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Slide 1: 

Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysisand DesignFourth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. GeorgeJoseph S. Valacich

Learning Objectives : 

Learning Objectives Explain the process of managing an information systems project. Describe the skills required to be an effective project manager. List project management activities during project initiation, planning, execution, and closedown. Explain critical path scheduling, Gantt charts, and Network diagrams. Explain the utility of commercial project management software tools.

Importance of Project Management : 

Importance of Project Management Project management may be the most important aspect of systems development. Effective PM helps ensure Meeting customer expectations Satisfying budget and time constraints PM skills are difficult and important to learn.

Pine Valley Application Project : 

Pine Valley Application Project

Deciding on Systems Projects : 

Deciding on Systems Projects System Service Request (SSR) A standard form for requesting or proposing systems development work within an organization Feasibility study A study that determines whether a requested system makes economic and operational sense for an organization

Slide 6: 

System Service Request (SSR) is a form requesting development or maintenance of an information system. It includes the contact person, a problem statement, a service request statement, and liaison contact information

Managing the Information Systems Project : 

Managing the Information Systems Project Project A planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end Project management A controlled process of initiating, planning, executing, and closing down a project

Managing the Information Systems Project (cont.) : 

Managing the Information Systems Project (cont.) Project manager Systems analyst with management and leadership skills responsible for leading project initiation, planning, execution, and closedown Deliverable The end product of an SDLC phase

Project Management Activities : 

Project Management Activities

Phases of Project Management Process : 

Phases of Project Management Process Phase 1: Initiation Phase 2: Planning Phase 3: Execution Phase 4: Closedown

PM Phase 1: Project Initiation : 

PM Phase 1: Project Initiation Assess size, scope and complexity, and establish procedures. Establish: Initiation team Relationship with customer Project initiation plan Management procedures Project management environment Project workbook

PM Phase 2: Project Planning : 

PM Phase 2: Project Planning Define clear, discrete activities and the work needed to complete each activity Tasks Define project scope, alternatives, feasibility Divide project into tasks Estimate resource requirements Develop preliminary schedule Develop communication plan Determine standards and procedures Risk identification and assessment Create preliminary budget Develop a statement of work Set baseline project plan

Planning Detail : 

Planning Detail

Some Components of Project Planning : 

Some Components of Project Planning Statement of Work (SOW) “Contract” between the IS staff and the customer regarding deliverables and time estimates for a system development project The Baseline Project Plan (BPP) Contains estimates of scope, benefits, schedules, costs, risks, and resource requirements Preliminary Budget Cost-benefit analysis outlining planned expenses and revenues

Some Components of Project Planning (cont.) : 

Some Components of Project Planning (cont.) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Division of project into manageable and logically ordered tasks and subtasks Scheduling Diagrams Gantt chart: horizontal bars represent task durations Network diagram: boxes and links represent task dependencies

Scheduling DiagramsGantt Chart : 

Scheduling DiagramsGantt Chart Special-purpose project management software is available for this.

Scheduling DiagramsNetwork Diagram : 

Scheduling DiagramsNetwork Diagram Special-purpose project management software is available for this.

Preliminary Budget : 

Preliminary Budget Spreadsheet software is good for this.

PM Phase 3: Project Execution : 

PM Phase 3: Project Execution Plans created in prior phases are put into action. Actions Execute baseline project plan Monitor progress against baseline plan Manage changes in baseline plan Maintain project workbook Communicate project status

Monitoring Progress with a Gantt Chart : 

Monitoring Progress with a Gantt Chart Red bars indicate critical path, lines through bars indicate percent complete.

Communication Methods : 

Communication Methods Project workbook Meetings Seminars and workshops Newsletters Status reports Specification documents Minutes of meetings Bulletin boards Memos Brown bag lunches Hallway discussions

PM Phase 4: Project Closedown : 

PM Phase 4: Project Closedown Bring the project to an end. Actions Close down the project. Conduct post-project reviews. Close the customer contract.

Representing and Scheduling Project Plans : 

Representing and Scheduling Project Plans Gantt Charts Network Diagrams PERT Calculations Critical Path Scheduling Project Management Software

Gantt Charts vs. Network Diagrams : 

Gantt Charts vs. Network Diagrams Gantt charts Show task durations. Show time overlap. Show slack time in duration. Network diagrams Show task dependencies. Do not show time overlap, but show parallelism. Show slack time in boxes.

Gantt Charts vs. Network Diagrams (cont.) : 

Gantt Charts vs. Network Diagrams (cont.)

Estimating Task Duration : 

Estimating Task Duration PERT: Program Evaluation Review Technique Technique that uses optimistic (o), pessimistic (p), and realistic (r) time estimates to determine expected task duration Formula for Estimated Time: ET = (o + 4r + p)/6

Example PERT Analysis : 

Example PERT Analysis

Critical Path Scheduling : 

Critical Path Scheduling A scheduling technique whose order and duration of a sequence of task activities directly affects the completion date of a project Critical path: the shortest time in which a project can be completed Slack time: the time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project

Critical Path Example(dependencies between tasks) : 

Critical Path Example(dependencies between tasks) PRECEDING ACTIVITIES indicate the activities that must be completed before the specified activity can begin (see Fig. 3.19 for time estimates).

Critical Path Example : 

Network diagram provides graphical illustration of dependencies between activities (see previous slide). Critical Path Example Network diagram shows dependencies

Determining the Critical Path : 

Determining the Critical Path Calculate the earliest possible completion time for each activity by summing the activity times in the longest path to the activity. This gives total expected project time. Calculate the latest possible completion time for each activity by subtracting the activity times in the path following the activity from the total expected time. This gives slack time for activities. Critical path – contains no activities with slack time.

Critical Path Calculation : 

Critical Path Calculation Early and late time calculations are determined and critical path established. (Note: Activity #5 can begin late without affecting project completion time).

Critical Path Calculation (cont.) : 

Critical Path Calculation (cont.) Note the slack time in Activity #5.

Using Project Management Software : 

Using Project Management Software Many powerful software tools exist for assisting with project management. Example: Microsoft Project can help with Entering project start date. Establishing tasks and task dependencies. Viewing project information as Gantt or Network diagrams.

Project Start Date : 

Project Start Date

Entering Tasks : 

Entering Tasks

Viewing Network Diagram : 

Viewing Network Diagram Hexagon shape indicates a milestone. Red boxes and arrows indicate critical path (no slack).

Viewing Gantt Chart : 

Viewing Gantt Chart Black line at top indicates a summary activity (composed of subtasks). Diamond shape indicates a milestone.

Summary : 

Summary In this chapter you learned how to: Explain the process of managing an information systems project. Describe the skills required to be an effective project manager. List project management activities during project initiation, planning, execution, and closedown. Explain critical path scheduling, Gantt charts, and Network diagrams. Explain the utility of commercial project management software tools.

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