecules are obtained after the expression of the gene in the host. The product is finally extracted purified and used for various purposes depending on the product obtained.

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History behind the developments The first successful cloning experiments were reported in the year 1973. In 1976, biotechnology became a reality as the methodologies for DNA cloning, oligonucleotide synthesis and gene expression converged in a single experiment, in which a human protein was expressed from recombinant DNA technology for the first time. The protein that was first produced was somatostatin, a 14 amino acid polypeptide neurotransmitter. The gene encoding somatostatin was synthesized artificially using chemical synthesis method and then it was cloned into a plasmid vector for expression in E.Coli.

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Soon after followed the successful expression expression of Human Insulin which is used for the treatment of Diabetes. This was the first commercial product of the Biotechnology industry. . This technology is used in fields like health and pharmacy, agriculture, industry and research labs.

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Some Of The Recombinant Products Available In Market PRODUCT CLINICAL INDICATIONS Human Insulin Juvenile onset diabetes Human somatotrophin Pituitary dwarfism Erythroprotein Treatment of anaemia Hepatitis B surface antigenVaccination Interleukin- 2 Treatment of cancer

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APPLICATIONS Producing new medicines and far safer vaccines.* Treating genetic diseases.* Making great strides in bio control agents in agriculture .* An increase in agricultural yields and a reduction in the cost of production.* A decrease in allergy producing characteristics of some foods.* Great improvements in a foods nutritional value.* Biodegradable plastics.* A decrease in air and water pollution.* A decrease in food spoilage.* Better control over viral diseases.

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The desired sequence is entered on key board and the microprocessor automatically opens the valve of nucleotide reservoir, and chemical and solvent reservoir

Gene chip : 

Gene chip

Making of DNA vaccines : 

Making of DNA vaccines

Finding the genes for a known product bear Hb : 

Finding the genes for a known product bear Hb Blood sample Purify Hb protein Isolate mRNA Determine amino acid sequence Ala-Ala-Gly Synthesize corresponding DNA molecules

SCOPE OF RDT : 

SCOPE OF RDT Production of more food for the growing population To raise disease resistant high yielding varieties of crops To introduce harmless biofertilizers To introduce biocides in agriculture To preserve germplasm of plants, animals and microbes To produce pharmaceutical products to treat severe diseases in man and animals To produce biofuels for reducing the felling of forest trees for fuel wood To make use of various microorganisms in food making and preservation of the food To employ microorganisms in the extraction of minerals from their ores To minimise pollution hazards

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